Neoscelis hexakrotes, García-Morales, Ramírez-Ponce, and Curoe, García-Morales & Ramírez-Ponce & Curoe & García-Jiménez, 2019

García-Morales, Leccinum Jesús, Ramírez-Ponce, Andrés, Curoe, Daniel J. & García-Jiménez, Jesus, 2019, A new species of Neoscelis Schoch from Mexico (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Cetoniinae: Goliathini) with new distributional records for the genus, Zootaxa 4695 (2), pp. 122-130: 123-128

publication ID

https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4695.2.2

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:EAE90F55-A7F7-4F01-9AE3-DF713B2229D3

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/AE25925E-2035-FFAF-4885-6142C4029FA0

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Neoscelis hexakrotes, García-Morales, Ramírez-Ponce, and Curoe
status

new species

Neoscelis hexakrotes, García-Morales, Ramírez-Ponce, and Curoe   , new species

Figs. 1–2 View FIGURE 1 View FIGURES 2 A–C, J.

Type material. Holotype male labeled: a) “ México, Guerrero / Municipio de Chilpancingo / 1.5 km al NE de Acahuizotla / Bosque Tropical Subcaducifolio / alt. 915m, X/2006 / J. Juan López, col.”, b) “ Neoscelis hexakrotes García-Morales, Ramírez-Ponce and Curoe   HOLOTYPE ” (red label, typeface) ( CNIN)   . Allotype female labeled: a) “ México, Guerrero / Municipio de Chilpancingo / 1.5 km al NE de Acahuizotla / Bosque Tropical Subcaducifolio / alt. 915m, X/2006 / J. Juan López, col.”, “b) “ Neoscelis hexakrotes García-Morales, Ramírez-Ponce and Curoe   ALLOTYPE ” (yellow label, typeface) ( CNIN).”   Paratypes (60♂♂, 6♀♀): a) “ México, Guerrero / Municipio de Chilpancingo / 1.5 km al NE de Acahuizotla / Bosque Tropical Subcaducifolio / alt. 915m, X/2006 / J. Juan López, col.”, b) “ Neoscelis hexakrotes García-Morales, Ramírez-Ponce and Curoe   PARATYPE ” (yellow label, typeface)” ( CJJL, 1♂)   ; a) “ MEXICO, Guerrero, Nejapa / 17° 22’ 44.2” N 99° 27’ 16.5” O / 994 msnm, 3.27 km al NE de / Acahuizotla, T.L. 1 / 29/09 /2008 S. Zaragoza ”, b) “ Neoscelis dohrni   / (Westwood 1855) / QRL code / 36172 / barcode / IBUNAM: CNIN: CO36172 View Materials ”, c) “ Neoscelis hexakrotes García-Morales, Ramírez-Ponce and Curoe   PARATYPE ” (yellow label, typeface)” ( CNIN, 1♂) GoogleMaps   ; a) “ México: Guerrero / San Roque / Municipo de Mochitlán / X/2018 ”, b) “ Neoscelis hexakrotes García-Morales, Ramírez-Ponce and Curoe   PARATYPE ” (yellow label, typeface)” ( CJJL, 1♀)   ; a) “ México: Guerrero / Acahuizotla / Municipio de Chilpancingo / 1120m, VII/2017 / local collector”, b) “ Neoscelis hexakrotes García-Morales, Ramírez-Ponce and Curoe   PARATYPE ” (yellow label, typeface)” ( ARPC, 3♂♂; BMNH, 1♂; CCDG, 2♂♂; CEMT, 1♂; CLGM, 7♂♂; CMNC, 1♂; CPL, 2♂♂; DJC, 3♂♂; MNHN, 1♂; MSPC, 1♂; USNM, 1♂); a) “ México: Guerrero / San Roque 2/x/2018 / Luis Zacarías L.”, b) “ Neoscelis hexakrotes García-Morales, Ramírez-Ponce and Curoe   PARATYPE ” (yellow label, typeface)” ( ARPC, 1♂; CJGD, 1♂ )); a) “ México: Guerrero, San Roque, Mochitlán 18-20/ix/2019 / Luis Zacarías L.”, b) “ Neoscelis hexakrotes García-Morales, Ramírez-Ponce and Curoe   PARATYPE ” (yellow label, typeface)” ( ARPC, 5♂♂; CJGD, 7♂♂, 2♀♀; CLGM, 4♂♂; CMNC, 1♂; DJCC, 5♂♂); a) “ México: Guerrero, San Roque, Mochitlán 8-10/ix/2019 / Luis Zacarías L.”, b) “ Neoscelis hexakrotes García-Morales, Ramírez-Ponce and Curoe   PARATYPE ” (yellow label, typeface)”( ARPC, 3♂♂, 1♀; CATC, 1♂; CJGD, 2♂♂, 2♀♀; DJCC, 4♂♂); a) “ México, Guerrero, Loc: San Roque, Mochitlan. 15 octubre 2018 ”, b) “ Neoscelis hexakrotes García-Morales, Ramírez-Ponce and Curoe   PARATYPE ” (yellow label, typeface)” ( GALC, 1♂)   .

