Pachyneura fasciata Zetterstedt, 1838

Paramonov, Nikolai M. & Salmela, Jukka, 2016, Pachyneuridae (Diptera): new data on the geographic range and designation of the lectotype of Pachyneura fasciata Zetterstedt, 1838, Zootaxa 4117 (4), pp. 513-528: 516-525

publication ID

http://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4117.4.4

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:910782C2-70E5-4839-9FAF-5F62FFA0B747

DOI

http://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.6091636

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/AD3C87E3-FFC8-247A-63F2-0370AD71F944

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Pachyneura fasciata Zetterstedt, 1838
status

 

Pachyneura fasciata Zetterstedt, 1838  

Pachyneura fasciata Zetterstedt, 1838   : Insecta Lapponica: 850–851. Type-locality: Lycksele, Sweden.

Hesperodina moiwana ( Matsumura, 1916)   : Thousand Ins. Japan, Add., 437. Type-locality: Hokkaido, Japan.

Material examined by Nikolai Paramonov. Zoological Institution RAS, Saint-Petersburg, Russia (86 exx.)

Material. Russia: Ulyanovsk Oblast, 1 ♀, Surskiy district, near village Bolshoy Kuvay, edge of a mixed forest, 1. VI. 1999 (V.B. Isaeva leg.) (Previously published by Paramonov 2005). Tomsk Oblast: 1 Ƌ, Tomsk, University Grove, 13.V. 1899 (Chugunov leg.); 1 ♀, near Tomsk, Mezheninovka settlement, 13.VI. 1928 (V. Ermolaev leg.). Altay Republic: 1 ♀, Chettu piedmont, N near Teletsk Lake, 24.V. 1901 (Ignatov leg.); Turochakskiy distr., Artybash, 1 Ƌ, 1 ♀, 1 ex. without abdomen, 23–24.V. 1991 (V.E. Pilipenko leg.). Krasnoyarsk Territory: 1 ♀, Viezhii Log, 26.V. 1912 (Tugarinova leg.); 1 Ƌ, Baikit, Podkamennaya Tunguska, 3.VII. 1929 (Valdaev leg.); 2 Ƌ, river Yenisei, near Krasnoyarsk, 7.VI. 1953 (G.D. Dulkeyt leg.); river Yenisei near Krasnoyarsk, 1 Ƌ, 16.IV. 1958 (Yu.I. Zapekina leg.); Krasnoyarsk, 2 Ƌ, Torgashinskiy ridge (West Sayan Mountains), along the river Bazaikha from Botanical garden to «Stolby» [Stolby Nature Sanctuary] 12. VI. 2006 (К.P. Tomkovich leg.). Irkutsk Oblast, 1 ♂, Dachnaya 32 km S Irkutsk, flood land, 11.VI. 1975 (V.A. Richter leg.); 1 Ƌ, port Baikal, 25.VI. 1965 (O.P. Negrobov leg.). Chitinskaya Oblast, Chita, Zabaikale [Transbaikalia] 1 ♀, 23.VI. 1920 (Redikortseva leg.). Kamchatka Territory: Klyuchi, 1 Ƌ, 21.VI. 1908 (Porshnyakov leg.); 1 Ƌ and 1 ex. without abdomen, 2.VI. 1909 (A. Derzhavin leg.); Near the confluence of the rivers Kamchatka and Elovka, 3 Ƌ, 1 ♀, 18.VI. 1929 (P.T. Novograblenov leg.); river Elovka, 1 Ƌ, 20.VI. 1929 (P.T. Novograblenov leg.); Monastyrskie Isl., Klyuchevsk., Ust-Kamchatsk, shrubby tundra, 1 Ƌ, 19.VII. 1932 (Bordonos leg.); 1 Ƌ, village Klyuchevskoe, river Kamchatka, 5.VI. 1909 (A. Derzhavin leg.); 1 Ƌ, Kozirevsk, 13.VII. 1985 (I.M. Kerzhner leg.); 1 Ƌ, volcano Vilyuchinskiy, 2100 m, snowfield, 30.VI. 2012 (in alcohol) (L.E. Lobkova leg.). Primorsky Krai: estuary of the Amur m. Ozernaya, 3 Ƌ, 20–21.VI. 1915 (V. Chernavin leg.); Yakovlevka, Spassk district, 1 Ƌ, 21.V. 1926 (A.M. Dyakonov, N.N. Filipev leg.); Tigrovaya, Suchanskiy district [modern Partizanskiy Borough], 2 Ƌ, 11.VI. 1927; 2 Ƌ, 12.VI. 1927 (A.A. Stackelberg leg.); source of the river Sitsy [modern river Tigrovaya] Suchanskiy district [modern Partizanskiy Borough], 1 Ƌ, 18.V. 1928; 1 Ƌ, 25.V. 1928 (Kurentsov leg.); Vinogradovka, 1 ♀, 4.VI. 1929; 1 Ƌ, 27.V. 1929; 1 Ƌ, 5.VI. 1929 (Kirichenko leg.); 1 ♀, 2.VI. 1929; 1 Ƌ, 18.V. 1929; 1 ♀, 22.V. 1929 (A.M. Dyakonov, N.N. Filipev leg.); 1 Ƌ, spring Podnebesniy, river basin Sanhobe [modern river Serebryanka], 18.V. 1937 (K.Ya. Grunin leg.); 3 Ƌ, 2 ♀, Ta-Kema River, 6–9.VI. 1937 (K.Ya. Grunin leg.); 2 Ƌ, way along the coast from Syao-Kunzhi to the mouth of Ta-Kema, 11–12.VI. 1937 (K.Ya. Grunin leg.); 3 Ƌ, Mt. Sikhote-Alin, River Sanhobe, mouth river Bichan, 8–9.VI. 1941 (K.Ya. Grunin leg.); 1 Ƌ, m.Sikhote-Alin, river Sanhobe, apiary on the river Fata, 10.VI. 1941 (K.Ya. Grunin leg.); 2 ♀, Spassk district, village Jakovlevka, 22– 25.V. 1962 (A.G. Zinovev leg.); 1 ♀, Suputinskiy Nature Reserve, [modern Ussuri State Nature Reserve] 28.V. 1962 (A.P. Rasnitsyn, V. Sulimov leg.); 5 Ƌ, 4 ♀, 10 km SE Chernigovka, 19–21.V. 1979 (A.G. Zinovev leg.); 1 Ƌ, nature reserve «Kedrovaya Pad», 21–24.V. 1982 (O.G. Ovchinnikova leg.); 2 Ƌ, village Gornotaezhnoe, arboretum, to light, 15–22.V. 1983 (S.Yu. Sinev leg.); Lasovsky Zapovednik [nature reserve “Lasovsky”]: 1 Ƌ, bay Proselochnaya, 24.V. 2007 (in alcohol) (Ju. Sundukov leg.); source of Bolotnikov spring, 500–550 м, 1 Ƌ, 05– 06. VI. 2007 (Shochrin leg.). Sakhalin Oblast: 1 Ƌ, riverhead Belaya, near village Sokol, 28.VI. 2004 (N.M. Paramonov leg.); Kuril Isl., Kunashir: 1 Ƌ, Sernovodsk, 8.VI. 1968 (V.A. Richter leg.); 2 Ƌ, 1 ♀, Mendeleevo, road to Sernovodsk, 9.VI. 1968 (V.A. Richter leg.); 1 ex. without abdomen, Tretyakovo, 14.VI. 1968 (E.P. Narchuk leg.); 1 Ƌ, cape Ivanovskiy, 11–16.VI. 2013 (in alcohol) (Ju. Sundukov leg.); 1 Ƌ, 1 ♀, Rudnoe, 18–20.VI. 2014 (in alcohol) (Ju. Sundukov leg.); 3 Ƌ, downstream of river Severyanka, 05– 10.VI. 2014 (Ju. Sundukov leg.); Paramushir, bay Rifovaya, 1 ♀, 30.VII. 1999 (expedition FEB RAS).

