Fannia sp. 3

Iorio, Osvaldo Di & Turienzo, Paola, 2011, A preliminary bibliographic survey of the insects found in poultry houses from the Neotropical Region, with remarks on selected taxa shared with native birds' nests 2858, Zootaxa 2858 (1), pp. 1-60: 39-42

publication ID 10.11646/zootaxa.2858.1.1

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Fannia sp. 3


Fannia sp. 3  

Myiopsitta monachus monachus (Boddaert, 1783)  

ARGENTINA: Buenos Aires: Campo de Mayo [2 exx. (one nest)].

Muscidae   Musca domestica Conditions   in dry nests are seldom suitable for larvae of the common House Fly. It was found on only two occasions, in each case in a house martins’ nest [ Delichon urbicum (Linnaeus, 1758)   , Hirundinidae   ] in London, and only small numbers were present ( Woodroffe 1953).

Muscina stabulans  

This species was also reared abundantly from nests of Streptopelia orientalis (Latham, 1790)   [ Aves  : Columbidae   ] in Japan ( Iwasa 1994).

Stomoxys calcitrans  

This fly lays their eggs in decaying vegetation, such as hay, straw, and silage, or in spilled grains, but these materials must be moist underneath. Sometimes these decaying vegetation may be mixed with manure, but S. calcitrans   do not usually develop in pure manure unless it is several weeks old ( Hogsette 1996). Both decaying vegetation and some degree of moisture can be observed in some birds’ nests, together with accumulation of feces, especially in the nests of nonpasserine birds (Turienzo & Di Iorio pers. obs.). S. calcitrans   was obtained in a single time: Milvago chimango (Vieillot, 1816)   [ Falconidae   ]

ARGENTINA: Buenos Aires: Campo de Mayo [4 exx. (one nest)].



The larvae of Hermetia illuscens   develop in poultry manure with an higher content of water (Lopes et al. 2007, Monteiro & Prado 2008). Its presence prevented development of house fly larvae, but this effect was shown to be due to a physical change in the medium, not to predation ( Axtell & Edwards 1970). Thus, a negative correlation is presented by numbers of larvae of both species.

Similarly, larvae of undetermined Diptera   ( Calliphoridae   , Muscidae   ) appeared early and larvae of Stratiomyidae   late in the nestling period inside nests of Megascops asio (Linnaeus, 1758)   in central Texas, USA ( Gehlbach & Baldridge 1987).

Larvae of H. illuscens   were also found in nests of cavity-nesting Psittacidae   from Jamaica, Puerto Rico, Brazil ( Di Iorio & Turienzo 2009), and Ramphastidae   from Panama ( Van Tyne 1929). These nests in hollow trees are characterized by the high humidity and the accumulation of feces.

In contrast, one undetermined species of Stratiomyidae   was found in stick nests of Furnariidae   and Psittacidae   from the central area of Argentina with less than 800 mm of annual rainfall: Chaco: El Espinillo, 4-I-2010, 5 larvae, in nest of Phacellodomus sibilatrix   (# 1-2); Route 90, Km 21, 3-XII-2008, 4 larvae, in nest of Coryphistera alaudina   (# 1), 3-XII-2008, 1 emerged puparium, in nest of C. alaudina   (# 3); Avia Terai, 6-I-2009, 65 larvae, in nest of C. alaudina   ; Santiago del Estero: La María, I-2009, 7 larvae, in nest of C. alaudina   (# 2b), II-2009, 1 larva, in nest of C. alaudina   (# 6), II-2009, 22 larvae, in nest of C. alaudina   (# 10); La Rioja   : Route 141, 15 km E Chepes, 26-III-2008, 43 larvae, in a single bed of Myiopsitta monachus cotorra   (LR # 6); San Juan: 27-III-2008, 1 larva, in a single bed of M. m. cotorra (SJ # 1); Córdoba: Quilino, 31-XII-2007, 33 larvae, in nest of Pseudoseisura lophotes   ; Huerta Grande, 21-I-2008, 27 larvae, in nest of C. alaudina   ; Mina Clavero, 14-VII-2009, 112 larvae, 2 emerged adults, in nest of C. alaudina   (# 1), 14-VII-2009, 99 larvae, in nest of C. alaudina   (# 2), 14-VII- 2009, 13 emerged puparia, in nest of C. alaudina   (# 3); Mina Clavero, 14-VII-2009, 16 larvae, 1 emerged puparium, 15 emerged adults, in nest of P. lophotes   (Cb # 22), 23-IX-2009, 32 larvae, 12 emerged adults, in nest of P. lophotes   (Cb # 26); Route 17, 9 km W Altos de Chipion, 597 larvae, 8 emerged puparia, in a single bed of M. m. cotorra (Cb # 3); Cruz del Eje, 26-III-2008, 1 larva, in a single bed of M. m. cotorra (Cb # 4); Route 17, 34 km E La Puerta, 28-III-2008, 726 larvae, in a single bed of M. m. cotorra (Cb # 5); Ea. El Sauce [6 km W La Falda], 26- VIII-2009, 86 larvae, in a nest of M. m. cotorra (Cb # 11); La Pampa: Santa Rosa, 30-XI-2007, 8 emerged puparia, in nest of Anumbius annumbi   , 3-VI-2008, 3 larvae, in nest of A. annumbi   , 8-IX-2008, 4 emerged puparia, in nest of A. annumbi   ; Santa Rosa, 7-II-2008, 1 larva, in nest of C. alaudina   ; Toay, 5-VIII-2007, 2722 larvae, 1913 emerged adults, in nest of P. lophotes   (LP # 1); Santa Rosa, 9-IX-2007, 207 larvae, 132 emerged adults, in nest of P. lophotes   (LP # 3); Toay, 5-I-2008, 116 larvae, in nest of P. lophotes   (LP # 8), 5-I-2008, 163 larvae, in nest of P. lophotes   (LP # 9); Santa Rosa, 8-IX-2008, 5 emerged puparia, 1 dead larva, in nest of P. lophotes   (LP # 18); Paraje La Araña , 8- IX-2007, 300 larvae, 68 emerged adults, in a nest of M. m. cotorra (PLA # 1), 3-XI-2007, 145 larvae, 53 emerged adults, in a nest of M. m. cotorra (PLA # 2), 2-III-2008, 7 larvae, in a nest of M. m. cotorra (PLA # 3), 6-V-2008, 314 larvae [+ 271 dead larvae], 169 emerged puparia, in a nest of M. m. cotorra (PLA # 4), 3-VII-2008, 412 larvae, 54 emerged puparia, in a nest of M. m. cotorra (PLA # 5)   .

