Rhinolophus hildebrandtii Petersı 1878, Petersi, 1878

Peter J. Taylor, Samantha Stoffberg, Ara Monadjem, Martinus Corrie Schoeman, Julian Baylis & Fenton P. D. Cotterill, 2012, Four New Bat Species (Rhinolophus hildebrandtii Complex) Reflect Plio-Pleistocene Divergence of Dwarfs and Giants across an Afromontane Archipelago, PLoS ONE 7 (9), pp. 1-23: 17-19

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http://doi.org/ 10.1371/journal.pone.0041744

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Rhinolophus hildebrandtii Petersı 1878


Rhinolophus hildebrandtii Petersı 1878  

Hildebrandt’s Horseshoe Bat

Fig. 4, 4 View Figure 4 , Fig. S1 View Figure 1 , Table 3, 4, Table S1, Appendix S1

Holotype. ZMB 5378 (male collected by S. Hildebrandt in July 1877 from Ndi , Taita, Kenya). GoogleMaps   Cotype ZMB 5379 (male collected by S. Hildebrandt in July 1877 from Ndi , Taita, Kenya). GoogleMaps  

Type locality. Ndi   GoogleMaps , Taita, Kenya, 2 ° 46 ' 43 " S; 38 ° 46 ' 18 " E; elevation 390 m asl.

Diagnosis. Individuals from two localities in Kenya, including the type locality of Taita District, had a peak frequency of 42 kHz [ 15]. Intermediate in body and cranial size, with the type and co-type overlapping in cranial dimensions with members of Clade 2 from which they are however easily distinguished genetically based on sequences from three mitochondrial and one nuclear gene (cytochrome b uncorrected genetic divergence 7.7–9.0%). Although there is minor overlap in individual cranial and forearm variables ( Table 5), they can be distinguished completely by PCA of cranial dimensions from other members of Clade1 which are distinctly smaller (Lineages 1d, 1e) or larger (Lineages 1a, 1b) ( Fig. 5b View Figure 5 ). The anterior upper premolar, when present is moderate-sized but situated external to the toothrow (with the canine and P 4 in contact) [ 12]. In this respect, they are distinguished from cohenae   which have relatively conspicuous anterior premolars within the toothrow and smithersi   in which the anterior premolar is small to minute and external to the toothrow. Genotypes of R. hildebrandtii   are members of Clade 1c ( Fig. 2 View Figure 2 ).

Freq.= peak (time expansion or full-spectrum detector) or maximum (ANABAT detector) frequency; NLW = nasal width; FL = forearm length; GSL = greatest skull length; CCL = condylo-canine skull length. *Echolocation frequency of holotype not measured but assumed on basis of two released individuals of the same species at Mt Mabu recorded during the same month (October 2008). **We assume the holotype and paratype specimens from the Taita District may have had a CF frequency of ca 42 kHz based on recent recordings from the type locality. ***The holotype was not recorded but we assume a CF frequency of 35–38 kHz based on recordings of four bats taken from nearby localities in northern Mozambique. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0041744.t005

Paratype. BM, Taita (un-sexed individual collected in 1877 by S. Hildebrandt)   .

Description. Follows the general description for the species [ 12]; however, hildebrandtii   s.s. as defined here (restricted to East Africa) is intermediate-sized in most external and cranial dimensions and varies from the range of values reported previously for R. hildebrandtii   s.l. [ 12], for example noseleaf width in nine East African specimens examined varied from 10–14 mm, rather than 12–15 mm given by previous description [ 12].

Distribution. As here defined, and based only on limited material examined from Kenya and Tanzania in the Natural History Museum, London and Berlin Museum in this study (n = 11; mensural data reported in Table 5), we restrict the distribution of hildebrandtii   s.s. to East Africa, whilst recognising that northern populations in Democratic Republic of Congo, Ethiopia and southern Sudan (now South Sudan) are possibly referable to this species (as discussed by Koopman 1975, [ 13]. Moreover, given that two individuals with peak frequency of 37 kHz from Lutope-Ngolangola in NW Zimbabwe grouped genetically with individuals from coastal Mozambique assigned to Clade 2, it seems probable that hildebrandtii   as here defined (coinciding with the divergent Lineage 1c) does not occur in southern Africa. Nevertheless, the taxonomic affinities of material from Zambia and Malawi remain unclear as craniometric analysis was unable to differentiate molecular clades and lineages at this scale ( Fig. S2 View Figure 2 ). Future studies need to incorporate molecular and bacular data from central, equatorial and northeastern Africa (particularly Zambia, Malawi, DRC and Ethiopia) to test the species limits of hildebrandtii   . It is possible that yet more cryptic species remain to be discovered.

Ecology. This species was recorded from montane and submontane forests in the Usambara Mountains of the Eastern Arc Range in Tanzania; means and ranges given for external and cranial measurements for four individuals from this population conform very closely to our data [ 119].