Zoologisches Forschungsmuseum Alexander Koenig, Bonn, Germany (11 exx.)

Material. China: Kaolingtze, Mandschrei (currently Gaolingzi, Heilongjiang province, China, [44 ° 52 'N, 128 ° 50 'E]), May 1939, 2 Ƌ, 1 ex. without abdomen, W. Alin leg. Japan, Hokkaido, Tenninkyo, 22 June 1986, 3 Ƌ, T. Saigusa leg.; 5 Ƌ, 600m, 11 June 1998, B.J. Sinclair leg., ind. hardwood for[est], B.J. Sinclair det.

Naturhistorisches Museum, Wien, Austria (1 ex.)

Material. Sweden, 1 ♀, four labels. Downward: Schiner 1869 [printed]; Schweden [handwritten] Alte Sammlung [printed, Alte Sammlung mean old collection]; fasciata   [handwritten] det.Schinner [printed]; Pachyneyra fasciata Ztt.   [handwritten] Suecia [lat. Sweden]. Previously published by Duda, 1930.

Material examined by Jukka Salmela (252 exx.)

Material. Finland. Tb: Petäjävesi, Purokoski, puro, 62.378, 25 .0 68, 2007, J. Salmela & L. Mikonranta leg., 2 exx. Tb: Petäjävesi, Purokoski, neva, 62.375, 25 .0 69, 2007, J. Salmela & L. Mikonranta leg., 1 ex. Tb: Laukaa, Punavuori, 62.454, 25 .692, 28.5– 14.6.2005, J. Penttinen leg., 4 exx. Tb: Toivakka, Katajalampi S, 62.107, 25. 871, 2008, J. Salmela leg., 2 exx. Ta: Korpilahti, Oittila, 61.937,25. 735, 2010, J. Salmela leg., 1 ex. St: Kankaanpää, Kuninkaanlähde S, 61.774, 22. 528, 2008, J. Salmela leg., 2 exx. St: Karvia, Kantti, Niskala, 62 .0 74, 22. 492, 2010, J. Salmela & T. Tuovinen leg., 1 ex. St: Karvia, Kantti, Katajisto, 62 .0 75, 22. 491, 2010, J. Salmela & T. Tuovinen leg., 9 exx. Sa: Leivonmäki, Männistö, 61.976, 25. 871, 2 .7. 1996, J. Mattila & J. Päivinen leg., 1 ex. (University of Jyväskylä Museum, Finland). Ab: Karkkila, Iilammi, 60.534, 24. 402, 2008, J. Ilmonen leg., 2 ex. N: Nurmijärvi, Kiljavan lähdepuro, 60.498, 24. 692, 2009, A. Rinne leg., 1 ex. Sb: Pieksämäki, Hietisenpuro, 62.269, 26. 992, 2008, J. Salmela leg., 9 exx. Sb: Suonenjoki, Haukipuro, 62.607, 27. 301, 2008, J. Salmela leg., 1 ex. Sb: Karttula, Suojärvenpuro, 62.749, 27. 153, 2008, J. Salmela leg., 1 ex. Kb: Lieksa, Hanhilamminpuro, 63.287,30. 338, 2008, J. Salmela leg., 6 exx. Kb: Lieksa, Lavapuro, 63.211, 30. 226, 2008, J. Salmela leg., 10 exx. Kb: Nurmes, Kuomavaara N, 63.786, 29. 350, 2008, J. Salmela, leg., 6 exx. Kb: Rautavaara, Nurmespuro, 63.406, 28. 199, 2008, J. Salmela, 4 exx. Kb: Juuka, Hepolampi, 63.144, 28. 979, 20 .6. 2008, J. Salmela leg., 1 ex. Ok: Sotkamo, Ruunapuro, 63.931, 28. 218, 2008, J. Salmela leg., 1 ex. Ok: Kuhmo, Jauhovaara, 64 .0 44, 29. 116, 2007, J. Penttinen & J. Jakovlev leg., 1 ex. Ok: Kuhmo, Teeri-Lososuo, 63.902, 29. 