These birds’ nests have in common an high content of vegetal matter where the larvae of Stratiomyidae   are located, ie. C. alaudina   makes the base of the bed with cow or horse dung; the nests of P. lophotes   were inhabited by rodents, with a large amount of food debris; the beds of M. monachus   are made of fresh vegetal matter, mainly leaves of the trees where the nests are located, and excrements are accumulated on the beds ( Aramburú et al. 2002).

This undetermined species was not found in stick nests from eastern Argentina, in areas with more than 1000 mm of annual rainfall, but nor Hermetia illucens   .


Parasitic wasps emerged from pupae of Diptera   in birds’ nests were scarcely mentioned in literature. Morodora armata Gahan, 1933   [ Braconidae   ] and Nasonia vitripennis   were reared from puparia of Protocalliphora avium Shannon & Dobroscky, 1924   [ Calliphoridae   ], in nests of Pica hudsonia (Sabine, 1823)   [ Aves  : Corvidae   ] from Montana, United States ( Jellison & Philip 1933). Undetermined Diapriidae   were recovered from nests of Megascops asio (Linnaeus, 1758)   [ Aves  : Strigidae   ], together with larvae of Calliphoridae   , Muscidae   and Stratiomyidae ( Gehlbach & Baldridge 1987)   .

A very complete and excellent account on the systematic, distributions and hosts of Nasonia   was presented by Darling & Werren (1990). Two new species, reared from puparia of Calliphoridae   in birds’ nests, were described from North America [ Nasonia giraulti Darling, 1990   and Nasonia longicornis Darling, 1990   ]. Nasonia vitripennis   is regarded as a pupal parasite primarily on Calliphoridae   and Sarcophagidae   , that frecuent a variety of habitats including poultry and livestock manure, decaying carcasses and birds’ nests. The wide distribution of N. vitripennis   in North America is superimposed to N. giraulti   (known only from easthern North America) and to N. longicornis   (known only from western North America). In each superimposed area, N. vitripennis   can be collected from the same bird nests, and occasionally, from the same blowfly pupa where one or the other of the two new species was also rearing. There are no records of N. giraulti   and N. longicornis   associated with either carcasses or poultry or livestock manure ( Darling & Werren 1990).

Brachymeria podagrica (Fabricius, 1787)   [ Chalcididae   ] was reared from one pupa of Philornis   collected in Trinidad from a nest of Furnariidae ( Couri et al. 2006)   . A second chalcidid wasp, Conura (Spilochalcis) annulifera (Walker, 1864)   , was obtained from pupae of Philornis sp.   in Trinidad [= Spilochalcis ornitheia Burks, 1960   , fide Couri et al. 2006], and Philornis sp.   , probably Philornis insularis Couri, 1983   , in a nest of Thalurania glaucopis (Gmelin, 1788)   [ Aves  : Trochilidae   ] from Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil ( Couri et al. 2006) [see in the systematic account that one species of Philornis   was found on chickens].

