Pheidole teneriffana Forel

FISCHER, G. & FISHER, B. L., 2013, A revision of Pheidole Westwood (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in the islands of the Southwest Indian Ocean and designation of a neotype for the invasive Pheidole megacephala, Zootaxa 3683 (4), pp. 301-356 : 346-348

publication ID 10.11646/zootaxa.3683.4.1

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Pheidole teneriffana Forel


Pheidole teneriffana Forel View in CoL View at ENA

( Figs. 25A–F View FIGURE 25 )

Pheidole teneriffana Forel, 1893: 465 .

Lectotype (1 major worker, CASENT0906530 ) [designated here]: SPAIN ( CANARY IS ) ( MHNG) [examined]; paralectotypes (3 minor workers, CASENT0319247 ): same data as lectotype ( MHNG) [examined]. Also described as new by Forel, 1894a: 160. Description of queen: Santschi, 1908: 521; description of male: Gómez & Espadaler, 2006: 229.

Pheidole voeltzkowii Forel, 1894c: 227 View in CoL View Cited Treatment


Syntypes (4 major workers, 3 minor workers, 1 male): MADAGASCAR, Majanga, W. Madagascar ( Voeltzkow ) ( MHNG) [examined]. Description of queen: Forel, 1897 c: 207. Syn. n.

Pheidole teneriffana subsp. taina Aguayo, 1932: 219 View in CoL .

Syntypes (5 major workers): CUBA [not examined]. Junior synonym of Pheidole teneriffana: Wilson, 2003: 640 . See also: Baroni Urbani, 1968: 438; Snelling, R.R. 1992: 121.

Diagnosis: Moderately small species (WL major 1.18–1.44 mm, WL minor 0.79–0.97 mm), minor workers with relatively long scapes and legs (SI minor 120–149, FI minor 134–170) and major workers with moderately long legs (FI major 73–89), both with a well-developed promesonotal process. Major with frontal carinae and antennal scrobe reaching posterior quarter of head, face with longitudinal rugae often very oblique posteriorly, curved toward posterolateral lobes, eyes moderately large (EI 13–16), submedian hypostomal teeth small, median process reduced and often very shallow, promesonotal process prominent and well developed, in profile metanotal groove shallow and dorsal propodeum usually level, postpetiole in dorsal view trapezoidal, often with rounded lateral corners, but sometimes with acute lateral dents, postpetiole between 1.9 and 2.5 times wider than petiole, postpetiolar ventral process reduced and very shallow. Minor head oval, posteriorly rounded, scapes and legs relatively long (SI 120–149, FI 134–170), with decumbent to subdecumbent pilosity, eyes relatively large (EI 25– 30), metanotal groove not or barely impressed in profile.

Description of major workers: Measurements (n=14): HW 1.22–1.67 (1.47), HL 1.31–1.71 (1.51), SL 0.73– 0.84 (0.80), MDL 0.70–0.91 (0.82), EL 0.20–0.23 (0.22), WL 1.18–1.44 (1.28), PNH 0.43–0.66 (0.55), PNW 0.61–0.80 (0.70), MNH 0.76–0.99 (0.86), PDH 0.39–0.56 (0.45), PTL 0.36–0.45 (0.42), PPL 0.20–0.28 (0.25), PTH 0.24–0.30 (0.26), PPH 0.22–0.26 (0.24), PTW 0.16–0.22 (0.20), PPW 0.35–0.48 (0.42), PSL 0.17–0.24 (0.20), MFL 1.08–1.28 (1.18), MTL 0.66–0.95 (0.87), CI 93–101 (98), SI 49–62 (55), MDI 52–60 (56), EI 13–17 (15), FI 73–89 (80), PSLI 11–16 (14), LPpI 87–123 (104), DPpI 146–235 (172), PpWI 190–247 (213), PpLI 51–67 (59), PpHI 83–108 (90).