Description. Holotype male ( Figs. 1–2 View FIGURE 1 View FIGURES 2 A-C, J). Total length 28.5 mm, width across humeri 13.5 mm, length from occiput to base of clypeal horn 6 mm. Colors. Head (dorsally), pronotum, scutellum shiny metallic green with coppery purple reflections; elytra shiny metallic coppery purple; sternum, abdominal sternites, mesofemora and metafemora (ventrally) dark reddish brown with metallic green and coppery purple reflections; legs otherwise metallic green ( Fig. 1A View FIGURE 1 ). Head. Frons weakly convex ( Fig. 2 View FIGURES 2 A–C); surface shagreened between punctures; disc densely, setigerously punctate ( Fig. 2A View FIGURES 2 ); punctures large, deep; setae short, erect, yellow; frontal sides with a dense cluster of small, deep, setigerous punctures; setae longer than on disc. Preocular carina weakly developed above eye, extending above antennal insertion anterolaterally to dorsoventrally compressed, subtriangular, weakly reflexed tubercle ( Fig. 2C View FIGURES 2 ). Clypeus (dorsal view) evenly expanded to short, subtriangular, weakly reflexed tubercle ( Fig. 2A View FIGURES 2 ); apical margin narrowing to base of clypeal horn; horn (lateral view) directed anterodorsally, evenly recurved and (frontal view) bisected into 2 long, slender, acute rami ( Fig. 2 View FIGURES 2 B–C); clypeus weakly concave on either side of longitudinal ridge; ridge (dorsal view) narrowing anteriorly and (lateral view) with low, rounded swelling; surface setigerously rugopunctate near tubercles, becoming coarser basally and on ridge ( Fig. 2A View FIGURES 2 ); setae short, erect, pale yellow. Antennal club nearly 3/5 of interocular width. Pronotum. Broadly convex transversely, strongly so laterally, with shallow depression near lateral margin and slightly anterior to greatest width. Lateral margin beaded, subangulate, weakly emarginate basally. Basal margin weakly emarginate anterior to scutellum, and between scutellum and rounded, obtuse lateral angles; surface shagreened between punctures; disc moderately densely, setigerously punctate; punctures small, shallow; setae minute, erect, pale yellow; punctation becoming larger and setae longer near lateral margins, anterior angles and on depressions. Scutellum. Surface shagreened and moderately to densely punctate with minutely punctures; disc also with moderately dense, small, setigerous punctures; setae long, recumbent, pale yellow. Mesepimeron. Surface densely, setigerously punctate; punctures small; setae long, fine, semierect, white. Elytra. Surface tricostate; sutural costa reaching apex, discal and humeral costae with apices joined at moderately prominent apical umbone; lateral margin beaded. Surface shagreened; disc also moderately to densely punctate with minute punctures, becoming setigerously rugopunctate laterally and strigulose near apex; setae short, erect, pale yellow. Pygidium   . Broadly, evenly convex (lateral view); surface setigerously, concentrically strigulose around apex; setae short (except tuft of long setae below apex), recumbent toward apex, pale yellow. Venter. Mesometasternal process subtriangular (lateral view), surpassing level of mesocoxae in ventral view; sides diverging laterally to rounded apex roughly fan shaped ( Fig. 2J View FIGURES 2 ). Abdominal sternites with surface shagreened and densely punctate with minute punctures between larger setigerous punctures; setigerous punctures medially moderately dense, small, bearing short, recumbent, white setae, and becoming denser, larger and bearing longer setae laterally; on lateral fifths, surface abruptly transversely rugopunctate, setae long, semierect. Legs. Protibia evenly curved, 1/3 longer than profemur, with 2 short, acute, apical teeth; protarsus ¼ longer than protibia, densely setose ventrally; setae long, erect, ferruginous. Genitalia. Parameres symmetrical; inner margins weakly emarginate; external margins straight, weakly divergent basally, broadly rounded to apex ( Fig. 1 View FIGURE 1 B–C).

