Drassodella flava, Mbo & Haddad, 2019

Mbo, Zingisile & Haddad, Charles R., 2019, A revision of the endemic South African long-jawed ground spider genus Drassodella Hewitt, 1916 (Araneae: Gallieniellidae), Zootaxa 4582 (1), pp. 1-62 : 16-20

publication ID

https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4582.1.1

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:9DC61794-4BD7-4F6D-BB8C-84D9855C8151

DOI

http://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.5662624

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/B74F87AB-9E6E-4032-53B3-CD4766909B03

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Drassodella flava
status

sp. nov.

Drassodella flava   sp. nov.

Figs 5 View FIGURES 5–17 , 60 View FIGURES 60–77 , 78 View FIGURES 78–92 , 93, 94 View FIGURES 93–110 , 111–115 View FIGURES 111–115

Etymology. Taken from the Latin flavus, meaning yellow. The name refers to the yellow carapace and legs of the species.

Diagnosis: Both sexes of this species can easily be recognised from other members of the D. melana   species group by yellow to orange carapace and legs ( Figs 93, 94 View FIGURES 93–110 ). Females can further be recognized from others in the D. melana   species group by the anterior hood with a shallow notch on the anterior margin ( Figs 60 View FIGURES 60–77 , 111 View FIGURES 111–115 ), while the anterior margin is convex or very slightly concave in other members of the group ( Figs 61–69 View FIGURES 60–77 ). The male palp is most similar to that of D. guttata   sp. nov. and D. melana   by the ventral prong at the base of the embolus being larger than the dorsal prong, but in D. flava   sp. nov. the dorsal prong is distinctly bent away from the tegulum in ventral view, the palp is more elongate and the RTA is only slightly obscured by the retrolateral heel of the cymbium; in the other two species the dorsal prong is almost aligned with the palpal axis, the palp is more compact and the RTA is almost entirely hidden behind the retrolateral heel of the cymbium (compare Fig. 114 View FIGURES 111–115 with Figs 119 View FIGURES 116–120 and 129 View FIGURES 126–130 ).

Description. Female (Holotype, Ngome State Forest, NCA 94/425). Measurements: CL 2.84, CW 2.08, AL 3.24, AW 1.72, TL 6.16 (4.40–8.10), FL 0.33, SL 1.66, SW 1.38, CH 0.14, AME-AME 0.08, AME-ALE 0.02, ALE-ALE 0.28, PME-PME 0.11, PME-PLE 0.10, PLE-PLE 0.50, PERW 0.65, MOQAW 0.31, MOQPW 0.29, MOQL 0.32.

Length of leg segments: I 2.30 + 1.20 + 1.88 + 1.58 + 1.16 = 8.12, II 2.00 + 1.16 + 1.60 + 1.44 + 1.04 = 7.24, III 1.84 + 0.98 + 1.36 + 1.58 + 0.92 = 6.62, IV 2.60 + 2.10 + 1.28 + 2.64 + 1.08 = 9.70.