Head usually slightly longer than wide (CI 93–101), sides convex to strongly convex. Mandibles smooth and relatively long (MDI 52–60). Clypeus smooth, median carina inconspicuous or absent, usually two pairs of lateral carinae present. Frontal carinae well developed and reaching 3/4 of the way to posterior head margin, antennal scrobe conspicuous and weakly to superficially punctate. Frons longitudinally rugose, sides of head rugoreticulate, rugulae on posterolateral lobes variable, from straight longitudinal or longitudinal with scarce, short, reticulate rugulae in between, to obliquely curved toward posterolateral lobes, to transversal, interspaces smooth to superficially punctate; posterior head margin in dorsal view usually smooth to superficially sculptured. Scape moderately long (SI 49–62) with decumbent to subdecumbent pilosity and usually three erect longer hairs on outer edge. Eyes relatively large (EI 13–17). Submedian hypostomal teeth small to medium-sized, median process small to inconspicuous. Promesonotum in profile high-domed, convex, promesonotal process prominently produced, with deeply concave to angulate transverse groove, set almost at a right angle toward posterior declivity. Dorsum of promesonotum transversely rugulose, lateropronotum weakly rugulose to largely smooth, sides of mesonotum and propodeum densely punctate. Metanotal groove impressed to very shallow in profile, cross-ribs reduced to inconspicuous. Dorsum of propodeum weakly to superficially sculptured, in profile usually straight, not sloped toward spines, and about as long as posterior declivity. Propodeal spines acute, moderately short, slightly shorter than distance between their bases (PSI 11–16). Metatibia moderately long (FI 73–89), pilosity on inner edge decumbent, on outer edge subdecumbent. Postpetiole on average 1.7 times wider than long (DPpI 146–235) and 2.1 times wider than petiole (PpWI 190–247), sides in dorsal view roundly convex, or subangulate or with small denticle laterally, ventral process very small or inconspicuous. Dorsum of waist segments partly smooth, partly superficially punctate, remainder punctate. Gaster smooth to micropunctate. Standing hairs on mesosoma moderately scarce, yellowish, of short to moderate length, acute, with more abundant shorter decumbent pilosity. Color light to darker reddish brown, with dark brown to blackish gaster.

Description of minor workers: Measurements (n=16): HW 0.50–0.65 (0.58), HL 0.60–0.74 (0.68), SL 0.64– 0.81 (0.74), MDL 0.35–0.46 (0.42), EL 0.14–0.17 (0.16), WL 0.79–0.97 (0.88), PNH 0.27–0.33 (0.30), PNW 0.31–0.42 (0.38), MNH 0.50–0.62 (0.58), PDH 0.25–0.31 (0.28), PTL 0.23–0.29 (0.26), PPL 0.15–0.18 (0.16), PTH 0.15–0.18 (0.16), PPH 0.13–0.16 (0.15), PTW 0.10–0.12 (0.11), PPW 0.19–0.26 (0.22), PSL 0.08–0.10 (0.09), MFL 0.71–0.95 (0.85), MTL 0.53–0.75 (0.66), CI 72–88 (85), SI 120–149 (129), MDI 66–83 (72), EI 25– 30 (28), FI 134–170 (147), PSLI 14–19 (16), LPpI 100–124 (112), DPpI 112–160 (133), PpWI 177–236 (199), PpLI 58–70 (63), PpHI 81–100 (94).

Head shape oval, distinctly longer than wide (CI 72–88), sides strongly convex, posterior head margin rounded and occipital carina conspicuous in full-face view. Mandibles moderately long (MDI 66–83), weakly longitudinally rugulose. Clypeus smooth, sometimes with short median and lateral carinae present. Face smooth, except for concentric rugulae around antennal insertion and usually two malar carinae reaching posterior eye level. Scapes distinctly longer than head (SI 120–149), with decumbent to subdecumbent pilosity and longer suberect hairs along outer edge. Pronotum in profile flatly convex, posterior promesonotal process well developed, angulate, and prominently produced. Metanotal groove not or barely impressed, with weak to inconspicuous cross-ribs. Propodeum in profile about as long as high or slightly longer with highest point immediately behind metanotal groove, declining smoothly toward spines. Propodeal spines short-triangular and acute, much shorter than distance between their bases (PSLI 14–19). Promesonotum largely smooth, except for superficial punctures anteriorly near the neck, remainder of mesosoma punctate to weakly punctate, often with scattered superficially sculptured to smooth areas. Metafemur relatively long (FI 134–170), metatibia pilosity mostly decumbent with longer suberect hairs along outer edge. Postpetiole in profile without ventral process, on average 1.1 times longer than high (LPpI 100–124), and on average 2 times wider and significantly shorter than petiole (PpWI 177–236, PpLI 58–70). Dorsum of petiole and postpetiole mostly smooth, rest weakly to superficially punctate. Gaster smooth and shiny. Standing hairs moderately scarce, short to moderately long, thin, and acute, suberect, some hairs subapically branched. Short decumbent to subdecumbent pilosity comparatively scarce. Color reddish to darker brown, with significantly darker head and gaster.

Discussion: Pheidole teneriffana is an invasive species with collection records scattered over several continents and islands across the globe. Described from the Canary Islands and found widely distributed throughout the greater Mediterranean region, its native range and origin are unknown ( Wilson 2003, Wetterer 2011). Probably introduced to the Malagasy region, it was described from Madagascar as P. voeltzkowii Forel , only one year after the publication of the senior synonym. Morphologically, P. teneriffana can be grouped together with, and is possibly related to, P. fervens Smith, F. , P. indica Mayr , P. oceanica Mayr , and P. sinaitica Mayr. In the New World, Pheidole teneriffana has been introduced to California ( Martinez 1992, Snelling 1992), Cuba, Peru ( Wilson 2003), and the West Indian islands ( Wetterer 2011). It seems to be common in dry habitats ( Wetterer 2011), especially along coasts and in urban areas ( Collingwood et al. 1997, Gómez & Espalader 2006), and has been described as aggressive toward other ant species, locally abundant, and spreading in urban areas ( Collingwood 1985, Gómez & Espalader 2006). In the Malagasy region P. teneriffana was collected on the Comoros, Mauritius, the Seychelles, and from coastal towns in Madagascar, usually from under stones, ground nests, or foraging on the ground or lower vegetation in urban or garden habitats at elevations between 2 and 296 m, on Mayotte in native littoral and secondary forest (7 m elevation). Recently in Saudi Arabia it was collected from soil, under stones, and foraging on the ground on a few farms at elevations between 570 and 1620 m.