At the other hand, six species of parasitic wasps [ Aphelinidae   , Eupelmidae   , Scelionidae   ] were found in in birds’ nests from Colombia, Brazil and Argentina, parasiting eggs of Triatominae   ( Barreto et al. 1984, Brewer et al. 1978 1979 1980 1981), but they were not mentioned yet in chicken coops.

Although the eggs of Triatominae   and pupae of Diptera   are present in birds’ nests and poultry houses, the fauna of parasitic Hymenoptera   seems to be different at familiar level (except Diapriidae   ) between these two habitats, only because of lack of collections.

Identification of one parasitic Hymenoptera   obtained from pupae of Calliphoridae   in a nest of Tyto alba tuidara   [ Aves  : Tytonidae   ], with one dead adult bird (Buenos Aires: Pereyra, 22-V-2010, # 2), proved to be the exotic Tachinaephagus zealandicus   (adult flies were not obained). This wasp parasitizes native and exotic Calliphoridae   and Muscidae   in poultry houses from Brazil ( Bruno et al. 1992, Almeida et al. 2000, Costa et al. 2004, Monteiro & Prado 2006, Geden & Moon 2009), but it was not recorded yet in this habitat in Argentina ( Crespo & Lecuona 1996)   . In contrast, T. zealandicus   was recorded parasitizing masses of puparia which had produced both Phaenicia sericata Meigen   ( Calliphoridae   ) and Sarcophaga spp.   ( Sarcophagidae   ) in Buenos Aires city (beef baits), together with Brachymeria podagrica   , Nasonia vitripennis   and Alysia sp.   [ Braconidae   : Alysiinae   ]. The most abundant species was T. zealandicus   ; the second was B. podagrica   , and the least frequent species Nasonia vitripennis   [Oliva (2008) Revista   de la Sociedad Entomológica Argentina   , 67(3-4), 139-141]. Therefore, T. zealandicus   is recorded here for the first time in one native bird nest, and related to the cadaveric fauna.

Other specimens of parasitic Hymenoptera   obtained from pupae of the native Philornis torquans (Nielsen 1913)   [ Diptera   : Muscidae   ] in a nest of Furnarius rufus (Gmelin, 1789)   [ Aves  : Furnariidae   ] (Buenos Aires: Campo de Mayo, 12-XII-09 # 4, BA # 119) ( Turienzo & Di Iorio 2010), belong to the genus Dibrachys   [ Pteromalidae   ], recorded in Argentina   parasitizing Lepidoptera   only [De Santis & Esquivel (1966) Revista   del Museo de La Plata, Nueva Serie, 9(69), 47-213].



In general, cimicid bugs associated to birds belong to Haematosiphoninae, but some representatives of Cimicinae are also related to birds (Usinger 1966). In particular, the well known worldwide bed bug, Cimex lectularius   , was primitively associated to bats, and passed to man “when all three lived together in caves somewhere in the Middle East”, but “ lectularius   is here regarded as a cosmopolitan parasite of mankind and his associated animals (chickens, etc.)” (Usinger 1966).

Nevertheless, no records of C. lectularius   on birds were given. Except by the single record from Mexico (Gibson & Carrillo S. 1959) [not mentioned by Usinger 1966], other records of C. lectularius   related to birds were made from the Nearctic Region after 1966: UNITED STATES: North Carolina: in broiler-breeder chicken house ( Fletcher & Axtell 1993); Colorado: poultry houses frequently infested ( List 1937); Arkansas: Madison Co., 2000, 8 exx., from poultry facility; Washington Co., 2007, 5 exx., from poultry facility; Lafayette Co., 2007, 4 exx., from poultry facility; Carroll Co., 2007, 5 exx., from poultry facility; number of bed bugs in a single poultry facility can number into the tens of thousands [C.D.S., unpublished data] ( Szalanski et al. 2008); Washington Co., Brentwood (Population 1), Carroll Co., Berryville (Population 2), Lafayette Co., Gin City (Population 3), VII-2007, voucher specimens [MADE], from beneath the egg pad in the nest boxes, along the area where the slatted flooring joined the walls and from the wooden wall studs of broiler breeder poultry facilities, morphologically identified using descriptions outlined by Usinger (1966), and molecular diagnostics using mitochondrial 16S rRNA sequencing per Szalanski et al. 2008 ( Steelman et al. 2008).