208, 2007, J. Penttinen & J. Jakovlev leg., 7 exx. Oba: Kiiminki, 65 .0 83, 25. 754, 22 .6. 2005, M. Mutanen leg., 1 ex (Zoological Museum, University of Oulu). Oba: Pudasjärvi, Säkkisenoja, 65.614, 27 .746, 1.6.– 3.7.2006, J. Salmela leg., 8 exx. Oba: Pudasjärvi, Tollukanoja, 65.337, 27 .759, 1.6.– 3.7.2006, J. Salmela leg., 6 exx. Oba: Pudasjärvi, Vattukuru, 65.642, 27 .786, 1.6.– 3.7.2006, J. Salmela leg., 11 exx. Ks: Kuusamo, Hangasjoki, 66.339, 29 .330, 23.5.– 23.6.2005, J. Salmela leg., 2 exx. Ks: Kuusamo, Saaripuro, 66.288, 29 .480, 23.5.– 23.6.2005, J. Salmela leg., 23 exx. Ks: Kuusamo, Merenoja, 66.351, 29 .350, 23.5.– 23.6.2005, J. Salmela leg., 4 exx. Ks: Kuusamo, Uopajanpuro, 66.335, 29 .513, 23.5.– 23.6. 2005, J. Salmela leg., 2 exx. Ks: Kuusamo, Vuosseli, 66.176, 29 .391, 23.5.– 23.6.2005, J. Salmela leg., 1 ex. Ks: Taivalkoski, Lehtorinnanoja, 65.693, 28 .320, 1.6.– 3.7.2006, J. Salmela leg., 24 exx. Ks: Taivalkoski, Mätäsoja, 65.734, 28 .314, 1.6.– 3.7.2006, J. Salmela leg., 6 exx. Ks: Taivalkoski, Koiraoja, 65.634, 28 .258, 1.6.– 3.7.2006, J. Salmela, 2 exx. Ks: Taivalkoski, Kumpulamminoja, 65.693, 28 .331, 1.6.– 3.7.2006, J. Salmela leg., 19 exx. Ks: Taivalkoski, Kirvesoja, 65.329, 28 .260, 1.6.– 3.7.2006, J. Salmela leg., 1 ex. Ks: Taivalkoski, Hevosniitynoja, 65.510, 28 .198, 1.6.– 3.7.2006, J. Salmela leg., 24 exx. Ks: Taivalkoski, Hurunoja, 65.327, 28 .452, 1.6.– 3.7.2006, J. Salmela leg., 1 ex. Ks: Taivalkoski, Susioja, 65.593, 28 .363, 25.5.– 23.6.2007, J. Salmela leg., 13 exx. Oa: Kauhajoki, Kauhalammi SE, 62.201, 22. 453, 2008, J. Salmela leg., 3 exx. Oa: Ilmajoki, Tuomimaa, 62.774, 22 .304, 3.7.– 6.8.2005, V-M Mukkala leg., 1 ex. Lkoc: Muonio, Pallastunturi, 68 .0 24, 24. 150, 2006, J. Jakovlev & J. Penttinen leg., 1 ex. Lkoc: Kittilä, Ylläs, 67.587, 24. 214, 2006, J. Jakovlev & J. Penttinen leg, 2 exx. Lkoc: Kittilä, Ylläs, 67.597, 24. 207, 2006, J. Jakovlev & J. Penttinen leg., 3 exx. Lkor: Pelkosenniemi, 67 .0 79, 27. 464, 19.– 20.6. 1994, J. Itämies & M. Mutanen leg., 2 exx. (Zoological Museum, University of Oulu). Lkor: Sodankylä, Ylä- Postojoki, 67.851, 26. 482, 2009, J. Salmela leg., 2 exx. Lkor: Savukoski, Joutenoja, 67.818, 29 .446, 14.6.– 10.7. 2012, J. Salmela leg., 1 ex. Lkor: Savukoski, Joutenoja, 67.821, 29 .440, 14.6.– 16.8.2012, J. Salmela leg., 12 exx. Obb: Rovaniemi, Savioja, 66.225, 25 .366, 24.5.– 28.6.2013, J. Salmela leg., 1 ex. Obb: Tervola, Liljalaki E, 66.256, 25 .0 94, 25.5.– 28.6.2004, J. Salmela & J. Ilmonen leg., 3 exx.