Additional material examined: COMOROS: Anjouan: 12.1877 S, 44.3593 E, 65 m, coastal roadside, 26.i.2009 (B.L. Fisher et al.); GoogleMaps Grande Comore: Moroni, S 11.23172, 5 m, suburban area, 06.xii.1994 ( Roger ); MADAGASCAR: Antananarivo: Ankazobe , 18.3162 S, 47.1158 E, 1241 m, urban/garden, 09.ii.2007 (B.L. Fisher et al.); GoogleMaps Majunga: Ambondromamy , 16.4375 S, 47.1575 E, 64 m, urban/garden, 07.ii.2007 (B.L. Fisher et al.); GoogleMaps Maevatanana , 16.9482 S, 46.8277 E, 56 m, urban/garden, 07.ii.2007 (B.L. Fisher et al.); GoogleMaps Majunga, 15.7178 S, 46.317 E, 5 m, urban/garden, 08.ii.2007 (B.L. Fisher et al.); GoogleMaps Mampikony , 16.0932 S, 47.6428 E, 49 m, urban/ garden, 20.iii.2007 (B.L. Fisher et al.); GoogleMaps Port Berger , 15.5683 S, 47.6193 E, 61 m, urban/garden, 21.iii.2007 (B.L. Fisher et al.); GoogleMaps Toamasina: Toamasina-Ville , 18.1552 S, 49.4095 E, 10 m, urban garden, 31.vii.2006 (B. Blaimer, F.N. Raharimalala); GoogleMaps Toliara: Amboasary , 25.0388 S, 46.3835 E, 25 m, urban/garden, 09.xii.2006 (B.L. Fisher et al.); GoogleMaps Morondava , 20.2965 S, 44.2815 E, 7 m, urban/garden, 03.ii.2007 (B.L. Fisher et al.); GoogleMaps MAURITIUS: Round Island : 19.8568 S, 57.7873 E, 82 m, 17.viii.2004 (R. Bone); GoogleMaps 19.8471 S, 57.789 E, 296 m, 23.ii.2005 (L. Lach); GoogleMaps 22.ii.2005 (L. Lach); 24.ii.2005 (L. Lach); Serpents Island: (N. Cole); MAYOTTE: Combani , 12.8107 S, 45.2793 E, 7 m, native littoral and secondary vegetation, 15.i.2010 (G. Paulus); GoogleMaps SAUDI ARABIA: Al Bahah, Shada Mountain , 19.8388 S, 41.3118E, 1620 m, irrigated patch of coffee trees in village garden, 22.ix.2011 (F.A. Esteves); GoogleMaps Ar Riyad, 25.6088 S, 45.7583 E, 675 m, isolated date farm, 26.ix.2011 (B.L. Fisher); GoogleMaps Ar Riyad, Dirab Research Station , 24.4208 S, 46.6534 E, 570 m, irrigated date and olive trees, 28.ix.2011 (B.L. Fisher); GoogleMaps SEYCHELLES: Aldabra Island: Picard , old settlement, 9.39606 S, 46.2047 E, 2 m, coastal scrub, 04.iii.2008 (B.L. Fisher); GoogleMaps UNITED ARAB EMIRATES: al-Ajban, 24.36 S, 55.01 E, 03.i.2007 ( A. van Harten ); GoogleMaps Jebel Jibir , 25.6503 S, 56.1231 E, 06.iii.2011 ( A. van Harten ); GoogleMaps near Mahafiz , 25.09 S, 55.48 E, 24.iii.2007 ( A. van Harten ); GoogleMaps Sharjah-Khor Kalba , wadi near tunnel, 01.xi.2011 ( A. van Harten ); 15 km ESE of Sharjah, 25.21 S, 55.24 E, 28.ii.2011 ( A. van Harten ); GoogleMaps Wadi Maidaq , 25.18 S, 56.07 E, 15.x.2011 ( A. van Harten ); GoogleMaps Wadi Shawkah , 25.06 S, 56.01 E, 01.xi.2011 ( A. van Harten ). GoogleMaps


Switzerland, Geneva, Museum d'Histoire Naturelle














Pheidole teneriffana Forel

FISCHER, G. & FISHER, B. L. 2013

Pheidole voeltzkowii Forel, 1894c: 227

Forel, A. 1894: 227

Pheidole teneriffana subsp. taina

Pheidole teneriffana subsp. taina Aguayo, 1932: 219
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