Sylvicanthon seag, Cupello & Vaz-De, 2018

Cupello, Mario & Vaz-De, Fernando Z., 2018, A monographic revision of the Neotropical dung beetle genus Sylvicanthon Halffter & Martínez, 1977 (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeinae: Deltochilini), including a reappraisal of the taxonomic history of ‘ Canthon sensu lato’, European Journal of Taxonomy 467, pp. 1-205: 123-131

publication ID

https://doi.org/10.5852/ejt.2018.467

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:8D27AAB8-B7F2-424C-B1A6-66FEFA66EDFF

DOI

http://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3846331

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/A72C87FB-FFEE-FF3F-0D60-0DEE09AC95F0

treatment provided by

Valdenar

scientific name

Sylvicanthon seag
status

sp. nov.

Sylvicanthon seag   sp. nov.

urn:lsid:zoobank.org:act:69A2BE3F-7EDF-439B-8AD3-6ABC98F91125

Figs 6E View Fig , 15J View Fig , 18B View Fig , 20 View Fig , 34–35A View Fig View Fig , 37 View Fig

Sylvicanthon candezei   – Feer 2000: 32 (error); 2008: 62 (error). — Feer & Pincebourde 2005: 30.

Sylvicanthon bridarollii   – Price & Feer 2012: 327 (error).

Sylvicanthon   sp. – Larsen et al. 2009: 1294. — Vaz-de-Mello et al. 2011a: 67, figs 164–165 (tentative association). — Boilly & Vaz-de-Mello 2013: 105, fig. 130.

Sylvicanthon   sp. 32 – Feer 2015: 3 (tentative association).

Etymology

A tribute to the Société entomologique Antilles-Guyane (SEAG), founded in 2007 by a group of amateur entomologists with the aim of facilitating the collection and promoting the study of the entomofauna of the French territories in the Americas. This society was responsible for the collection of 440 of the 1204 S. seag   sp. nov. studied in this work, and it was thanks to this enormous volume of specimens that we could see in fine detail the morphological variation – especially the colour variation – shown by this species. The specific name is a noun in apposition.

Material examined

Holotype

FRENCH GUIANA: ♂, Saint-Laurent-du-Maroni, Maripasoula , Saül , Bélvédère de Saül, 03º37′22″ N, 53º12′57″ W, 326 m, (“GUIANA FRANCESA: Saint- / Laurent-du-Maroni, / Bélvédère de Saül, / 3º37′22″N, 53º12′57″ W, / 326m, 15 Sep. 2011 / SEAG col.”, “ HOLOTYPE ♂ / Sylvicanthon seag   / sp. nov. Cupello & / Vaz-de-Mello des. 2016”) ( MNHN).

GoogleMaps  

Paratypes (574 ♂♂, 527 ♀♀, 103 unsexed specimens)