The data provided by the collection curators.

Natural History Museum of Denmark, Copenhagen, Denmark (1 ex.)

Material. Sweden, 1 Ƌ, "Lapponia" [This is evidently a male sent by Zetterstedt to his Danish colleague Rasmus Carl Staeger. The locality is "Lapponia", which means Lapland – Dr. Thomas Pape, personal communication].

Museum für Naturkunde Leibniz Institute for Evolution and Biodiversity Science, Berlin, Germany (1 ex.)

Material. Loew collection. Sweden. 1 Ƌ, “Lappon.” [ia] and “Boh.[eman], 6799 [The number 6799 corresponds with a note in a handwritten historical catalogue of the Diptera   collection (repeating only the label data) – Dr. Joachim Ziegler, personal communication].

Forest Research Institute Karelian Research Centre RAS, Petrozavodsk, Russia (9 exx.)

Material. Republic of Karelia: Kon: Kivach Nature Reserve, aspen forest: 2 Ƌ, 5–8.VI. 1989; 1 Ƌ, Malaise trap, 24–29.VI. 1989; 1 Ƌ, Malaise trap, 14–21.VI. 1990 (A.V. Polevoi leg.); 6906: 655, Kivach, road to Vikshma, aspen forest, 1 Ƌ, 8.VI. 2011 (А.E. Humala leg.). Kton: 6929: 712, river head Suhaya Vodla, sample № 9, 1 Ƌ, 5.VI. 2002 (A.V. Polevoi leg.). Kpud: 6867: 754, Pelusozero S. shore, pine-birch forest, Malaise trap, 1 ♀, 19– 22.VI. 1996; 6855: 749, Shchannikovo, 5 km S elm grove, Malaise trap, 1 Ƌ, 23–26.VI. 1996 (A.V. Polevoi leg.).

Natural History Museum, London, UK ( BMNH) (5 exx.)

Material. Finland, Kuusamo, R. Frey, 1 Ƌ (Previously published by Väisänen 1982). Russia, Kamchatka, ex coll Stokholm Mus. 2 ♀. Japan, Hokkaido, Nukabira: 1 ♀, Tokach, Kamishihora 17.VI. 1965 (H. Ono leg.); 1 Ƌ, 14. VI. 1967 (T. Saigusa leg.).

Hungarian Natural History Museum, Budapest, Hungary ( HNHM) (3 exx.)

