Neuroterus numismalis (Geoffroy in Fourcroy, 1785 )

Shachar, Einat, Melika, George, Inbar, Moshe & Dorchin, Netta, 2018, The oak gall wasps of Israel (Hymenoptera, Cynipidae, Cynipini) - diversity, distribution and life history, Zootaxa 4521 (4), pp. 451-498 : 476

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Neuroterus numismalis (Geoffroy in Fourcroy, 1785 )


Neuroterus numismalis (Geoffroy in Fourcroy, 1785)

Host plants. Israel: Q. boissieri . Elsewhere: several oak species from section Quercus .

Life history. The sexual generation develops in circular, single-chambered leaf blisters, 3 mm in diameter, with a small central bump on both sides of the leaf ( Fig. 30 View FIGURES 29–34 ). When young, the galls are the same color of the leaves and therefore difficult to notice. When mature, they turn paler green. The asexual generation induces buttonshaped, single-chambered leaf galls, up to 3 mm in diameter, with a pitted center surrounded by silky goldenbrown hairs ( Fig. 36B View FIGURES 35–40 ).

Phenology. The phenology of this species in Israel is unclear because in June galls of the sexual generation contained small larvae, whereas in Europe adults already emerge from these galls at that time of year. Galls of the asexual generation begin to develop in August and drop from the leaf in November. Larval development continues on the ground and adults emerge in March.

Distribution. Israel: Galls of the sexual generation were found on Mt. Hermon at 1780 m.a.s.l., Mt. Meron, Pa’ar cave, Mt. Addir, and Zur Hadassa. Galls of the asexual generation were also found on Mt. Hermon at 1500 m.a.s.l. and in Allone HaBashan. Elsewhere: A pan-European species extending eastwards as far as Iran.

Comments. Galls of the sexual generation cannot be mistaken for any other leaf galls in Israel. They are similar to those of Andricus gallaeurnaeformis Fonscolombe in Iberia and Turkey but the latter do not have the central bump.