Cyperus pseudovegetus Steud.

MacRae, Ted C., 2004, Notes on Host Associations of Taphrocerus gracilis (Say) (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) and Its Life History in Missouri, The Coleopterists Bulletin 58 (3), pp. 388-390: 389

publication ID 10.1649/636

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scientific name

Cyperus pseudovegetus Steud.


Cyperus pseudovegetus Steud.   , Eleocharis palustris   (L.) Roemer and J.A. Schultes, and Scirpus georgianus R. M. Harper   were documented from those areas where T. gracilis   was also observed. An occasional T. gracilis   adult was observed feeding on leaf margins of C. hyalinolepis   at both Duck Creek and Otter Slough (new adult host

record), however, larval mines were never observed on any plant other than R. corniculata   . Interestingly, T. gracilis   does not appear to utilize B. fluviatilis   in Missouri. Although this plant was not documented in any of the areas where T. gracilis   was observed, stands were located in northcentral (Linn Co.: Fountain Grove CA and Pershing State Park) and northeastern (Clark Co.: Rose Pond CA) Missouri. Plants within these stands were examined on 5.V.2001 (Pershing), 12.VIII.2001 (Fountain Grove and Pershing), and 5.X.2002 (Rose Pond). No T. gracilis   adults or evidence of larval mining were observed on any of the plants at these localities on the above dates. It is possible that T. gracilis   utilizes different hosts in different parts of its geographical range, however, the following record suggests that R. corniculata   is utilized across a broad part of the geographical range of T. gracilis   : MISSISSIPPI: Noxubee Co., Noxubee National Wildlife Refuge, vic. Beaver Dam trail, 24.VIII.1997, T. C. MacRae, feeding on leaf margin of R. corniculata   (deposited TCMC), larval mines also evident on many plants. Clearly, additional information on host utilization by this species in other parts of its range would be desirable.

Chapman (1923) reported one generation per year for T. gracilis   in New York, however, field observations at Duck Creek indicate that at least two generations occur in southeastern Missouri. Adults become abundant on emergent R. corniculata   plants by early May, where they feed on the margins of the leaves and mate. Eggs are deposited singly on the dorsal surface of the leaves in the basal rosette and covered with a black tar-like substance. As spring progresses, adult populations diminish while larval mines become evident on the plants. Usually only one larval mine is found on a single leaf, but up to three per leaf have been observed. Pupae can be found in their mines by mid- to late June, and high adult populations are again encountered during late June and early July. By this time, the plants exhibit fully elongated stems bearing inflorescences, and eggs from females of this second generation are deposited on the upper surface near the base of bracts on the upper stem. Larvae develop as summer progresses, and by late August, nearly every plant is extensively mined. Adults begin emerging again during August, and high adult populations can be observed feeding on emergent leaves during August and September. As observed by Chapman (1923), no adults were encountered after first frost until early spring, indicating that adults pass the winter in protected habitats and resume activity when temperatures warm in spring.