Material. Russia, Primorsky Krai, Ussuriysk, larvae in wood, 1 Ƌ, 1 ♀, 29. IV. 1967 (N.P. Krivosheina leg. and det.); Ussuriysk Res. W. border, 130 m., 1 Ƌ, 20.V. 1992 (T. Saigusa leg. and det.).

Swedish Museum of Natural History, Stockholm, Sweden ( SMNH) (22 exx.)

Material. The notes of the collection curator Yngve Brodin are given in the square brackets. Sweden: 1 Ƌ, PWa LP [This means the collector Pehr Wahlberg and the landscape Lappland in northernmost Sweden including the alpine district. Probably collected between 1830 and 1860]; 2 Ƌ, 1 ex. without abdomen, Bhn B.S. [This means the collector and scientist Carl Henrik Boheman and the landscape Norrbotten in northernmost Sweden. Probably collected between 1840 and 1860]; 1 Ƌ, coll. Carl Johan Emil Haglund ( HGLS) 1837–1901, NHRS Stockholm [Probably from Sweden but locality not known. Probably collected between 1860–1900]; 2 Ƌ, LU Porjus Jelkajåkko, small yellow window trap on Piteå W. 30 m diameter [J: 17: 1]: 25 VI 1990 (leg. Bert Viklund) [This is from the northernmost part of Sweden probably close to the mountains and thus collected 1990]. Russia, Kamtschatka, 3 ♀, 2 Ƌ [Should be eastern Russia and possibly collected by René Malaise or his colleagues and between 1920–1935]. Specimens without any labels: 7 Ƌ, 3 ♀.

Entomological Museum of Lund University, Sweden ( MZLU) (9 exx.)

Material. The notes of the collection curator Rune Bygebjerg are given in the square brackets. Zetterstedt collection. Sweden: Lycksele, 1 ♀, 1832 leg. Zetterstedt (coll. Zetterstedt, Dipt. Scan.); Label 1: Pach. fasciata Zett. Lycksele. Label   2: Black label. [The small black labels used by Zetterstedt means: collected on the expedition to Lappland in 1832]; Storsand, Luleå, Wahlberg, 1 Ƌ (coll. Zetterstedt, Dipt. Scan.); Label 1: Pach. fasciata, Storsand. Luleå, Wbg.   [the abbreviation "Wbg." I think means that this specimen is collected by prof. P.F. Wahlberg (mentioned by Zetterstedt in Dipt. Scan. page 4032)]; Storsand, 1 Ƌ (coll. Zetterstedt, Ins. Lapp.), Label 1: Pach. fasciata, Zett., Storsand.   ; Tärna, Kolmyr, 1 Ƌ (coll. Zetterstedt, Ins. Lapp.); Label 1: Pach. fasciata, Tärna, Kolmyr   ; Tärna, 1 Ƌ (coll. Zetterstedt, Ins. Lapp.); Label 1: Tärna. (All material previously published by Zetterstedt 1838, 1851). Other material. Sweden: Lpl. Ammarnäs, Småfjällen, 1 Ƌ, 8.VII. 1956 (S. Gaunitz); Nb. Pajala s:n, Kemgis, Utmockan, 1 ♀, 7.VII. 1961 (leg. Ander, Ardö, Berdén & Dahl). Russia, S. Primor'ye, Amba River 150 m, 8 km W Zanadvorovka, 1 Ƌ, 27.V. 1992 (T. Saigusa). Japan, Hokkaido, Tenninkyo, 1 Ƌ, 9. VI. 1967 (T. Saigusa).

Designation of the lectotype. Originally Zetterstedt collected four specimens (probably, all of them were females); three of them he has sent to his colleagues for the study. He included these specimens to the type series, and current location(s) of them is (are) unknown. The specimen stored in Natural History Museum of Denmark (Copenhagen, Denmark) does not probably refer to this series. First of all, this specimen is a male, second, this one lacks black label used by Zetterstedt for all the other findings of the expedition to Lappland in 1832. Zetterstedt (1838) described the species by a female specimen, which is stored in his collection (Entomological Museum of Lund University, Sweden): Lycksele, 1 ♀, 1832 leg. Zetterstedt (coll. Zetterstedt, Dipt. Scan.); Label 1: Pach. fasciata Zett. Lycksele. Label   2: Black label. We designated this specimen as lectotype, to fix and stabilize the current concept of the name, since this is the only known specimen of the type series studied by Zetterstedt personally (fig. 11–12).

Distribution. Wrongly specified location

The data of Lundström (1910), later cited by Väisänen (1982), as following: " USSR: Karelian ASSR: Fl. Swir, Ƌ, 1869 -06- 15 – 16, J.Sahlberg". "Karelian ASSR " (currently, Republic of Karelia, Russia) is given incorrectly, since Svir River lies within Leningrad Oblast. Thus, this is the first record of the species and family for Leningrad Oblast.