The scarce records of Cimicinae related to poultry in the Neotropical Region belong to Cimex hemipterus   , also found in poultry barns from Israel ( Rosen et al. 1987). Usinger (1966: 326-327) mentions C. hemipterus   from Panama, Jamaica, Cuba, Colombia, and Venezuela, but without indication of hosts.

Haematosiphon inodorus   is known as the “mexican chicken bug”. After the summarization of native hosts of Haematosiphon inodorus, Usinger (1966)   gives “other locality records, mostly from chickens”, but in some previous references where some of these localities are given (i.e. Lee 1955b), chickens are not mentioned. At the other hand, two localities included in the Usinger’s list of 1966 were given by Usinger (1947) from nests of owls [California: Caliente Cr., 25 miles SE Bakersfield, 18-V-1941, Bohart leg., many nymphs, 1 male; Corona, 25-IV-1939, L.E. Wilson leg., several specimens, in an abandoned tunnel formerly inhabited by owls]. These last localities were repeated by Lee (1955b) without indication of host, and erroneously included below G. gallus   by Turienzo & Di Iorio (2009).

Therefore, after discrimination of localities, hosts and references, the remaining records of H. inodorus   (without host indication) are as follows: UNITED STATES: Texas: Presidio Co., Marfa, 21-VI-1909, F.C. Bishpp leg. (Usinger 1966); Uvalde Co., Sabinal, VI-1910, F.C. Pratt leg. (Usinger 1966); Brewster Co., Alpine, 26-X-1910, F.C. Bishopp leg. (Usinger 1966); New Mexico: Belen, 30-V-1947, I.H. Roberts & H.O. Peterson leg. ( Lee 1955b); Las Lunas, V-1947, H.O. Peterson leg. ( Lee 1955b); Albuquerque, 23-IV-1947, H.E. Kemper leg. ( Lee 1955b); Luna Co., Deming, 17-V-1909, F.C. Pratt leg. (Usinger 1966); Grant Co., Silver City, 15-VI-1916, W.B. Mc Farland leg. (Usinger 1966); Bernalillo Co., Albuquerque, 3-IX-1928, J. Menifield leg. (Usinger 1966); Socorro Co., Lava Cave, 22-V-1962, D.G. Constantini leg. (Usinger 1966); Lake Valley, 7-IV-1910, J.D. Mitchell leg. (Usinger 1966); Quay Co., 50 mi NE Tucumcori, 25-VI-1951, R.E. Ryckman leg. (Usinger 1966); California: San Bernardino Co., Atolia District, Red Mountain, II-1940, J.N.V. Dorr leg. (Usinger 1966); Arizona: Apache Co., Lupton, 12-VIII-1928, J.W. Bennett leg. [RLUC] (Usinger 1966); Greenlee Co. (Usinger 1966, according to Lee 1955b), Duncan, VII-1951, J.N. Roney, in litteris ( Lee 1955b), Safford, VIII-1951, J.N. Roney, in litteris ( Lee 1955b).

MEXICO: Mexico city (Andrade 1946, Lee 1955b); San Juan de Guadalupe (Mazzotti 1941, Lee 1955b); Durango: Tepehuanes, Wickham leg. [ RLUC] (Usinger 1966); Aguas Calientes ( Horvat 1912, Lee 1955b, Usinger 1966).

Reduviidae   : Triatominae  

Although this compilation is preliminar, several original records of some Triatominae   in chicken coops prior to some citations were not found: Abalos & Wygodzinsky (1956) [ Triatoma patagonica   ], Lent & Wygodzinsky (1979) [ Meccus phyllosomus   sensu lato, Pastrongylus lignarius   , Rhodnius nasutus   ], Carcavallo et al. (1988) [ Pastrongylus guentheri   , Triatoma carrioni   , T. melanosoma   , T. picturata   , T. vitticeps   ], and Arends (2003) [ Triatoma protracta   ].

Despite this limitation, a total of 46 native American species and/or subspecies of Triatominae   ( Hemiptera   : Reduviidae   ) have been found in chicken houses ( Table 2), and one case of a colonized poultry house was reported ( Gajate et al. 2001). All species of Triatominae   found in birds’ nests ( Turienzo & Di Iorio 2007, Di Iorio & Turienzo 2009) were also found in chicken coops ( Table 2). Chicken coops near human habitations play a role in the maintenance of residual foci involved in the domiciliary re-infestation after insecticide treatment ( Cecere et al. 1997, 2006).














Fannia sp. 3

Iorio, Osvaldo Di & Turienzo, Paola 2011

Philornis insularis

Couri 1983

Haematosiphon inodorus

, Usinger 1966

H. inodorus

, Usinger 1966

Spilochalcis ornitheia

Burks 1960


Jeannel 1919


Thomson 1876


Haliday 1839


Walker 1833


Vigors 1825


Linnaeus 1758