Zoosphaerium libidinosum (de Saussure & Zehntner, 1897 )

Wesener, Thomas & Wägele, Johann-Wolfgang, 2008, The giant pill-millipedes of Madagascar: revision of the genus Zoosphaerium (Myriapoda, Diplopoda, Sphaerotheriida), Zoosystema 30 (1), pp. 5-85: 22-28

publication ID

http://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.5391729

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/AA451447-2B1D-FFFA-FF25-FCFEFC099D0B

treatment provided by

Marcus

scientific name

Zoosphaerium libidinosum (de Saussure & Zehntner, 1897 )
status

 

Zoosphaerium libidinosum (de Saussure & Zehntner, 1897)  

( Figs 9-11 View FIG View FIG View FIG )

Sphaerotherium libidinosum de Saussure & Zehntner, 1897   : pl. 4, fig. 2-2i; 1901: 43; 1902: 9, pl. 1, fig. 2. — Attems 1910 (lists species name).

Sphaerotherium (Globotherium) libidinosum   – Demange 19 9: 48.

Zoosphaerium libidinosum   – Jeekel 1999: 12 (lists species name). — Enghoff 2003: 20 (lists species name).

TYPE MATERIAL. — Madagascar, leg. Grandidier, ♂ lectotype (here designated) ( MNHN CB034 View Materials ). — Same data as lecotype, ♂♂ paralectotypes ( MNHN CB034 View Materials )   ; 1 ♂, 8 ♀♀ ( MNHN CB03 View Materials ). — Leg. Grandidier nº 217, 1 ♂, 1 ♀, ( MNHN CB03 View Materials )   .

TYPE LOCALITY. — Madagascar.

OTHER MATERIAL EXAMINED. — Madagascar. No locality data, leg. Coquerel 18 2, 2 ♂♂ ( MNHN CB037 View Materials ). — Tuléar, bush, coll. Bigot, 19.IV.19, 1 ♀ ( MNHN CB037 View Materials ). — Forêt d’Elakilaka, 1901, coll. C. Alluaud, 1 ♀ ( MNHN nº 1). — Environ de Tuléar , 30.V.1898, leg. G. Grandidier, 1 ♀ ( MNHN nº 19). — Ambovombe, sur le sol, en forêt broussailleuse, 27.II.1931, coll. Mission R. Decary, 1 ♂ ( MNHN nº 41). — Région de sakarami, 1909, coll. M. de Rothschild, 1 ♂ ( MNHN nº). — Pays Mahafaly, 1900, leg. Bastard, 1 ♂, 1 ♀ ( MNHN nº 71). — Env. Tuléar, coll. Prod’hon J., leg. Albaret, 1972, 2 ♂♂ ( MNHN nº 78). — Beloka (p. de Fort Dauphin ), VII.192, leg. Mission R. Decary, 1 ♀ ( MNHN nº 112). — No locality data, leg. G. Petit, entrée 24-1922, 1 ♂, 1 ♀ ( MNHN nº 114). — JFP Ihosy (Ranohira-Isalo), I.19 2, coll. P. Malzy-Raharizonina, ♀♀ ( MNHN nº 11). — Massif de l’Angona , à l’est d’Antanimora (p. de Fort Dauphin ), VII.192, coll. Mission R. Decary, 2 ♂♂, 1 ♀ ( MNHN nº 11). — Fort Dauphin , leg. VI.192, Mission R. Decary, 1 ♂, ♀♀ ( MNHN nº 120). — 7. km ENE Hazofotsy (Réserve naturelle intégrale d’Andohahela, camp #), 24°49.0’S, 4 °3. ’E, 120 m, pitfall trap, 7-1.XII.199, coll. S. Goodman, 1 ♂ ( FMMC 3 9). — Forêt de Vohimena , 3 km SE Sakaraha, 22°41.0’S, 44°49.8’E, 780 m, 17-24.I.199, coll. S. Goodman, 1 ♂ ( FMMC 39). — 7. km ENE Hazofotsy (Réserve naturelle intégrale d’Andohahela, camp #), 24°49.0’S, 4 °3. ’E, pitfall traps 1 -18, 120 m, 7-1.XII.199, coll. S. Goodman, 4 ♂♂, 2 ♀♀ ( FMMC 407) GoogleMaps   ; 3 ♀♀ ( FMMC 409). — Forêt des Mikeas , 9. km W Ankiloaka, 22°4.7’S, 43°31.4’E, 80 m, pitfall trap, 14- 1.II.2003, 1 ♂ ( FMMC 00). — Forêt des Milua, 19 km SW Tanadava, 21° 2.0’S, 43°39. ’E GoogleMaps   ,

