Tragopogon L., Sp. Pl. 2: 789. 1753.,

Zaika, Maxim A., Kilian, Norbert, Jones, Katy, Krinitsina, Anastasiya A., Nilova, Maya V., Speranskaya, Anna S. & Sukhorukov, Alexander P., 2020, Scorzonera sensu lato (Asteraceae, Cichorieae) - taxonomic reassessment in the light of new molecular phylogenetic and carpological analyses, PhytoKeys 137, pp. 1-85: 1

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Tragopogon L., Sp. Pl. 2: 789. 1753.


Tragopogon L., Sp. Pl. 2: 789. 1753. 


( Díaz de la Guardia & Blanca in Jarvis et al. 1993: 95): Tragopogon porrifolius  L.

Diagnostic features.

Biennial or perennial herbs with taproot; leaves mostly graminoid; involucre with phyllaries in a single series; capitula with > 20 yellow, orange, violet or purple florets; achenes often with a prominent beak; pappus plumose.


Habit, life form, subterranean parts: Biennial or perennial herbs with a taproot.

Leaves: rosulate and cauline, graminoid (sessile, subamplexicaule, with prominent midrib), linear to oblong, margin entire or undulate.

Stem, synflorescence: stem solitary or branched, always leafy, glabrous to lanate; peduncle sometimes inflated.

Capitula: involucre glabrous to lanate, cylindrical, phyllaries in one series, triangular or oblong, equal in size, acute, receptacle flat, naked; with > 20 florets, of various length ratios compared to involucre, yellow, orange, violet or purple.

Pollen: echinolophate, tricolporate and each colpus divided into 2 lacunae, with 15 (6 abporal, 3 equatorial 6 interporal) lacunae ( Blackmore 1982).

Achenes: 9-55 mm, cylindrical, without carpopodium, often with a beak exceeding the length of the achene body, with 5-10 ribs, rarely some of them winglike enlarged, surface usually papillate and with stout conglomerations, rarely smooth; achene wall with parenchyma of thick-walled cells, air cavities usually present, small or large, sclerenchyma continuous, forming a sheath, cells orientated parallel to the achene axis.

Pappus: 6-40 mm, bristles plumose in lower, scabrid in upper part, white, dirty white, yellowish or fulvous.

Chromosome number.

x = 7, diploid.


Appr. 150 species. The largest genus in Scorzonerinae  after splitting of Scorzonera  .

Distribution area.

N Africa: DZ; EG; LY; TN. Europe: all countries; Asia-Temperate: AF; AM; AZ; CH; GE; IL; IQ; IR; JO; KG; KW; KZ; LB; SY; SA; TJ; TK; TR; UZ. Asia-Tropical: IN; NP; PK.