BRAZIL: Amapá: 1 ♂, Pedra Branca do Amaparí (“Cava Urucum-Amapari”), Serra do Navio, 00º53′06″ N, 51º52′53″ W, Sep. 2000, R. Ribon leg. ( CEMT). – Amazonas: 1 ♀, 25 Feb. 1976, I.S. Goraveb leg. ( INPA); 1 ♀, 16 Jun. 1976, I.S. Goraveb leg. ( INPA); 1 ♂ (dissected), 1 ♀, Dec. 1977, R. Ducke leg. ( CEMT); 3 ♂♂ (2 dissected), 2 ♀♀, Manaus, Apr. 1977, B. Ratcliffe leg. ( CEMT); 1 ♂, Manaus, May 1977, B.C. Ratcliffe leg. ( AMBC); 1 ♂, Manaus, Jun. 1977, Ratcliffe leg. ( MCNZ); 1 ♂, Manaus, 1 Jul. 1977, B.C. Ratcliffe leg. ( INPA); 5 unsexed Specimens, Manaus, 11–13 Oct. 1977, B.C. Ratcliffe leg. ( UNSM); 1 ♂, 1 ♀, Manaus, 6 Dec. 1977, B.C. Ratcliffe leg. ( CEMT); 13 ♂♂ (3 dissected), 12 ♀♀, Same collecting data as for preceding ( INPA), 16 unsexed specimens, same collecting data as for preceding ( UNSM); 12 ♂♂ (1 dissected), 11 ♀♀, Manaus, 20 Dec. 1977, B.C. Ratcliffe leg. ( INPA); 20 unsexed specimens, same collecting data as for preceding ( UNSM); 1 ♀, Manaus, 29 Dec. 1977, B.C. Ratcliffe leg. ( INPA); 48 unsexed specimens, Manaus, 3 Jan. 1978, B.C. Ratcliffe leg. ( UNSM); 13 unsexed specimens, Manaus, 13 Jan. 1978, B.C. Ratcliffe leg. ( UNSM); 1 ♀, Manaus, 30 Jan. 1978, L.P. Albuquerque leg. ( INPA); 1 ♀, Manaus, Campus do INPA, Estrada do Aleixo, Km 4, 6 Mar. 1976, L.F. Albuquerque leg. ( INPA); 1 ♀, Manaus, INPA, 30 Jan. 1978, L.P. Albuquerque leg. ( INPA); 1 ♀, Manaus, INPA, Sede Manaus, 18 May 1976, A.P.A. Luna Dias leg. ( INPA). – Maranhão: 1 ♂ (dissected), Bom Jardim, Reserva Biológica Gurupi, 1–6 Nov. 2010, light trap, M.M. Abreu, J.A. Silva, G.A. Reis & E.A.S. Barbosa leg. ( CEMT); 4 ♂♂, 2 ♀♀, Itapecuru-Mirim, 03º32′54″ S, 44º22′08″ W, 31 Aug. 2010, pitfall with human faeces, R. Matayelli and A. Campos leg. – Pará: 8 ♂♂ (3 dissected), 1 ♀, Belém, IPEAN, Oct. 1984, flight interception trap, N. Degallier leg. ( CEMT); 3 ♀♀, Belém, IPEAN, Nov. 1984, N. Degalier leg. ( CEMT); 1 ♂, Belém, IPEAN, May 1985, N. Degallier leg. ( CEMT); 1 ♂, 1 ♀, Primavera, 01º01′27″ S, 47º06′34″ W, 13 Sep. 2013, human faeces pitfall, F. Silva leg. ( CEMT); 37 ♂♂, 9 ♀♀,Primavera, 5–7 Sep. 2015, dung pitfall, FF. Silva leg. ( UFPA); 1 ♂ (dissected), 1 ♀, Santo Antônio do Tauá, Jun. 1982, P. Jauffret leg. ( MNHN). – Roraima: 2 ♂♂, 3 ♀♀, Cantá, Serra Negra, Sep. 1996, Ribeiro and Vaz-de-Mello leg. ( CEMT); 8 ♂♂, 2 ♀♀, Pacaraima (“Vila Pacaraima”), 04º27′ N, 61º07′ W, 820 m, Sep. 1996, Ribeiro and Vaz-de-Mello leg. ( CEMT).

