Philoliche (Philoliche) rondani ( Bertoloni, 1861 )

Morita, Shelah, 2008, A revision of the Philoliche aethiopica species complex (Diptera: Tabanidae), African Invertebrates 49 (1), pp. 129-158 : 142-146

publication ID 10.5733/afin.049.0105


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scientific name

Philoliche (Philoliche) rondani ( Bertoloni, 1861 )


Philoliche (Philoliche) rondani ( Bertoloni, 1861) View in CoL View at ENA

Figs 3b View Fig , 5b View Fig , 8 View Fig , 9 View Fig

Pangonia rondani Bertoloni, 1861: 29 View in CoL [1862: 56]. Inhambane, Mozambique (IEGG). Type unavailable.

Diatomineura (Corizoneura) pallidipennis Ricardo, 1900: 110 . Delagoa Bay [Maputo Bay], Mozambique (BMNH). Syn. by Oldroyd 1957: 339. Accepted here.

Corizoneura pallidipennis (Ricardo) View in CoL : Austen 1920: 140.

Pangonius rondanii (Bertoloni) : Surcouf 1921: 128. [incorrect subsequent spelling of rondani View in CoL ].

Corizoneura rondanii (Bertoloni) : Enderlein 1925: 266. [incorrect subsequent spelling of rondani View in CoL ].

Siridorhina pallidipennis (Ricardo) : Enderlein 1925: 266.

Nuceria pallidipennis (Ricardo) : Dias 1955: 176.

Philoliche (Philoliche) aethiopica ssp. rondanii (Bertoloni) : Oldroyd 1957: 331.[incorrect subsequent spelling of rondani View in CoL ].

Philoliche (Philoliche) rondanii (Bertoloni) : Dias 1966: 1182. [incorrect subsequent spelling of rondani View in CoL ].

Philoliche (Philoliche) rondani (Bertoloni) View in CoL : Chainey & Oldroyd 1980: 289.

Diagnosis: P. rondani is distinguished from P. aethiopica as follows: ♂ eye facets distinctly larger dorsally than ventrally; shorter lappets on foretarsi with the dorsal process of tarsomere 2 never extending beyond proximal margin of tarsomere 4; ♀index of frons divergence less than 2.1. Its lack of whitish grey pruinescence on the posterior margin of the scutum separates P. rondani from P. elegans and P. rubiginosa . In contrast to its close relative, P. umbratipennis , P. rondani has all coxae similar in colour and both black and white tufts of hair posterolaterally on segment 5 instead of segment 4.



Head: Eyes dichoptic; facets of similar size throughout. Frons slightly divergent towards antennae, almost parallel; covered with yellow-grey or golden pruinescence (pollinosity), very slightly convex. Face conically produced forward, distance no longer than length of antennae. Antennae with first two segments light brown to brown with black hairs; flagellum orange-brown to bright orange, sometimes with dark apex. Palps slender; distal segment only slightly wider, with black hairs and shallow sensory groove; tip not ending in sharp point. Proboscis length varies from length of head and thorax combined to almost twice body length.

Thorax: Mesonotum yellow-brown to dark brown with faint or no sublateral stripes. If sublateral stripes are more distinct, they are not narrow and grey, but broad and brown or brownish red. Supra-alar areas of scutum sharply contrasting with white-grey pruinescence beginning at postpronotal lobes and ending at post-alar calli. White-grey pruinescence may continue in a very thin band just anterior to scutoscutellar suture, but never more anterior than pre-scutellum. Pleura light grey with numerous white to yellow hairs.

Wings: Slightly smoky, becoming clearer posteriorly; rarely darkened slightly at crossveins. Fifth radial cell usually open although closed at margin or even closed and stalked in some specimens; third medial cell always open.

Legs: Coxae grey, paler dorsally and with white hairs; trochanters black; femora orange. Tibia of foreleg and midleg paler dorsally than femora. Hind tibia same colour as femora with a few to many black hairs. Tarsi concolourous with tibia of same leg; darkened at apex of fifth tarsomere. Tarsomeres 3–5 with black hairs on foreleg; tarsomeres 2–4 and tip of tarsomere 1 with black hairs on mid and hind legs.