Data demanding verification. Central Europe. Väisänen (1982), citing Duda (1930), listed P. fasciata   for Central Europe, but noted that these observations demanded verification. Duda (1930) published data on two specimens, a male from the collection of Hungarian Natural History Museum (Budapest, Hungary) and a female from the collection of Naturhistorisches Museum (Wien, Austria). The material from Hungarian Natural History Museum has been lost ( Földvári & Papp 2007). However, Duda referred to this specimen as sampled from Muonio, Finnish Lapland. The female specimen from Naturhistorisches Museum has been examined by the first author (see the list of the studied specimens, this specimen was sampled from Sweden). Duda indicated the distribution of P. fasciata   as « Europa sept   . », i.e. Northern Europe.

Poland. The species was recorded from Poland by Krivosheina & Mamaev (1988). However, in later publications ( Razowski 1991) as well as in the e-base FaunaEuropea (de Jong 2015), this family is absent in the list of the species of Poland. N.P. Krivisheina (personal communication) stated that the P. fasciata   data was provided by B.M. Mamaev during his work in Poland. The specimen(s) were thought to be kept in an unknown collection believed to be in a region of suburban Warsaw. For the time being P. fasciata   should therefore be excluded from the Polish Diptera   list until Mamaev’s specimens surface, or fresh material is reported.

Italy. Although P. fasciata   is noted from the Italian Diptera   list (Northern Italy), this species was noted as erroneous by the authors ( Stoch 2003) and also doubtfully noted in FaunaEuropea (de Jong 2015).

Taiwan ( Formosa). The first reference of P. fasciata   for Taiwan was made by F.W. Edwards (1928). Though the material is lacking to confirm this there are three references given in the manuscript that are of interest. First, to Matsumura (1916) who found this species in Japan, second, to Johannsen (1909) who referred to the first species description by Zetterstedt (1838) and indicated it had been found in Northern Europe, and third, to Loew (1858) who did not provide any data on the species distribution. Edwards did not provide the original data. Thus, most likely, he obtained them after personal communications with his colleagues. No specimens of P. fasciata   from Taiwan are present in the British Museum (Natural History Museum) collection where Edwards was a curator. Earlier, Edwards received material from Taiwan from Dr. T. Shiraki, Chief Entomologist (The Agriculture Experimental Station, Taiboku/Taihoku, Formosa), and published two articles on the family Tipulidae   in Taiwan referring to this material (1916, 1921). The fate of the collection stored at Agriculture Experimental Station in Taiwan is unknown.

The samples collected by H. Sautera in Taiwan ( Formosa) are stored in the Hungarian Natural History Museum ( HNHM). Some of these samples (Nematocera) were studied by Riedel (1912, 1913, 1917, 1918) but his publications do not refer to the family Pachyneuridae   in Taiwan. In 1956, there was a fire in the Museum, and a part of the collection (including Nematocera) was lost ( Földvári & Papp 2007).

The publication of Edwards (1928) has been widely cited. It was cited in some notable articles such as Okada (1938) and Alexander & Alexander (1973). Furthermore, the data on the findings of P. fasciata   in Southern Taiwan are presented in an online biodiversity e-base (Pape & Evenhuis 2015). The latest study of the fauna of Taiwan ( Schacht 2010) doesn’t refer to P. fasciata   , however the family Pachyneuridae   is noted in its historical sense through the referenced studies above.

We agree with the private opinion expressed by Dr. Takeyuki Nakamura (Tochigi Prefectural Museum, Japan): “One possibility I suspect, is the place where Dr. T. Shiraki learned entomology before he found a job in Taiwan. He graduated Hokkaido University, in Sapporo City where Pachyneura fasciata   is quite abundant. Some diptera   specimens from Hokkaido might have happened to mixed up with Taiwanese collection”.

Distribution peculiarities. Pachyneura fasciata   has been found without any doubt in Finland, Norway, Sweden, Russia, continental China, and Japan. The references to the Northern Italy, Poland, and Taiwan are most likely erroneous or dubious, and should be verified by actual occurrence data.

North Europe (Fennoscandia). In Norway, this species has been found from five localities (6 exx.), in Southeast and Central Norway (Map 1). In Sweden, the species has been found only from a few localities in the northern part of the country (18 exx.) and all these records are prior to the year 2000 (Map 2). The species is widespread in Finland, known from a total of 69 sites in the provinces N, Ab, St, Ta, Tb, Sa, Sb, Kb, Oa, Ok, Oba, Obb, Ks, Lkoc and Lkor (326 exx.). In Finland P. fasciata   occurs in the north up to the 68 °N latitude, near the limit of continuous spruce forests. The species is scarce or absent near the Baltic coastal line and in the hemiboreal zone in the southernmost and SW Finland. The high number of collected specimens in Finland is attributable to the large-scale Malaise trapping by the second author (see e.g. Salmela 2012). Using a Malaise trap is probably the most suitable collecting method for adult flies such as Pachyneura   , that are relatively weak fliers.

