Xylocopa (Dasyxylocopa) Hurd and Moure, 1963

Melo, Gabriel A. R., 2017, Revision of the carpenter bee subgenus Xylocopa (Dasyxylocopa) (Hymenoptera: Apidae), Journal of Natural History (J. Nat. Hist.) 51 (7 - 8), pp. 379-390: 380-381

publication ID

http://doi.org/ 10.1080/00222933.2016.1272724

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:339CE18B-37F2-47F5-881D-A8C9C22E42F5

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/B61C87FC-FFEB-FFFD-396E-FCF9FAF7F98A

treatment provided by

Carolina

scientific name

Xylocopa (Dasyxylocopa) Hurd and Moure, 1963
status

 

Xylocopa (Dasyxylocopa) Hurd and Moure, 1963  

The subgenus X. (Dasyxylocopa) was proposed by Hurd and Moure (1963) for a single species, X. bimaculata   . The males were distinguished from those of other New World subgenera by the combination of a yellow clypeus, vertex strongly elevated above level of eye orbits, apex of scape much surpassing level of upper eye orbits, eyes not strongly convergent above, mandible with apical tooth not projected beyond lower mandible margin, dorsolateral margins of clypeus not abruptly raised above adjacent parocular areas, tegula not transversely expanded, propodeum almost without a basal horizontal surface and hind basitarsus longer than corresponding tibia. The females were characterised by the combination of a body integument without conspicuous metallic reflexes, labrum with three tubercles, apical teeth of mandible not differing in width from one another, clypeo-orbital distance shorter than diameter of F1, alveolo-orbital distance longer than interalveolar distance, upper lateral sides of clypeus steeply elevated above adjacent parocular areas, eyes more convergent above than below, flagellum much longer than maximum eye length, basitibial plate not excavated subapically, metaposnotum exposed, terga covered with very long hairs and giving a shaggy appearance to the metasoma, pygidial area simple, with only the usual pair of subapical spines and lacking prepygidial denticles, apical margin of S1 slightly indented medially, and sterna lacking medial carina.

Hurd and Moure (1963) considered X. (Dasyxylocopa) to be most closely related to X. ( Ioxylocopa   ), then only known from males, and to X. ( Xylocopsis   ). In Minckley’ s (1998) study of the phylogenetic relationships of the carpenter bees, the different analyses favoured a closer relationship of X. (Dasyxylocopa) with X. ( Xylocopsis   ), X. ( Schonnherria   ) and X. ( Xylocospila   ). Although X. ( Ioxylocopa   ) was not included in his phylogenetic analyses, Minckley (1998) examined males of this subgenus and considered it part of his expanded X. ( Schonnherria   ), therefore discarding a closer relationship with X. (Dasyxylocopa). A molecular phylogeny for the Neotropical subgenera of Xylocopa   (Viana and Melo, unpub. data), in which data for X. ( Xylocopsis   ) were not available, supported a sister group relationship between X. (Dasyxylocopa) and X. ( Ioxylocopa   ), which in turn formed the sister clade of X. ( Schonnherria   ).

After its proposal the subgenus X. (Dasyxylocopa) has not been revised and is still considered to contain only the type species, X. bimaculata   , with the additional available names maintained as synonyms ( Hurd and Moure 1963; Hurd 1978; Moure 2007). Hurd and Moure (1963) listed two available names, X. bimaculata   and X. leucopus Friese, 1925   , the latter placed as a synonym of the type species. Later, Hurd (1978) added X. piligera Maidl, 1912   as an additional synonym. In Hurd and Moure (1963), Maidl’ s name appeared as a synonym of X. funesta Maidl, 1912   .

After revision of the type material of all available names, X. (Dasyxylocopa) is considered to contain three valid species, one of them newly proposed based on females from the EspinhaÇo mountain range in the state of Minas Gerais, southeastern Brazil   . The three species can be distinguished by details of the tergal pubescence, punctation of the head and mesosoma, and structural details of the head shape ( Figures 1–5 View Figure 1 View Figure 2 View Figure 3 View Figure 4 View Figure 5 ).

Key to the species of X. (Dasyxylocopa)

1. Tufts on lateral portions of terga 5 and 6 mostly with white plumose hairs ( Figure 3c View Figure 3 ); punctation on central portion of T2 relatively sparse, punctures placed apart by 2–4× their diameter ( Figures 3d View Figure 3 and 4c View Figure 4 ). Female: lower parocular area, frons, vertex and lower gena with white plumose hairs intermixed with black pilosity ( Figure 4a, b View Figure 4 ); malar space shorter than maximum width of F1; distance between lateral ocellus and posterior margin of head almost 2× the diameter of mid ocellus; gena densely punctate throughout, interval between punctures smaller than puncture diameter; projection on apex of hind tibia slightly longer than apical projection of basitibial plate. Male unknown. Southern portion of Serra do EspinhaÇo, in Minas Gerais ................................................................... ................................................................... X. fortuita  

– Tufts on lateral portions of terga 5 and 6 either mostly reddish yellow ( Figure 3a View Figure 3 ) or black ( Figures 3e View Figure 3 and 5c View Figure 5 ); punctation on central portion of T2 denser, punctures placed apart by at most 2× their diameter ( Figure 3b, f View Figure 3 ). Female: pilosity on head entirely fuscous ( Figure 1a, b View Figure 1 ); malar space about as long as maximum width of F1; distance between lateral ocellus and posterior margin of head almost 3× the diameter of mid ocellus; punctation on gena denser only on lower portion, upper portion with very sparse punctures; projection on apex of hind tibia at most as long as apical projection of basitibial plate ....................................................................................... 2

2. Tufts on lateral portions of terga 5 and 6 reddish yellow ( Figure 3a View Figure 3 ) to yellow; punctation on mesoscutum relatively sparser, punctures usually separated by more than one puncture diameter ( Figure 2a View Figure 2 ); tergal punctation sparser, laterally adjacent punctures on central portion of T2 placed apart by 1–2× their diameter ( Figure 3b View Figure 3 ); tergal pilosity shorter, apex of setae extending over posterior margin of T2 by less than 2× puncture diameter ( Figure 3b View Figure 3 ). Paraná, Santa Catarina, Rio Grande do Sul .. ............................................................................................................................................. X. bimaculata  

– Tufts on lateral portions of terga 5 and 6 mostly (males) ( Figure 5c View Figure 5 ) or entirely black (females) ( Figure 3e View Figure 3 ); punctation on mesoscutum relatively denser, punctures usually separated by no more than one puncture diameter ( Figure 2b View Figure 2 ); tergal punctation denser, laterally adjacent punctures on central portion of T2 usually placed apart by less than one puncture diameter ( Figure 3f View Figure 3 ); tergal pilosity longer, apex of setae extending over posterior margin of T2 by more than 2× puncture diameter ( Figure 3f View Figure 3 ). Serra da Mantiqueira and Serra da Bocaina (mountain ranges in the borders between Minas Gerais, Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo) .................................................................................................................................... X     . piligera

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Insecta

Order

Hymenoptera

Family

Apidae

Genus

Xylocopa