FRENCH GUIANA: 24 ♂♂, 31 ♀♀, SEAG leg. ( CEMT); 1 ♀, Cayenne ( ISNB); 1 ♂, Cayenne (“ Cay ”) ( MNHN, “Ex-Museo D. Sharp 1890”); 2 ♂♂ (1 dissected), Cayenne (“ 20 km SW”), 04º48′18″ N, 52º28′41″ W, 30 m, 29 May 9 Jun. 1997, flight interception trap, J. Ashe and R. Brooks leg. ( CMNC); 1 ♀, Cayenne, Camopi, Rio Oyapock, Îlet Massikiri, 17 Nov. 1969, dung, G. Halffter leg. ( CMNC); 1 ♀, Cayenne, Kourou, Forêt de Wayabo, Dec. 2013, M. Duranton leg. ( CEMT); 2 ♂♂, 1 ♀, Cayenne, Kourou, Rte. Cayenne-Sinnamary, RN1, PK84, Jan. 2013, flight interception trap, SEAG leg. ( CEMT); 3 ♂♂ (1 dissected), 2 ♀♀, Cayenne, Matoury, [Hôtel] La Chaumière, IV.1978, P. Arnaud leg. ( CMNC); 1 ♂, Cayenne, Matoury, Mont Grand Matoury, dubious date (1995 or 14 Jun. 2011?), M. Trýzna leg. ( CEMT); 4 ♂♂, Cayenne, Matoury, Mont Grand Matoury, Oct.–Dec. 2012, SEAG leg. ( CEMT); 6 ♂♂, 1 ♀, Cayenne, Matoury, Réserve Naturelle Nationale du Mont Grand Matoury, 04º51′ N, 52º21′ W, 215 m, 2 Aug. 2012, SEAG leg. ( CEMT); 12 ♂♂, 22 ♀♀, Cayenne, Montsinéry-Tonnegrande, Montagne des Chevaux, 04º44′56″ N, 52º26′28″ W, 75 m, 30 Oct. 2011, SEAG leg. ( CEMT); 2 ♂♂, 2 ♀♀, Cayenne, Montsinéry-Tonnegrande, Montagne des Chevaux, 04º44′56″ N, 52º26′28″ W, 75 m, 27 Jan. 2013, SEAG leg. ( CEMT); 2 ♂♂, 1 ♀, Cayenne, Régina   , [Réserve Naturelle Nationale des] Nouragues, 04º05′ N, 52º40′ W, 155 m, Mar. 1997, F. Feer leg. ( CEMT); 3 ♀♀, Cayenne, Régina   , [Réserve Naturelle Nationale des] Nouragues, 04º05′ N, 52º40′ W, May 2003, F. Feer leg. ( CEMT); 12 ♂♂, 16 ♀♀, Cayenne, Régina   , [Réserve Naturelle Nationale des] Nouragues, 4 Apr. 2010, F. Feer leg. ( CEMT); 14 ♂♂, 5 ♀♀, Cayenne, Régina   , [Réserve Naturelle Nationale des] Nouragues, Inselberg, 04º05′ N, 52º41′ W, 411 m, 4 Apr. 2010, SEAG leg. ( CEMT); 2 ♂♂ (1 dissected), 2 ♀♀, Cayenne, Régina   , [Réserve Naturelle Nationale des] Nouragues, Saut-Pararé, 04º02′16″ N, 52º40′21″ W, 30 Nov. 2009, Stéphanie Brule leg. ( BMNH); 5 ♂♂, 4 ♀♀, Cayenne, Paracou Field Station, 05º02′ N, 53º00′ W, 55 m, Oct. 2003, F. Feer leg. ( CEMT); 4 ♂♂ (1 dissected), Cayenne, Roura (“ 18.4 km SSE”), 04º36′38″ N, 52º13′25″ W, 240 m, 22–24 May 1997, J. Ashe and R. Brooks leg. ( CMNC); 3 ♂♂, 1 ♀, Cayenne, Roura (“ 18.4 km SSE”), 04º36′38″ N, 52º13′25″ W, 240 m, 25–29 May 1997, flight interception trap, J. Ashe and R. Brooks leg. ( CMNC); 1 ♂, 1 ♀, Cayenne, Roura (“ 18.4 km SSE”), 04º36′38″ N, 52º13′25″ W, 240 m, 10 Jun. 1997, flight interception trap, J. Ashe and R. Brooks leg. ( CMNC); 4 ♂♂, 2 ♀♀,Cayenne, Roura (“ 18.4 km SSE”), 04º36′38″ N, 52º13′25″ W, 240 m, 29 May–10 Jun. 1997, flight interception trap, J. Ashe and R. Brooks leg. ( CMNC); 1 unsexed Specimen, Cayenne, Roura, Réserve Naturelle Régionale Trésor, 225 m, 4º36′38″ N, 52º16′45″ W, Dec. 2009, malaise trap ( BMNH); 1 ♂, 2 ♀♀, Cayenne, Saint-Georges-de-l’Oyapock, 03º54′ N, 51º48′ W, 35 m, May 2014, F. Feer leg. ( CEMT); 1 ♂, “Nouveau Chantier”, “octobre” ( MNHN); 1 ♀, Régina   (“S of Régina   ”), 30 Dec. 2006, Snižek leg. ( NMPC); 1 ♀, Same collecting data as for preceding ( OUMNH); 1 ♂ (dissected), Régina, Kaw   (“Kaw rd”), PK-38, 23–27 Aug. 1995, J.E. Wappes leg. ( CMNC); 1 ♂, Régina, Route