In the European part of Russia, the species is known to occur in Murmansk Oblast (1 ex.), Republic of Karelia (16 exx.), and Leningrad Oblast (1 ex.), the last finding is dated as 150 years ago. In the central European part of Russia, it has been found in Ulyanovsk Oblast (1 ex.). In addition, there are also data about the larvae of this species in xylem of birch ( Betula   sp.), from Moscow Oblast, but this material has not been published ( Krivosheina 1979 a). This species was noted from the European part of Russia, CET and ES (south region) by Krivosheina and Mamaev (1988).

South-east of Western Siberia (the first finding of the species and the family for this region), Altai Republic (4 exx.) and Tomsk Oblast (2 exx.). In Eastern Siberia, the imagoes have been found more frequently, i.e. in Sakha Republic (Yakutia) (1 ex.), Krasnoyarsk Krai (7 exx.), Irkutsk Oblast (2 ex.), and Chita Oblast (1 ex.). The northernmost finding in this region is from latitude 61 °N. In the Far East of Russia, the species is common and is recorded from Kamchatka (17 exx.), Primorsky Krai (79 exx.), Sakhalin Region (incl. Kuril Islands) (13 exx.). The species has been here reported for the first time for Kuril Islands, Kunashir and Paramushir Islands.

China (3 exx.). The family is reported here for the first time from China, from the Heilongjiang province in the north-east part of the country. The province borders Russia in the north and east, the province of Jilin in the south, and Inner Mongolia in the west.

Japan (16 exx.). Only on Hokkaido Island, common.

Ecology of imago. The imago of P.fasciata   may be found in different types of forest: coniferous ( Zetterstedt 1838; Boheman 1844; Søli et al. 1994), mixed ( Salmela & Ilmonen 2004; Paramonov 2005), and deciduous ( Yakovlev & Polevoi 1991). The species has been located also in the bush tundra in Kamchatka. Adult specimens MAP 1. Distribution of P. fasciata in Fennoscandia   , red dots are records from 2000 's, black stars are records 1865-1996 (The MAP 2. All known distribution data of P. fasciata   —red dots, P. oculata   —black star (The map was created by using SimpleMappr program).

may be found in "old-growth, pristine boreal forests" ( Väisänen 1982; Salmela & Ilmonen 2004), "old, seminatural spruce forest" ( Søli et al. 1994), also in the "little riparian forest left, while the surrounding forest was heavily logged" ( Salmela & Ilmonen 2004), or "young forest appeared after the clear-cut" ( Yakovlev 1988; Yakovlev & Polevoi 1991). Below, a short description of the biotypes inhabited by the imago of P. fasciata   is given.

"Long, twisting, very deep valley with steep walls. Diplazium sibiricum   , Athyrium filixfemina, Dryopteris   carthusiana, Gymnocarpium dryopteris   , Thelypteris phegopteris   , Matteuccia struthiopteris   , Geranium silvaticum   , Filipendula ulmaria   , Milium effusum   and other grasses grew there in abundance between spruces and deciduous trees ( Sorbus aucuparia   , Prunus padus   , etc.). The walls were covered by shady, dense coniferous forest with bilberry ( Vaccinium myrtillus   ) and thick moss" ( Väisänen 1982: 113–114, cit. note book of a J.A. Palmen).

"Managed forest, under the bark of a standing dead spruce a male individual of P. fasciata   , the diameter of the trunk was about 30 cm, and the height of the tree about 23 m. The habitat was on old forest of Vaccinum myrtillus   type, with the spruce standing at the forest edge near a brook. About half the bark had come off, and the rest could be easily loosened, but the wood was still hard. The tree had been attacked by Scolytidae   , but the bark beetles had left the trunk. It has been considered as associated with primeval forests" ( Väisänen & Bistrom 1991: 4).

"Aspen wood, motley grasses, formed after the total chopping instead of the shamrock fir wood. The wood combines aspen [ Populus tremula   ], rarely, fir [ Pícea   sp.] and birch [ Bétula   sp.], 35 years old, underwood: Sórbus   sp., Juníperus   sp., Alnus incana   , Lonícera   sp., Dáphne mezéreum   . Dense, strong, and high grass cover: Calamagrostis arundinacea   , Geranium   sp., Angélica   sp., Aegopódium   sp., Láthyrus vérnus   , Milium effusum   , Mélica nútans   , Solidago virga aurea   , Maiánthemum   sp., ferns. Moss coverage as rare patches of Hylocomium   and Rhytiadelphus " ( Yakovlev 1988: 10).