Allotype. Female ( Fig. 2D View FIGURES 2 ). Total length 23.5 mm, maximum width 12.4 mm, length from occiput to apex of clypeus 4 mm. Colors. Head mostly shiny coppery with some green reflections near eyes; pronotum, scutellum dark metallic coppery green; elytra weakly metallic bluish green; pygidium   reddish brown, with dull metallic green reflections under magnification; venter mostly shiny metallic coppery with some green reflections; femora, mesotibiae and metatibiae shiny metallic green with coppery reflections; protibiae and tarsi piceous, with weak green reflections under magnification. Head. Frons and clypeus weakly, longitudinally tumescent; surface coarsely, transversely rugopunctate; tumescense glabrous, surface on either side with dense, long, erect rufous setae. Clypeus (dorsal view) subhexagonal; sides weakly expanded; apical angles narrow; apical margin strongly reflexed, weakly bilobed; lateral clypeal margin (left lateral view) cariniform, nearly S-shaped (weakly rounded and declivous just anterior to antennal insertion, becoming abruptly declivous anteriorly before leveling off). Antennal club half as long as interocular distance. Pronotum. Form broadly convex; surface shagreened and densely, setigerously punctate (except on longitudinal median line), becoming rugopunctate near anterior angles; median line irregular, narrow, becoming wider in basal fifth, minutely punctate, glabrous; punctures on disc (except on median line) moderately large and large punctures; setae long, erect, slightly recumbent, rufous. Lateral margins beaded, anteriorly weakly rounded, subangulate at middle, basally weakly emarginate. Basal margin emarginate anterior to scutellum; basal angles rounded and obtuse. Scutellum. Surface shagreened, with punctures on base as on pronotal disc; punctation density decreasing apically; setae long, recumbent, rufous. Mesepimeron Surface densely, setigerously punctate; punctures small, setae longer than on pronotum, semierect, rufous. Elytra. Surface tricostate. Surface shagreened between punctures; disc densely, setigerously punctate with minute punctures; setae longer than on pronotum. Surface along beaded lateral margin, between humeral constriction and apical area, transversely rugopunctate. Pygidium   . Form (lateral view) convex; surface setigerously, concentrically strigulose around apex; setae dense, long, erect, rufous. Venter. Mesometasternal process (lateral view) surpassing level of mesocoxae. In ventral view, sides diverging anteriorly to rounded apex. Abdominal sternites with surface shiny, shagreened between punctures, setigerously punctate; punctures moderately dense and moderately large medially, becoming denser, larger, deeper laterally; setae recumbent, medially short becoming abruptly long on lateral fifths. Legs. Protibia subequal in length to profemur; inner margin nearly straight; outer margin tridentate; basal tooth dull, medially situated; apical teeth acute. Protarsus ¼ longer than protibia. Protarsomeres with a few erect setae near apex.

Variation in paratypes. Males. Size ranges between 27.3–31.6 mm in length, and 12.6–15.1 mm in width. All males are dorsally bicolored, without significant variation in colors. Morphological variation among the paratypes can be observed in the width and development of the clypeus, the apicolateral tubercles and the length of the clypeal horns. The vestiture on the clypeus, frons and ventral surface of the thorax and abdomen varies in density and length. One male (at CNIN) is slightly teratological, with a shortened head and a rounded, subtriangular swelling on the clypeal longitudinal ridge.

Taxonomic remarks. Mudge et al. (2003) provided a key to the males of Neotropical Goliathini species where they include coloration, among other characters, for the identification of species. Nevertheless, we have found that some male N. dohrni   specimens (mostly from Durango) also exhibit the same bicolored dorsum observed in the male Neoscelis hexacrotes   type specimens. Therefore, we focus mainly on head morphology for differential characters.

Diagnosis. Males. Neoscelis hexakrotes   is the only species in the genus whose males possess a convex frons (frons weakly concave in the other Neoscelis   species).

Neoscelis hexakrotes   shares with N. dohrni   elongate prothoracic legs, the mesometasternal process with sides diverging to rounded apex ( Fig. 2 View FIGURES 2 J–K), and both species possess metallic green coloration dorsally and similarly shaped clypeal horns (although N. hexakrotes   males lack preapical tubercles on rami). Apart from the clypeal horn, their head morphology is different: N. dohrni   has the frontal surface clearly concave and prolonging declivously to clypeal sides, lacks tubercles near antennal insertions and possesses long and strongly reflexed clypeal lateral tubercles ( Fig. 2 View FIGURES 2 D–F) (In N. hexakrotes   , the frons is convex and the anterior edge of the frons is abruptly separated from the clypeal sides. Prominent subtriangular tubercles are present near the antennal insertion and the clypeal tubercles are short and weakly reflexed) ( Fig. 2A, C View FIGURES 2 ).