de Kaw   (“Caiman Camp env.”), 7 Dec. 2006, M. Snižek leg. ( NMPC); 1 ♀, Régina, Route de Kaw   (“Caiman Camp env.”), 20 Dec. 2006, Snižek” ( OUMNH); 4 ♂♂, 4 ♀♀, Saint-Laurent-du-Maroni, Jul. 1975, P. Arnaud leg. ( MNHN); 1 ♂, Saint-Laurent-du-Maroni, Mana, Acarouany, VI.1993, Marek and Seidl leg. ( CEMT); 1 ♀, Saint-Laurent-du-Maroni, Maripasoula (“Maripa”), 27 Nov. 1969, dung, G. Halffter leg. ( CEMT); 1 ♀,Saint-Laurent-du-Maroni, Maripasoula, Route de Belizon, PK 10, 29 Jan. 1990, O. Schmitt leg. ( MNHN); 2 ♂♂,Saint-Laurent-du-Maroni, Maripasoula, Saül, Mar. 1977 ( CNCI); 10 ♂♂, 6 ♀♀, Saint- Laurent-du-Maroni, Maripasoula, Saül, 11 Jan. 2011 ( CEMT); 16 ♂♂, 20 ♀♀, Saint-Laurent-du-Maroni, Maripasoula, Saül, 27 May 2011 ( CEMT); 1 ♂, 2 ♀♀, Saint-Laurent-du-Maroni, Maripasoula, Saül, 9 Sep. 2011 ( CEMT); 14 ♂♂, 25 ♀♀, Saint-Laurent-du-Maroni, Maripasoula, Saül, Bélvédère de Saül, 03º37′22″ N, 53º12′57″ W, 326 m, 11 Jan. 2011, SEAG leg. ( CEMT); 1 ♀, Saint-Laurent-du-Maroni, Maripasoula, Saül, Bélvédère de Saül, 03º37′22″ N, 53º12′57″ W, 326 m, 28 Feb. 2011, SEAG leg. ( CEMT); 3 ♂♂, 5 ♀♀, Saint-Laurent-du-Maroni, Maripasoula, Saül, Bélvédère de Saül, 03º37′22″ N, 53º12′57″ W, 326 m, 13 May 2011, flight interception trap, SEAG leg. ( CEMT); 23 ♂♂, 22 ♀♀, Saint- Laurent-du-Maroni, Maripasoula, Saül, Bélvédère de Saül, 03º37′22″ N, 53º12′57″ W, 326 m, 15 Jun. 2011, SEAG leg. ( CEMT); 33 ♂♂, 32 ♀♀, Saint-Laurent-du-Maroni, Maripasoula, Saül, Bélvédère de Saül, 03º37′22″ N, 53º12′57″ W, 326 m, 23 Jun. 2011, SEAG leg. ( CEMT); 3 ♀♀, Saint-Laurentdu-Maroni, Maripasoula, Saül, Bélvédère de Saül, 03º37′22″ N, 53º12′57″ W, 326 m, 30 Jun. 2011, SEAG leg. ( CEMT); 21 ♂♂, 13 ♀♀, Saint-Laurent-du-Maroni, Maripasoula, Saül, Bélvédère de Saül, 03º37′22″ N, 53º12′57″ W, 326 m, 28 Jul. 2011, SEAG leg. ( CEMT); 15 ♂♂, 27 ♀♀, Saint- Laurent-du-Maroni, Maripasoula, Saül, Bélvédère de Saül, 03º37′22″ N, 53º12′57″ W, 326 m, 24 Aug. 2011, SEAG leg. ( CEMT); 11 ♂♂, 14 ♀♀, Saint-Laurent-du-Maroni, Maripasoula, Saül, Bélvédère de Saül, 03º37′22″ N, 53º12′57″ W, 326 m, 9 Nov. 2011, SEAG leg. ( CEMT); 10 ♂♂, 6 ♀♀, Saint- Laurent-du-Maroni, Maripasoula, Saül, Bélvédère de Saül, 15 Sep. 2011, SEAG leg. ( CEMT); 13 ♂♂, 21 ♀♀, Saint-Laurent-du-Maroni, Maripasoula, Saül, Bélvédère de Saül, Grand Boeuf Mort, 10 Oct. 2007, SEAG leg. ( CEMT); 1 ♀, Saint-Laurent-du-Maroni, Maripasoula, Saül, Montagne Pelée, 20 May 2011, SEAG leg. ( CEMT); 1 ♂, Saint-Laurent-du-Maroni, Maripasoula, Saül (“ 7 km N”), Les Eaux Claires, 03º39′46″ N, 53º13′19″ W, 220 m, 30 May–4 Jun. 1997, flight interception trap, J. Ashe and R. Brooks leg. ( CMNC); 1 ♂, 1 ♀, Saint-Laurent-du-Maroni, Maripasoula, Saül (“ 7 km N”), Les Eaux Claires, 03º39′46″ N, 53º13′19″ W, 220 m, 31 May–3 Jun. 1997, human faeces trap, J. Ashe and R. Brooks leg. ( CMNC); 2 ♂♂ (1 dissected), 2 ♀♀, Saint-Laurent-du-Maroni, Maripasoula, Saül (“ 7 km N”), Les Eaux Claires, 03º39′46″ N, 53º13′19″ W, 4–8 Jun. 1997, 220 m, malaise, J. Ashe and R. Brooks leg. ( CMNC); 1 ♂ (dissected), Saint-Laurent-du-Maroni, Maripasoula, Saül, Mount Galbao, 03º37′18″ N, 53º16′42″ W, 5–7 Jun. 1997, J. Ashe and R. Brooks leg. ( CMNC).