General appearance as in Fig. 93 View FIGURES 93–110 . Females generally darker than males. Carapace yellow-orange, with darkbrown mottling radiating from fovea; posterior margin moderately thin and concave, rebordered, very narrow above pedicel, thicker laterally. Clypeus height equal to AME diameter; ALE larger than AME; AME separated by distance equal to their diameter, AME separated from ALE by distance equal to 0.25 AME diameter; PLE larger than PME; PME separated by distance equal to 0.14 their diameter, PME separated from PLE by distance equal to 0.13 PME diameter. Chelicerae orange, slightly angled; promargin with three teeth, proximal tooth smallest, median and distal teeth equal in size; retromargin with two teeth, distal tooth largest, proximal tooth small, aligned with space between median and distal promarginal teeth. Endites yellow-orange, creamy-white around maxillar hair tuft, with short erect setae medially and around edges. Labium orange, longer than broad, compressed at base. Sternum orange, rebordered with dark orange line; few setae medially, setae erect and dense around margins. Legs uniformly orange-yellow. Leg spination: femora: I do 2 rl 1, II do 2, III do 3 rl 2, IV do 3 rl 1; patellae: spineless; tibiae: I & II spineless, III pl 2 do 1 rl 1 plv 2 rlv 2 vt 2, IV pl 2 do 1 rl 2 plv 2 rlv 2 vt 2; metatarsi: I & II spineless, III pl 3 rl 3 plv 2 rlv 1, IV pl 3 do 4 rl 3 plv 3 rlv 2 vt 2; palpal spination: femora do 3; patellae do 1; tibiae do 3 rl 3; tarsi pl 1 do 3 rl 2. Abdomen brownish-grey, with faint striations posteriorly and medially ( Fig. 93 View FIGURES 93–110 ); anterior surface with erect setae present; anterior sigilla absent, sides with narrow lateral sclerites; venter grey, covered in short feathery setae; epigastric scutum orange, lateral sclerites present, post-epigastric sclerites absent. Spinnerets cream. Epigyne with deep anterior hood, anterior margin slightly notched medially, posterior margin very slightly convex, lateral ends tapering to narrow strips; lateral hoods touching copulatory openings; ST II yellow-brown, connecting ducts and ST I orange-brown; ST I and II similar in size, ST II with subspherical head ( Figs 60 View FIGURES 60–77 , 111, 112 View FIGURES 111–115 ).

Male (Paratype, Ngome State Forest, NCA 94/421). Measurements: CL 3.96, CW 3.08, AL 4.73, AW 2.50, TL 8.40 (5.40–8.40), FL 0.33, SL 2.13, SW 1.32, CH 0.22, AME-AME 0.06, AME-ALE 0.03, ALE-ALE 0.33, PME-PME 0.16, PME-PLE 0.13, PLE-PLE 0.61, PERW 0.77, MOQAW 0.27, MOQPW 0.36, MOQL 0.39.

Length of leg segments: I 3.00 + 1.60 + 2.64 + 2.40 + 1.58 = 11.22, II 2.60 + 1.54 + 2.18 + 2.16 + 1.44 = 9.90, III 2.52 + 1.38 + 1.76 + 2.24 + 1.18 = 9.08, IV 3.52 + 1.70 + 2.72 + 3.56 + 1.24 = 12.74.

General appearance as in Fig. 94 View FIGURES 93–110 . Carapace orange-brown, lateral margins deep orange-brown. Clypeus height twice the size of AME diameter; ALE larger than AME; AME separated by distance equal to 0.6 their diameter, AME separated from ALE by distance one-third AME diameter; PLE larger than PME; PME separated by distance equal to 1.45 their diameter, PME separated from PLE by distance equal to 1.18 PME diameter. Chelicerae orange, dentition as for female. Endites creamy-white around maxillar hair tuft, orange medially, darker around edges; erect setae spread across surface. Labium cream-white anteriorly, with black markings at posterior corners, as long as broad. Sternum with erect setae around margins. All legs with proximal segments orange, distal segments yellow. Leg spination: femora: I do 2, II rl 2, III do 5, IV do 3 rl 3; patellae: I–III spineless, IV rl 1; tibiae: I & II spineless, III pl 2 do 1 rl 1 plv 1 rlv 2 vt 2, IV pl 2 do 1 rl 1 plv 2 rlv 2 vt 1; metatarsi: I & II spineless, III pl 1 do 2 rl 3 plv 2 rlv 2 vt 1, IV pl 3 do 1 rl 3 plv 2 rlv 2 vt 1; palpal spination: femora do 4; patellae rl 1; tibiae do 1 rl 3; tarsi pl 1 do 1 rl 3. Abdomen orange-brown, with small dorsal scutum ( Fig. 94 View FIGURES 93–110 ); venter same as female. Spinnerets cream. Palp yellow-orange; RTA short, only tip slightly obscured in ventral view by retrolateral heel of cymbium; in retrolateral view triangular, with broad base and sharp tip; cymbium quite narrow, 2.0 times longer than wide, narrowed to rounded point distally; ventral embolic prong very narrow; dorsal prong smaller in prolateral view, distinctly bent away from tegulum in ventral view; median apophysis narrow, hook-shaped ( Figs 78 View FIGURES 78–92 , 113–115 View FIGURES 111–115 ).