0 m, pitfall, 1 -18.III.2003, coll. S. Goodman, 1 ♂ ( FMMC 80). — Same data as previous, 22-24.III.2003, 2 ♂♂, 1 ♀ ( FMMC 83). — No locality data, coll. S. Goodman, 1 ♀ ( FMMC 7827). — Zombitsa NR, 1 km E Sakaraha, trop. forest on sand, 22.88231°S, 44.700 2°E, 82 m, 1 -18.XII.1999, coll. Schlinger & Irwin, 1 ♀ ( CAS Mei-99-MA-14). — Antafoky, 80 m, spiny thicket, 23°29’1 ”S, 44°4’39”E, 14.XI.2001, coll. Frontier Project, millipede dig (3 m × 3 m), juvs ( MGF 007). — Antafoky, 0 m, gallery forest, 23°28’23”S, 44°4’19”E, coll. Frontier Project, 10.X.2001, millipede dig (3 m × 3 m), 2 ♂♂ ( MGF 008). — Antafoky, 0 m, spiny thicket/gallery forest transition, pitfall traps, 23°28’4 ”S, 44°3’ 8”E, 1.VII-31.X.2001, coll. Frontier Project, 1 ♂, ♀♀, 3 juvs ( MGF 009). — Antafoky, 70 m, gallery forest, 23°28’4 ”S, 44°3’ 9”E, coll. Frontier Project, 1.X.2001, millipede dig (3 m × 3 m), 1 ♂, 1 ♀ ( MGF 010). — Forêt de Manantalinjo (Parc national d’Andohahela), 33. km 3° ENE Amboasary, 7. km 99° E Hazofotsy, spiny forest thicket, 1 0 m, 24°49’1”S, 4 °3 ’3 ”E, 12- 1.I.2002, coll. Fisher, Griswold et al., general collecting, 1 ♀ ( BLF 4812). — Forêt de Mahavelo, Isantoria river, 110 m, spiny forest, 24°4 ’30”S, 4 °9’2 ”E, 28.I-1.II.2002, coll. Fisher, Griswold et al., pitfall trap, 1 ♂ ( BLF 239). — Same data as previous, general collecting, 1 ♀ ( BLF 241). — Réserve spéciale cap Sainte-Marie, 2 °34’ 4”S, 4 °10’ ”E, 200 m, spiny forest/thicket, coll. Fisher, Griswold et al., 11- 1.II.2002, pitfall trap, 1 ♂, 1 ♀ ( BLF 499). — Same data as previous, general collecting, 1 ♂, 1 ♀ ( BLF

03). — Réserve spéciale cap Sainte-Marie, 1 0 m, 2 °3 ’40”S, 4 °8’49”E, coll. Fisher, Griswold et al., 13- 19.II.2002, pitfall trap, in spiny forest/thicket, 1 ♂ ( BLF

0). — Mahafaly Plateau ,. 2 km 74° ENE Itampolo, spiny forest thicket, 80 m, 24°39’13”S, 43° 9’48”E, coll. Fisher, 21- 2.II.2002, Griswold et al., general collecting, 1 ♂ ( BLF 7 2). — Same data as previous, pitfall trap, 2 ♂♂ ( BLF 7 3). — Forêt de Mite, 7 m, 20.7 km 29° WNW Tongobory, 23°31’27”S, 44°7’17”E, gallery forest, 27.II-3.III.2002, coll. Fisher, Griswold et al., general collecting, 1 ♀ ( BLF 8 1). — Parc national Zombitse, 19.8 km 84°E Sakaraha, 770 m, tropical dry forest, 22° 0’3 ”S, 044°42’3 ”E, - 9.II.2003, coll. Fisher, Griswold et al., general collecting, 1 ♂, 1 ♀ ( BLF 7 09). — Same data as previous, beating low vegetation, 3 ♀♀ ( BLF 7 11) GoogleMaps   ; 1 ♀ ( BLF 7 12) GoogleMaps   .