Abdomen: Bright orange-yellow with black medial spot on segments 1 and 2; segments 3 and 4 may also be slightly darkened medially, but are most often darker throughout. Central posterior margin of segment 2 sometimes with white or yellow hairs. Posterior margin of segment 4 with black hairs (as rest of segment), except on posterolateral margin. Posterolateral margin of segments 3–7 with tufts of black or white hairs as follows: 3 – black, 4 – white, 5 – black and white, 6 – white, 7 – white.

Male as female except:

Head: Eyes holoptic; facets increasing in size from ventral to dorsal very abruptly. Frons extremely small and triangular, pruinescent, covered with long, silky yellow, golden or white hairs; eye margins beginning to diverge a distance from vertex similar to length of antennae. Face conically produced, but not as prominent as in female, clypeus highly reduced. Palps reduced compared to female.

Thorax: Mesonotum with longer, more dense, golden or yellow hairs.

Legs: With short distally projecting dorsal process on tarsomeres 1 and 2 (lappet). Lappet of tarsomere 2 never extending beyond proximal margin of tarsomere 4.

Abdomen: Abdomen narrower and often more brightly coloured.

Variation:This widely collected species shows some variation in body size and proboscis length.

Type material examined:

Diatomineura (Corizoneura) pallidipennis Ricardo

Holotype: 1♀MOZAMBIQUE: Delagoa Bay [Maputo Bay], R.W. Plant, #242037 ( BMNH).