GUYANA: Pataro-Siparuni: 1 ♂, Iwokara Rain Forest, 04º39′ N, 58º41′ W, 70 m, 13 Apr. 2009, flight interception trap, S. Phelps leg. ( OUMNH); 1 ♂, Iwokara Rain Forest, 04º39′ N, 58º41′ W, 70 m, 13 Apr.–31 May 2009, baited trap, S. Phelps leg. ( OUMNH). – Upper Takutu-Upper Essequibo: 2 ♂♂, Upper Essequibo Conservation Concession, 03º30′37″ N, 58º13′98″ W, 100 m, 22–26 Sep. 2007, pitfall with human faeces, G.C. McGavin leg. ( OUMNH).

SURINAME: 1 ♂, 1 ♀ ( BMNH); 1 ♂ (dissected) Same collecting data as for preceding ( CEMT, “Ex- Museo van Lansberge”), 2 ♂♂, Same collecting data as for preceding ( MZSP), 1 ♂, Same collecting data as for preceding ( NMPC, ex. coll. Balthasar). – Brokopondo: 2 ♂♂, 3 ♀♀,Brownsburg Nature Reserve, 04º56′55″ N, 56º10′53″ W, 450 m, 23 Jun. 1999, flight interception trap, Z. Falin leg. ( CMNC); 2 ♂♂, 3 ♀♀, Brownsburg Nature Reserve, 04º56′55″ N, 56º10′53″ W, 450 m, 25 Jun. 1999, flight interception trap, Z. Falin leg. ( CMNC). – Commewijne: 1 ♀, Akintosoela, 05º16′17″ N, 54º55′15″ W, 40 m, 29 Jun.–3 Jul. 1999, flight interception trap, Z. Falin leg. ( CMNC); 1 ♂, Akintosoela, 05º16′17″ N, 54º55′15″ W, 40 m, 3 Jul. 1999, flight interception trap, Z. Falin leg. ( CMNC). – Marowijne: 1 ♀, Christian Kondre, Oct. 1963, B. Malkin leg. ( MZSP); 3 ♀♀, Palumeu, 03º20′56″ N, 55º26′18″ W, 9 Jul. 1999, flight interception trap, Z. Falin leg. ( CMNC). – Para: 4 ♂♂, 2 ♀♀, Zanderij, 11 km SE of Zanderij Airport, 30 m, 20 Jun. 1999, flight interception trap, Z. Falin leg. ( CMNC). – Saramacca: 1 ♀, W. Suraname Rd. (East-West Link?), 108 km WSW of Zanderij Airport, 30 m, 05º13′37″ N, 55º52′54″ W, 14 Jun. 1999, Z. Falin leg. ( CMNC).

TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO: 3 ♂♂, 1 ♀, Trinidad, Arima, 16 km N of Arima, Andrews Trace, 620 m, 7–24 Jun. 1993, flight interception trap, S. and J. Peck leg. ( CMNC); 4 ♂♂, 2 ♀♀, Trinidad, Arima, 16 km N of Arima, Andrews Trace, 620 m, 24 Jun.–7 Jul. 1993, flight interception trap, S. and J. Peck leg. ( CMNC); 1 ♂, 1 ♀, Trinidad, Arima, 19 km N of Arima, Lalaja Trace, 650 m, 8–24 Jun. 1993, flight interception trap, S. and J. Peck leg. ( CMNC); 1 ♂, Trinidad, Arima, William Beebe Tropical Research Station (“Simla (N. Y. Zool. Soc. Sta.)”), 11 Jun. 1977, pitfall trap With pig dung, R.E. Woodruff leg. ( CMNC); 20 ♂♂, 4 ♀♀, Trinidad, Couva-Tabaquite-Talparo, Quesnell Farm, 13 km S of Arima, 2 km N of Talparo, 50 m, 12–22 Jun. 1993, flight interception trap, S. and J. Peck leg. ( CMNC); 4 ♂♂, 1 ♀, Trinidad, Couva-Tabaquite-Talparo, Quesnell Farm, 13 km S of Arima, 2 km N of Talparo, 50 m, 22 Jun.–8 Jul. 1993, flight interception trap, S. and J. Peck leg. ( CMNC); leg. 1 ♀, Trinidad, Sangre Grande, Arena Forest Reserve, 10º33′18″ N, 61º13′13″ W, 20 Jul. 2012, G.H. Simpson ( OUMNH); 2 ♀♀, Trinidad, Sangre Grande, Arena Forest Reserve, 10º30′18″ N, 61º13′13″ W, 22 Jul. 2012, G.H. Simpson leg. ( OUMNH); 3 ♂♂, Trinidad, Sangre Grande, Arena Forest Reserve, 80 m, 13–22 Jun. 1993, S. and J. Peck leg. ( CEMT); 12 ♂♂ (2 dissected), 8 ♀♀, Same collecting data as for preceding ( CMNC); 2 ♂♂, 1 ♀, Trinidad, Sangre Grande, Arena Forest Reserve, 80 m, 22 Jun.–8 Jul. 1993, flight interception trap, S. and J. Peck leg. ( CMNC); 1 ♂ (dissected), Trinidad, Sangre Grande, Arena Forest Reserve, 10º33′18″ N, 61º13′13″ W, 22 Jul. 2012, pitfall with human faeces, G.H. Simpson leg. ( OUMNH); 1 ♂, 2 ♀♀, Trinidad, Tunapuna-Piarco, Mount Saint Benedict, 550 m, 5–21 Jun. 1998, flight interception trap, S. and J. Peck leg. ( CMNC); 1 ♂, Trinidad, Tunapuna-Piarco, Mount Saint Benedict, 550 m, 21 Jun.–8 Jul. 1993, flight interception trap, S. and J. Peck leg. ( CMNC); 1 ♂, Trinidad, William Beebe Tropical Research Station (“Simla, 5mi. N. / Arima ”), 19 Aug. 1969, H. and A. Howden leg. ( CMNC); 1 ♂, 2 ♀♀, Trinidad, William Beebe Tropical Research Station (“Simla Res. Sta.”), 8 km N of Arima, 240 m, 6–10 Jun. 1993, flight interception trap, S. and J. Peck leg. ( CMNC); 3 ♂♂ (1 dissected), 1 ♀, Trinidad, William Beebe Tropical Research Station (“Simla Res. Sta.”), 8 km N of Arima, 260 m, 6–14 Jun. 1993, flight interception trap, S. and J. Peck leg. ( CMNC); 3 ♂♂, 5 ♀♀, Trinidad, William Beebe Tropical Research Station (“Simla Res. Sta.”), 8 km N of Arima, 260 m, 14–24 Jun. 1993, flight interception trap, S. and J. Peck leg. ( CMNC); 1 ♂, 5 ♀♀, Trinidad, William Beebe Tropical Research Station (“Simla Res. Sta.”), 8 km N of Arima, 260 m, 24 Jun.–8 Jul. 1993, flight interception trap, S. and J. Peck leg. ( CEMT); 3 ♂♂, 3 ♀♀, Same collecting data as for preceding ( CMNC), 1 ♂, 1 ♀, Same collecting data as for preceding ( MCNZ); 1 ♂, 1 ♀, Trinidad, William Beebe Tropical Research Station (“Simla, N Arima ”), 21 Jun.–6 Jul. 2007, E.G. Hancock leg. ( OUMNH).