DIAGNOSIS. — Up to 33 mm long, both sexes of equal size. Dark-greenish to light green, anterior part of paratergites brownish, tergites at posterior margin brown. Surface of tergites smooth and glabrous. Antennomeres 1-3 with sclerotized teeth, sixth joint with 11-22 sensory cones ( Fig. 10B View FIG ). All antennal joints without groove ( Fig. 10A View FIG ). Third joint of posterior telopods weakly curved, posterior side with more than 20 sclerotized teeth and two large, non sclerotized lobes ( Fig. 9K View FIG ). Two stridulation ribs on male harp ( Fig. 9F View FIG ) and 1-3 on each side of female washboard. Anal shield without locking carinae. Operculum of vulva well-rounded, protruding up to distal end of coxa ( Fig. 9C, D View FIG ).

SIMILAR SPECIES

No other described Zoosphaerium species   features the complete absence of locking carinae on the anal shield or a well-rounded operculum plus the dense field of long hairs on the endotergum.

DESCRIPTION

Body measurements: males (7 specimens): length up to 32., width of thoracic shield up to 1., height of thoracic shield up to 8.. Females (4 specimens):length up to 32.2, width up to 17.2, height up to 10.0.

Habitus: anal shield well-rounded (Fig. B). Tergites smooth and glabrous.

Coloration: tergites dark-greenish to light-green, anterior part of paratergites brownish, tergites at posterior margin brown (Fig. B). Head, antennae and legs dark green. Preserved specimens lose their coloration pattern in alcohol (Fig. B).

Head: posterior margin of head towards collum without patch of small hairs.

Antennae: length of joints: 1>2>3=4= <; sixth joint of cylindrical shape ( Fig. 10A View FIG ), on tip bearing a disc with 11-22 sensory cones ( Fig. 10B View FIG ). First joint broadest, short and cylindrical, without groove ( Fig. 10A View FIG ). Sclerotized teeth at base of joints 1-3, reaching apical border only on first joint ( Fig. 10A View FIG ). First joint apically on one side with 1 row of sensilla basiconica ( Fig. 10C View FIG ).

Mandible: with rows of pectinate lamellae; number of teeth decreasing proximad ( Fig. 11A View FIG ).

Gnathochilarium: ventral side with numerous bristles. Lateral of palpi 2 sensory cones located together ( Fig. 10D, E View FIG ). Vale on backside of palpi with some sensory cones. Two different types of sensory uvulae on central pads: long, cylindershaped ones with 1 pit in their middle and more plain ones without pit ( Fig. 10D, F View FIG ).

Epipharynx: similar to the shape of other known species of giant pill-millipedes.

Collum: anterior margin with numerous long, isolated hairs arranged in 2 rows, posterior margin with 10-12 hairs, edges with up to long hairs. Remaining parts of collum glabrous.

Thoracic shield: surface structured like those of other tergites.

Tergites: smooth and glabrous. At high magnifications (0 ×) small, dot-like impressions become visible.Tips of posterior paratergites margin slightly projecting posteriorly.

Endotergum: internal section with short spines and few, isolated bristles ( Fig. 11B View FIG ). No cuticular patterns between marginal ridge and internal area ( Fig. 11B View FIG ). Externally more than 3 rows of marginal bristles, placed close to one another. Bristles scaly ( Fig. 11C View FIG ), long, strongly surmounting posterior end of tergite ( Fig. 11B View FIG ).

Anal shield: rounded, neither bell-shaped nor tapered (Fig. B). Ventral side without any trace of locking carinae. No suture present.

Legs: first tarsi with 1 or 2, second with 2-4, third with 3-8 ventral spines. First 2 leg pair with only weakly curved claws and without apical spine. First prefemur with groove.Tarsi 4-21 with curved claws, 11-14 ventral spines and 1 apical spine. Tarsi 3.8 times longer than wide. All femora with crenulated ridge ( Fig. 9B View FIG ).