Additional material examined: LESOTHO: 2♀“ Caffraria ”, J. Wahlberg ( NMNH, labelled Riksmuseum Stockholm) . MOZAMBIQUE: 1♀Maputo [“ Lourenço Marques ”], C.W. Howard ( NMNH) . SOUTH AFRICA: North West: 1♀Rustenburg (24°56'S: 27°09'E), 3.xi.1967 ( NMSA) GoogleMaps . Limpopo: 3♀2♂ Entabeni Forest Station Zoutpansberg Range (23°00'S: 30°14'E), i.1975, B. Stuckenberg ( NMSA) GoogleMaps ; 1♀Mkhado , “Mountain View Rst.” (22°59'S: 29°55'E), 7.iii.2003, S.I. Morita ( SMPC) GoogleMaps ; 1♀Mkhado (23°03'S: 29°54'E): 5.iv.1948,A.B. ( NMSA) GoogleMaps ; 1♀1.i.1920, Dr Breyer ( NMSA) ; 1 ♂ Masekwaspoort , 10 km N Mkhado, 22.ii.1980, J. Londt & L. Schoeman ( NMSA) ; 1♀Blouberg Motlakeng (23°07'S: 28°59'E), 6.i.1955, Tvl Museum Exp. ( NMSA) GoogleMaps ; 2♀Grootdraai Olifants River (24°08'S: 31°01'E), x.1927, H. Lang ( NMSA) GoogleMaps ; 2♀1♂ Malta Forest , 15 km W Ofcolaco (24°10'S: 30°14'E), 21.ii.1980, J. Londt & L. Schoeman ( NMSA) GoogleMaps ; 1♀Moorddrift (24°15'S: 28°57'E), i.1925, G.v. Dam ( NMSA) GoogleMaps ; 1♀Abel Erasmus Pass (24°26'S: 30°39'E), 26.ii.1980, J. Londt & L. Schoeman ( NMSA) GoogleMaps . Gauteng: Pretoria (25°42'S: 28°13'E): 1 ♂ 31.xii.1923, A. Roberts ( NMSA) GoogleMaps ; H.K. Munro : 1♀25.xii.1912 ( NMSA) ; 1♀16.xii.1914 ( NMSA) ; 1♀19.x.1915 ( NMSA) ; 1♀v.1950, no collector ( NMSA) ; 2♀Fountains, Pretoria , 31.x.1951, A.L. Capener ( CASC) ; 2♀Groenkloof (25°49'S: 28°13'E), 6.i.1922, G. v. Dam ( NMSA) GoogleMaps . Mpumalanga: 1♀Hoedspruit 30 km SE (24°30'S: 31°11'E), 30.ix.1978, D. Brothers & J. Guillarmod ( NMSA) GoogleMaps ; 1♀Sabie Caravan Park (25°06'S: 30°47'E), 27.ii.1980, J. Londt & L. Schoeman ( NMSA) GoogleMaps ; 1♀Long Tom Pass W of Sabie (25°10'S: 30°38'E), 9.iii.2004, S.I. Morita ( SMPC) GoogleMaps ; 1♀Kruger National Park, Skukuza (24°58'S: 31°36'E), Zumpt ( NMSA) GoogleMaps ; 2♀Kruger National Park, Crocodile Bridge (25°21'S: 31°54'E), ii.1969, Zumpt ( NMSA) GoogleMaps ; 2♀Mt Carmel NW Side (25°22'S: 30°44'E), 6.xi.1970, B. Stuckenberg ( NMSA) GoogleMaps ; 1♀Hectorspruit (25°26'S: 31°41'E), 17.x.1927, J.S. Taylor ( NMSA) GoogleMaps ; 1 ♂ Nelspruit (25°28'S: 30°58'E), x.1917, H.G. Breijer ( NMSA) GoogleMaps ; 5♀Louwscreek (25°38'S: 31°17'E), iii.1920, G.v.D./A. Rob ( NMSA) GoogleMaps ; Barberton (25°47'S: 31°03'E): 1 ♂ x.1922, G.v. Dam ( NMSA) GoogleMaps ; 3♀19.iii.1920, G.v.D./ A. Rob ( NMSA) ; 1♀Mt Emlembe Near Havelock Mine on Barberton Road (25°55'S: 31°07'E), 7.xi.1970, B. Stuckenberg ( NMSA) GoogleMaps ; 1♀Tzaneen , 1.x.1954 ( NMSA) . KwaZulu-Natal: 1♀1♂ Ndumu Nat. Res. (26°55'S: 32°15'E), 19.x–1.xi.1961, T. Oatley ( NMSA) GoogleMaps ; Ingwavuma (27°08'S: 31°59'E): 1♀10.xii.1963. B. & P. Stuckenberg ( NMSA) GoogleMaps ; 1♀7.iv.1961, D.W. Rorke ( NMSA) ; 1♀P. Reavell ( NMSA) ; 1♀no collector: i.1957 ( NMSA) ; 1♀iv (NMSA); 1 ♂ 10 mi. N of Ubombo , 4.iv.1958, E.S. Ross & R.E. Leech ( CASC, det. as rondani by Chainey, 1987) ; 5♀30 mi. N of Empangeni , xii.1927 – i.1928, M.C. Mossop ( NMNH, det. as pallidipennis by Fairchild, 1938) ; 1♀“ Tete Pan Zululand ” (27°08'S: 32°16'E), 7.x.1955, Paterson ( NMSA) GoogleMaps ; 1 ♂ 20 mi. S Ndumu Game