Type material. Holotype ♀: SOUTH AFRICA: KwaZulu-Natal Province: Vryheid, Ngome State Forest , 27°49'S, 31°26'E, X.1992, leg. M. van der Merwe (pitfall traps, open forest) ( NCA 94 /425). GoogleMaps  

Paratypes: SOUTH AFRICA: KwaZulu-Natal Province: Vryheid, Ngome State Forest , 27°49'S, 31°26'E, V.1992, leg. M. van der Merwe (pitfall traps, open forest) GoogleMaps   , 2♀ ( NCA 94 /502); Same data as previous but VIII.1992, 1 ♂ 2♀ ( NCA 94 /406); Same data as previous but IX.1992, 2 ♀ 1imm. ( NCA 94 /505), 3♀ ( NCA 94 /438), 3♂ ( NCA 2013/5339); Same data as previous but XI.1992, 1 ♀ ( NCA 94 /430), 1♂ 1♀ ( NCA 94 /431), 1♂ ( NCA 2011 /1238), 2♀ ( NCA 2011 /1239), 2♀ ( NCA 94 /376), 1♀ ( NCA 94 /498); Same data as previous but XII.1992, 1 ♀ ( NCA 94 / 500), 2♀ ( NCA 94 /437), 1♀ ( NCA 94 /373); Same data as previous but I.1993, 1 ♀ ( NCA 94 /387), 3♂ ( NCA 94 / 421); Vryheid, Ngome State Forest , 27°49'S, 31°26'E, X.1992, leg. M. van der Merwe (pitfall traps, dense forest) GoogleMaps   , 1♀ ( NCA 94 /501), 2♀ ( NCA 94 /503); Same data as previous but XII.1992, 1 ♀ ( NCA 94 /504), 1♀ ( NCA 94 /506); Vryheid, Ngome State Forest , 27°49'S, 31°26'E, X.1992, leg. M. van der Merwe (pitfall traps, pine plantation) GoogleMaps   , 1♀ ( NCA 94 /395); Vryheid, Ngome State Forest , 27°49'S, 31°26'E, X.1992, leg. M. van der Merwe (pitfall traps, ecotone pine), 1♀ ( NCA 94 /499) GoogleMaps   . Limpopo Province: Forest on Magoebaskloof Trail , 23°49'S, 29°59'E, 22– 23.XI.1996, leg. C.E. Griswold, 1♀ ( CAS, CASENT 9072372 ) GoogleMaps   , 2♂ ( CAS, CASENT 9072376 ) GoogleMaps   . Mpumalanga Province: Berlin Forest Station [24°50'S, 30°50'E], 21.IX.1986, leg. Endrody-Younga, 1♂ ( TMSA 19717 View Materials ) GoogleMaps   ; Graskop, God’s Window , 24°52'S, 30°53'E, 1705 m a.s.l., 28.IX.2012, leg. J.A. Neethling (sifting leaf litter, forest), 1♀ ( NCA 2013 /1927) GoogleMaps   ; Graskop, Window View on R532, 24°55'S, 30°50'E, 30.IX.2012, leg. J.A. Neethling (sifting leaf litter, forest), 1♂ ( NCA 2013 /1848) GoogleMaps   ; Graskop area , 24°53.283'S, 30°52.613'E, 27.IX.2012, leg. J.A. Neethling (sifting leaf litter, forest), 1♂ ( NCA 2013 /1849) GoogleMaps   ; Sabie, Bridal Veil Waterfall , 25°04.933'S, 30°43.450'E, 29.IX.2012, leg. J.A. Neethling (sifting leaf litter, forest), 1♂ ( NCA 2013 /1931) GoogleMaps   .

Distribution. Found in three provinces in the north-eastern parts of South Africa ( Fig. 125 View FIGURE 125 ).

CAS

California Academy of Sciences