Stigma-carrying plate: first stigma-carrying plate lobe long, protruding up to apical edge of coxa 1. Lobe weakly curved towards coxa, well-rounded with slim tip ( Fig. 9A View FIG ).

Female sexual characters: subanal plate with a washboard, consisting of well-developed stridulation ribs, 1 up to 3 ribs on each side, depending on female size. Stridulation ribs asymmetrical and weak, ending just above midline of subanal plate. Vulva large, covering more than 2/3 of coxa. Operculum large, protruding up to apical edge of coxa. Apical margin of operculum well-rounded. Inner plate long and broad, protruding up to 1/2 of operculum height. Posterior margins of both inner and exterior plate with short, triangular, black spines ( Fig. 9C, D View FIG ).

Male sexual characters: male gonopore covered with single, large, sclerotized, undivided and rounded plate. Apical (and lateral?) part of plate membranous ( Fig. 9E View FIG ). Anal shield well-rounded.

Anterior telopods: first joint with a stridulation harp and 2 stridulation ribs. Inner rib shorter than lateral one, both ribs straight ( Fig. 9F View FIG ). Second joint towards third joint with sclerotized spots, on posterior side with lobe like, weakly curved process with rounded edges ( Fig. 9 View FIG G-I). Third joint with a cavity juxtaposed to process of second joint. Inner margin of cavity with numerous sclerotized spots and 2 membranous lobes, juxtaposed to sclerotized structures of second joint process. Apical margin of third joint well-rounded, protruding internally higher than laterally. Inner side strongly and lateral side weakly arched towards second joint process ( Fig. 9 View FIG G-I). Syncoxite of anterior telopods on both sides with few, isolated hairs ( Fig. 9F View FIG ). Second joint only at margins of depression laterally with 1 row of hairs, otherwise surface glabrous.

Posterior telopods: third joint of chela weakly curved. Hollowed-out margin towards second joint with two non-sclerotized lobes and up to smaller, sclerotized spines ( Fig. 9J View FIG ), on posterior side with c. 2 crenulated teeth ( Fig. 9K View FIG ). Process of second joint as wide as third joint, with almost straight tip. Anterior side basally with 1 membranous lobe, apically with few, small, sclerotized spots juxtaposed to third joint ( Fig. 9K View FIG ). Chela only at margins with few isolated hairs, on rest of surface hairs absent. Inner horns of syncoxite with pointed, slender tip arched 40- 0°.

INTRASPECIFIC VARIATION

Body length of females not significantly higher than in males. The number of stridulation ribs on female washboard correlates with female size. One female among numerous specimens shows a trace of a weakly notched operculum. Some specimens from different locations show little variation in the number of ventral spines on walking legs, displaying nevertheless similar shaped sexual organs. Possibly genetic studies may show if Z. libidinosum   could include cryptic species.

DISTRIBUTION AND ECOLOGY

This species is one of the few Malagasy giant pillmillipedes with a wide distribution. It was found until now in 17 localities, all located in the southern part of the island ( Fig. 12 View FIG ). The ecosystems are gallery forests and spiny forests. Zoosphaerium libidinosum   was even collected in the driest part of the island, the Mahafaly plateau, and elevation ranges from 0 to 900 m. In fact, Z. libidinosum   was found in all collection sites of the southern spiny forests.The species was in some areas collected together with other giant pill-millipede species such as Zoosphaerium blandum   and Sphaeromimus musicus   . Zoosphaerium libidinosum   was mainly collected with hand-collecting methods or using pitfall traps, but at least three young specimens (BLF 7 11) were beaten from low vegetation.

CONSERVATION

Because of the wide distribution in one of the least anthropogenically-affected Malagasy ecoregions ( Fig. 21 View FIG ), this species seems currently not to be under a threat of extinction.

MNHN

Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle

CAS

California Academy of Sciences

MGF

Museum George Frey

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Diplopoda

Order

Sphaerotheriida

Family

Arthrosphaeridae

Genus

Zoosphaerium

Loc

Zoosphaerium libidinosum (de Saussure & Zehntner, 1897 )

Wesener, Thomas & Wägele, Johann-Wolfgang 2008
2008
Loc

Zoosphaerium libidinosum

ENGHOFF H. 2003: 20
JEEKEL C. A. W. 1999: 12
1999