Res. Camp (27°10'S: 32°10'E), 29.xi.1971, M.E. & B.J. Irwin ( NMSA) GoogleMaps ; 1 ♂ Ndumu , xi.1967 ( NMSA) ; 1♀Pongola R. (27°22'S: 31°35'E), x.1929, Marley ( NMSA) GoogleMaps ; 1♀Jozini 10 mi. (27°26'S: 32°04'E), xii.1971, M.E. & B.J. Irwin ( NMSA) GoogleMaps ; 1♀Hluhluwe (28°07'S: 32°20'E), x.1930, Marley ( NMSA) GoogleMaps ; 1♀Umfolosi (28°20'S: 31°50'E) ( NMSA) GoogleMaps ; 1♀Ulundi (28°20'S: 31°25'E), 18.xii ( NMSA) GoogleMaps ; 1♀20 km W of Tugela Ferry (28°45'S: 30°15'E), 26.ii.1977, R.M. Miller ( NMSA) GoogleMaps ; 1♀Ngoye Forest (28°50'S: 31°40'E), ii.1957, B. Stuckenberg ( NMSA) GoogleMaps ; 1♀1♂ Weenen (28°51'S: 30°04'E), xii.1923, H.P. Thomasset ( NMSA) GoogleMaps ; 1♀Zimbaba Forest Middeldrift Rd nr Kranskop (28°55'S: 30°52'E), 4.ii.1970, T.B. Oatley ( NMSA) GoogleMaps ; 1♀4♂ Kranskop, Die Kop (28°55'S: 30°56'E), 10.ii.2003, S.I. Morita ( SMPC) GoogleMaps ; 1♀1♂ Kranskop, Rd to Tugela R. (28°56'S: 30°57'E), 10.ii.2003, S.I. Morita ( SMPC) GoogleMaps ; Wartburg, Bruyn’s Hill (29°26'S: 30°39'E): 1 ♂ 4.iv.1980, A.C. B. ( NMSA) GoogleMaps ; 1 ♂ 27.iii.1978 ( NMSA) ; Pietermaritzburg (29°37'S: 30°23'E): B. Stuckenberg: 1♀5.iv.1954 ( NMSA) GoogleMaps ; 1 ♂ 30.iii.1956 ( NMSA) ; 1 ♂ 13.iii.1961 ( NMSA) ; 1 ♂ 31.x.1932, F. Abraham ( NMSA) ; 1♀16.iii (NMSA); 1♀Mkondeni (29°40'S: 30°24'E), 7.iv.1968, P.F. Tempest ( NMSA) GoogleMaps ; 1 ♂ Ashburton , xi ( NMSA) ; 1♀Hilton, Midmar Dam , 26.iv.1968, T. Oatley ( CASC, det. as rondani by Usher, 1973) ; 1 ♂ Durban (29°51'S: 31°02'E), 16.vii.1910, G.F. Leigh ( NMSA) GoogleMaps ; 1♀Roselands Farm E of Richmond (29°55'S: 30°09'E), 29.ii.2004, S.I. Morita ( SMPC) GoogleMaps ; 1♀Bizana , 1912, J.B. Goodall ( CASC) ; 5♀Ixopo Dist., Mackston (30°01'S: 30°18'E), 16.iv.1977, R.M. Miller ( NMSA) GoogleMaps ; 1♀Kununata Highflats (30°16'S: 30°15'E), 10.iv.1981, A.C. B. ( NMSA) GoogleMaps ; 1 ♂ Glendale Police Station nr Umhlali , 8.x ( NMSA) ; 1♀Hatherley , 16.xii ( NMSA) . Eastern Cape: 1♀Elandshoek (25°30'S: 30°43'E), 3.xi.1946, A.L. Capener ( NMSA) GoogleMaps ; 1♀Umzimkulu (30°16'S: 29°56'E), 6.i.1981, A.C. B. ( NMSA) GoogleMaps ; 3♀1♂ R63 E of Bedford (32°40'S: 26°01'E), 5.ii.2004, S.I. Morita ( SMPC) GoogleMaps ; 1♀Qxulu R. (33°05'S: 27°43'E), 15.xii.1970, J.G.H. Londt ( NMSA) GoogleMaps ; 1♀“ Albany [ Dist. ] ” (33°10'S: 26°43'E), v.1950, B. Stuckenberg ( NMSA) GoogleMaps ; Grahamstown (33°18'S: 26°32'E): 1 ♂ E. McC. Callan, 17.xi.1957 ( NMSA) GoogleMaps ; J.G.H. Londt : 1♀3.iv.1965 ( NMSA) ; 1♀1♂ 5.iv.1970 ( NMSA) ; 1♀1♂ 22.iii.1973 ( NMSA) ; 1 ♂ 30.xi, no collector (NMSA); 2♀Old Woman’s R. Mouth (33°29'S: 27°08'E), 20.xi.2003, B.S. Ripley ( SMPC) GoogleMaps ; 1♀Port Alfred (33°36'S: 26°54'E), 27.ii.1956, P.E. Hulley ( NMSA) GoogleMaps ; 1♀Port Alfred , ii.1956, R. Phillips, ( NMSA) . Unknown Province : “Waterkloof”: 1♀25.xii.1919, A. Roberts ( NMSA) ; 2♀25.xii.1919, W. Impey ( NMSA) ; 3♀“ Garstfontein ”, 3.i.1922, A. Roberts ( NMSA) ; 1 ♂ “ Woodbush ”, xii.1924, G.v. Dam ( NMSA) ; 1 ♂ “ Prospect ”, 19.iii.1923, H.K. Munro ( NMSA) . ZIMBABWE: Masvingo: 2 ♂ Lundi (21°02'S: 31°10'E), 23.ix.1961, G. van Son ( NMSA) GoogleMaps .