With N. coracina   , N. hexakrotes   shares elongate prothoracic legs and a reflexed, flattened, subtriangular tubercle just anterolateral to each antennal insertion ( Figs. 2 View FIGURES 2 A–C, G–I). In N. hexakrotes   , however, the tubercles are weakly reflexed; in lateral view, the tubercles do not protrude above the clypeal longitudinal ridge ( Fig. 2 View FIGURES 2 B–C) (apex of tubercles protruding above clypeal ridge in N. coracina   ) ( Fig. 2G, I View FIGURES 2 ). The rami of the clypeal horn are long and slender in N. hexakrotes   ( Fig. 2B View FIGURES 2 ) and basally broad in N. coracina   ( Fig. 2H View FIGURES 2 ); in frontal view, the margin between the rami appears V-shaped to deeply U-shaped in N. hexakrotes   and shallowly U-shaped in N. coracina   . The mesometasternal process in N. hexakrotes   has sides divergent to rounded apex ( Fig. 2J View FIGURES 2 ), in N. coracina   it is rounded at sides and apex ( Fig. 2L View FIGURES 2 ). Additionally, N. coracina   is shiny black (occasionally with blue-green reflections) whereas N. hexakrotes   is dorsally bicolored: shiny metallic green on head, pronotum, and scutellum; coppery purple on elytra.

Females. Females of N. hexakrotes   and N. dohrni   are very similar, sharing densely setose, weakly metallic green bodies. In N. dohrni   , the body is green and partly obscured by dense, tawny setae. In N. hexakrotes   , it is larger and more obscured by dense, rufous setae; the pronotum is duller, dark coppery green and the elytra slightly bluish green. Both species have a subhexagonal clypeus, but in N. dohrni   the apical angles are rounded whereas in N. hexakrotes   they are narrow. In lateral view, the cariniform lateral clypeal margins differ: In N. dohrni   it is evenly declivous apically whereas in N. hexakrotes   it is weakly declivous apically anterior to antennal insertion, then abruptly, strongly so before leveling off.

Neoscelis coracina   is easily distinguished from N. hexakrotes   : its body color is black, occasionally bluish black, and covered by dense tawny setae. In both species the cariniform clypeal lateral margin becomes abruptly declivous anterior to the antennal insertion, but in N. coracina   that part of the margin is nearly straight whereas in N. hexakrotes   it becomes rounded and levels off.

Lastly, the N. hexakrotes   female bears a superficial resemblance with Euphoria iridescens Schaum   , a species distributed in Guerrero. They share, dorsally, a metallic green coloration and a dense, rufous vestiture. Neoscelis hexakrotes   , however, is larger and dorsally essentially entirely green (In E. iridescens   , the pronotum has wide, longitudinal green and reddish-brown stripes; the elytra are reddish brown, with green mottles).

Etymology. The specific epithet “hexakrotes” derives from the ancient Greek ἕξ (héx: six), and akrótçs (ἀκρóτης: extreme, or tip)), which makes reference to the six projections that the males of this species possess on the head ( Glosbe 2018). The compound specific epithet is a noun in apposition.

Distribution and biogeographic remarks. Morón and Ratcliffe (1989) and Deloya and Morón (1997) stated that N. dohrni   occurs from the main populations of western Mexico into Guerrero state, based on three females collected by L. Delgado and C. Deloya in the vicinity of Acahuizotla, Guerrero. Deloya et al. (2014) also recorded N. dohrni   for the state of Guerrero. However, these specimens belong to females of this new interesting species, thereby restricting the distribution of N. dohrni   to the Sierra Madre Occidental and the western Neovolcanic Axis, while N. hexakrotes   is a narrowly endemic species of the Sierra Madre del Sur, with the Balsas Depression separating the nearest populations of the two species by some 400 km. The known distribution range of N. hexakrotes   comprises a small area in the municipalities of Chilpancingo and Mochitlán, Guerrero. The habitat at the type locality consists of semi-deciduous dry tropical forest, sometimes mixed with oaks, in the 800–1200 m range ( Fig. 3 View FIGURE 3 ).

Natural history. Nothing is known about the behavior or host plants of N. hexakrotes   , apart from the fact that adults are attracted to overripe banana. Based on collecting data, the phenology of this species (adults active from July to October) differs from that of the other Neoscelis   species.

CNIN

Coleccion Nacional de Insectos, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico

IBUNAM

Instituto de BiIología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México

MNHN

Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle

MSPC

Museo di Storia Naturale "Pietro Calderini"

USNM

Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Insecta

Order

Coleoptera

Family

Cetoniidae

Genus

Neoscelis