Zoosphaerium campanulatum (de Saussure & Zehntner, 1897 )

Wesener, Thomas & Wägele, Johann-Wolfgang, 2008, The giant pill-millipedes of Madagascar: revision of the genus Zoosphaerium (Myriapoda, Diplopoda, Sphaerotheriida), Zoosystema 30 (1), pp. 5-85 : 19-21

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https://doi.org/ 10.5281/zenodo.5391729



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Zoosphaerium campanulatum (de Saussure & Zehntner, 1897 )


Zoosphaerium campanulatum (de Saussure & Zehntner, 1897) View in CoL

( Figs 7 View FIG ; 8 View FIG )

Sphaerotherium campanulatum de Saussure & Zehntner, 1897 : pl. 4, figs - b; 1902: 28. — Attems 1910: 1 (lists species name, locality east Madagascar, Sakana).

Zoosphaerium campanulatum View in CoL – Jeekel 1999: 9 (lists species name). — Enghoff 2003: 20 (lists species name).

HOLOTYPE. — ♂ ( MNHN CB013 View Materials ).

TYPE LOCALITY. — Madagascar, côte sud-ouest, leg. Grandidier.

OTHER MATERIAL EXAMINED. — Madagascar. 1902, coll. Broelemann, Dollfus?, 1 ♂ ( MNHN no 10).

DIAGNOSIS. — Medium sized giant pill-millipede. In alcohol brownish, tergites at posterior margin darker brown. Surface of tergites smooth and glabrous. First antennomere without groove but with sclerotized teeth. Third joint of posterior telopods remarkably thick and with stout, broad tip ( Fig. 7G, H View FIG ). One stridulation rib on each male harp ( Fig. 7F View FIG ). Third joint of anterior telopods without a cavity or visible spines and lobes, but covered with numerous sclerotized teeth ( Fig. 7E View FIG ). Anal shield strongly bell-shaped ( Fig. 7D View FIG ). Two well-developed, black locking carinae on each side of the anal shield, posterior carina short, only 1. times longer than anterior carina ( Fig. 7B View FIG ). Females unknown.


Only Z. neptunus has similarly shaped telopods, but Z. campanulatum is clearly distinguishable by the stout appearance of posterior telopods (sharper in Z. neptunus ), different endotergum pattern and a strongly bell-shaped (weaker bell-shaped in Z. neptunus ) anal shield.


Body measurements (male holotype): width of thoracic shield up to 2., height of thoracic shield up to 13.3.

Habitus: anal shield bell-shaped ( Fig.7D View FIG ).Tergites smooth and glabrous.

Coloration: tergites (in alcohol) light brownish, posterior margin with thin darker brown line. Antennae and eyes green.

Head: posterior margin of head towards collum with patch of small hairs. Eyes with more than 80 ocelli.

Antennae: sixth joint longest, of cylindrical shape, with 31-33 sensory cones. First joint cylindrical, broader than the others without groove. Sclerotized teeth present, reaching up to apical border.

Collum: only anterior and posterior margin with some long, isolated hairs.

Thoracic shield: surface similar to those of other tergites.

Tergites: tergites smooth and glabrous.

Endotergum: internal section with short spines and few, isolated bristles ( Fig. 8 View FIG ). A single row of barely visible, rounded cuticular patterns present between marginal ridge and internal area. Externally 2 rows of marginal bristles placed close to one another. Bristles reaching up to posterior end of endotergum ( Fig. 8 View FIG ).

Anal shield: strongly bell-shaped ( Fig. 7D View FIG ). In contrast to glabrous tergites covered laterally with numerous small round pits, supporting short hairs. Ventral side carrying 2 black locking carinae on both sides, anterior one similar to those of tergites, posterior carina of same size as anterior one, both carinae running parallel to margin. Locking carinae separated from each other by a distance equal to length of shorter carina. A distinct suture between both carinae, representing border of 13th tergite fused to anal shield ( Fig. 7B View FIG ).

Legs: first tarsi with six ventral spines, weakly curved claws and without apical spine. Tarsi 3-21 4.7 times longer than wide, with small, curved claws, 9-11 ventral spines and one apical spine ( Fig. 7A View FIG ). All femora with long crenulated ridge ( Fig. 7A View FIG ).

Stigma-carrying plate: first stigma-carrying plate lobe short, not protruding above coxa 1, covered with long hairs and curved towards coxa ( Fig. 7C View FIG ). Lobe with slender and rounded tip ( Fig. 7C View FIG ). Female unknown

Male sexual characters: anal shield bell-shaped ( Fig. 7D View FIG ).

Anterior telopods: first joint with a stridulation harp and one straight stridulation rib ( Fig.7F View FIG ). Second joint process towards third joint with sclerotized spots, protruding up to 3/ of third joint’s height. Apical margin of third joint well-rounded, slimmer towards tip. Posterior side of third joint without a cavity, completely covered with sclerotized teeth ( Fig. 7E View FIG ). Syncoxite of anterior telopods on both sides without hair. Margins of first joint depression laterally with few, isolated hairs, otherwise glabrous. Second joint on both sides at margins with few isolated, long hairs.

Posterior telopods: third joint of chela especially on basal 2/3 of its length greatly enlarged, tip stout ( Fig. 7G View FIG ). Third joint lower area wide, without any sclerotized teeth, spots, spines or lobes. Process of second joint arched towards third joint. Anterior side without spine, apically with some sclerotized spots juxtaposed to lower part of third joint. Chela glabrous ( Fig. 7G, H View FIG ). First joint basally with some small hairs.


Too few specimens are known to evaluate the intraspecific variation. Body, particularly anal shield, covered with long, black, irregular scars which are 3-10 mm long and 1-3 mm wide.


This species seems to be collected in hylaea forests, but no precise location dates are given. Furthermore this species is not present in recent collections of the CAS or FMNH. Distribution is indicated in Figure.


All known collection dates of this species are more than 100 years old. It is unknown if this species still exists.


Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle














Zoosphaerium campanulatum (de Saussure & Zehntner, 1897 )

Wesener, Thomas & Wägele, Johann-Wolfgang 2008

Zoosphaerium campanulatum

ENGHOFF H. 2003: 20
JEEKEL C. A. W. 1999: 9

Sphaerotherium campanulatum de Saussure & Zehntner, 1897

ATTEMS C. 1910: 1
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