Distribution: South Africa, Mozambique, Zimbabwe, Zambia ( Fig. 8 View Fig ).

Remarks: This species is closely related to P. umbratipennis with which it overlaps in distribution ( Figs 8 View Fig , 9 View Fig ), and has distinct differences in proboscis length ( Fig. 9 View Fig ). Molecular evidence supports the monophyly of the long proboscid P. umbratipennis , but recognition of P. umbratipennis may render P. rondani paraphyletic based on preliminary molecular analysis (data not shown, see discussion).

Pangonia rondani was described first by Bertoloni (1861) based on one female specimen from Mozambique.When Surcouf (1921) reclassified it as Pangonius Latrielle , he changed the spelling to Pangonius rondanii to create Latin gender agreement with the new genus. Since the epithet was honorific for Prof. Camillio Rondani, this correction was unjustified (IZCN articles 31.2.1, 33.4, and 34.2.1). The incorrect subsequent spelling continued until its correction in the Afrotropical catalog of Diptera ( Chainey & Oldroyd 1980) . Ricardo (1900) first described Diatomineura (Corizoneura) pallidipennis under Rondani’s (1864) subgenus based on a female from Maputo Bay, Mozambique. Later it was placed within Siridorhina Enderlein , and then in Nuceria Walker (see Remarks for P. aethiopica ). Oldroyd (1957: 339) synonymised N. pallidipennis with P. (P.) rondani and made P. (P.) rondani a subspecies of P. (P.) aethiopica stating: “This common fly of south-eastern Africa is distinguished from the typical aethiopica by its shorter face in both sexes, by the reduced abdominal markings, and by the absence of dark brown spots on the wings. I have found that in Natal these two forms merge into one another, and I conclude that they should be regarded as subspecies.”

Dias (1966) disagreed and resurrected P. (P.) rondani , based on the overlapping distribution of the two forms, and what he considered to be differences in their ecology. Due to taxonomic uncertainty, Usher (1972) chose to ignore P. (P.) rondani as a separate entity in her review of the South African horsefly fauna, and did not mention that Dias had revised its status. She discussed Oldroyd’s decision to separate P. (P.) aethiopica into “two geographically separable subspecies”, and stated, “This is a highly complex problem badly in need of further study. For the present, I have treated aethiopica as a single, very variable species” (Usher 1972: 467).


Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History


KwaZulu-Natal Museum














Philoliche (Philoliche) rondani ( Bertoloni, 1861 )

Morita, Shelah 2008

Philoliche (Philoliche) rondanii

CHAINEY, J. E. & OLDROYD, H. 1980: 289

Philoliche (Philoliche) aethiopica ssp. rondanii

OLDROYD, H. 1957: 331

Nuceria pallidipennis (Ricardo)

DIAS, J. A. T. S. 1955: 176

Pangonius rondanii

SURCOUF, J. M. R. 1921: 128

Corizoneura pallidipennis (Ricardo)

AUSTEN, E. E. 1920: 140

Diatomineura (Corizoneura) pallidipennis

OLDROYD, H. 1957: 339
RICARDO, G. 1900: 110

Pangonia rondani

BERTOLONI, G. 1861: 29
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