Altitudinal range limits. Imagoes are found up to 1700m above sea level ( Okada 1938). They may be transported by the wind to heights and biotope that are atypical for the species such as the snowfield of the Vilyuchinsky volcano which sits at 2100m above sea level ( Russia, Kamchatka, see material).

Discussion on adult emergence. The adult emergence within most of the geographical range occurs from May to early July. However, at Kamchatka, this period is shifted, and the adult emergence takes place from mid–June through mid-July. Early spring adult emergence described by Krivosheina & Mamaev (1988) referred to laboratory-reared imagoes. Adult emergence is far more common during the day but has been known to take place at night. Two specimens were caught during the night using a light source ( Russia, Primorye, see material).

Pre-imago stages. The most detailed description of pre-imago stages has been given by Krivosheina & Mamaev (1967, 1972). The larvae of the Pachyneuridae   may be xylophagous ( Krivosheina 1997; Krivosheina & Mamaev 1988); saproxylophagous ( Krivosheina & Mamaev 1972; Väisänen & Biström 1991); saproxylic ( Salmela & Ilmonen 2004), or xylobiont-xylophage ( Krivosheina 2006). Xylobiont-xylophage has been described by Krivosheina (2006) as: "…developing in the deep layers of relatively dense xylem and feeding on it. Fungi may play a significant role in their feeding, since the degrading xylem is usually infected by the xylotrophic fungi" and "larvae use xylem as the environment both to live and to feed" (ibid). Larvae of P. fasciata   inhabit the xylem of deciduous trees. In the Far East of Russia, the larvae have been found in elm trees [ Ulmus   sp.], Amur maakia [ Maackia   sp.], Manchurian walnut [ Júglans   sp.], birch [ Betula   sp.], and Amur cork tree [ Phellodéndron   sp.]; whilst in the European part of Russia, in birch xylem [ Betula   sp.] ( Krivosheina 1979 a). The development of P. fasciata   larvae in the xylem of decaying spruce [ Picea abies   ] ( Salmela & Ilmonen 2004; Paramonov 2005) needs confirmation, since only the imago has been found in the coniferous forests ( Zetterstedt 1838; Väisänen 1982). However, on those sites studied by the second author in Finland, deciduous decaying trees have always been present despite the dominance of spruce. There are no reliable observations of the development of Pachyneuridae   larvae from the xylem of the spruce. P. fasciata   larvae penetrate the deep layers of xylem at the light and black mould stage, probably preferring large-sized tree trunks ( Krivosheina 2006). The larvae prefer the moist xylem layers of the decaying deciduous trees partly covered by soil, gathering mostly close to the ground level, where the xylem becomes nearly black due to the specific conditions of decomposing ( Krivosheina & Mamaev 1972). On the Far East Russia mainland P. fasciata   is described as part of the lucanidae complex of decomposers of light and dark moulds of xylem. On the Kuril Islands they are part of the expected under bark fauna ( Mamaev 1974). Pupation takes place in the xylem ( Krivosheina 1999).

Parasites and predators. Odinia foliata Krivosheina, 1979   ( Diptera   : Odiniidae   ) is an endoparasite of Pachyneura   . Krivosheina (1979 b) reported dozens of infected larvae from a larval population occurring in a single tree/single site. Odinia foliata   is a common species in the Southern Primorye Province, northwards to Khabarovsk city and it is also found on the Kuril Islands ( Krivosheina 1979 b, 1980). The skipjack or click beetle larvae ( Coleoptera   , Elateridae   ) may attack the larvae of Pachyneura   sp. ( Dolin & Gusakova 1979). The larvae of Pachyneura   sp. are commonly found with the larvae of Aglaomyia ingrica (Stackelberg, 1948)   ( Diptera   : Mycetophilidae   ) ( Krivosheina 1999).

HNHM

Hungarian Natural History Museum (Termeszettudomanyi Muzeum)

SMNH

Saskatchewan Museum of Natural History

NHRS

Swedish Museum of Natural History, Entomology Collections

MZLU

Lund University

CET

Centro de Estudios Tropicales

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Insecta

Order

Diptera

Family

Pachyneuridae

Genus

Pachyneura

Loc

Pachyneura fasciata Zetterstedt, 1838

Paramonov, Nikolai M. & Salmela, Jukka 2016
2016
Loc

Hesperodina moiwana (

Matsumura 1916
1916
Loc

Pachyneura fasciata

Zetterstedt 1838
1838