VENEZUELA: Amazonas: 3 ♂♂, 2 ♀♀, Alto Orinoco (“ T.F.A. Atabapo / Alto Orinoco ”), Platanal, Jun. 1979 ( CMNC); 9 ♂♂ (1 dissected), 10 ♀♀, Alto Orinoco (“ T.F.A. Atabapo / Alto Orinoco ”), Trapichate, Jun. 1979 ( CMNC); 1 ♂, 1 ♀, Puerto Ayacucho,Atures, Cerro Camani, Jul. 1979 ( CMNC); 1 ♂ (dissected) and 1 ♀, San Juan de Manapiare, Alto Ventuari (“ 1º Atures / Alto Ventuari / Camani (Aramare) ”), Jun. 1979 ( CMNC). – Bolívar: 1 ♀, Gran Sabana, Km 40 Sta. Elena Icabaru Road, 4–6 Aug. 1986, 100 m, B. Gill leg. ( CMNC); 1 ♀, Gran Sabana, San Francisco Yuruaní (“ J. F. Yuruani ”), Jan. 1988, illegible collector ( CMNC); 1 ♂, 1 ♀, Isla Anacoco, 7 Aug. 2006 ( CEMT); 1 ♀, Las Trincheras (“ 35 km N Las Trincheras”, “ 15 km N Corocito”), 17 Jun. 1987, UV light trap, S. and J. Peck leg. ( CMNC); 4 ♂♂, Las Trincheras, Río Caura, 10–11 Aug. 1986, B. Gill leg. ( CMNC); 1 ♂, 5 ♀♀, Mata de Corocito (“ 10 km N Corocito”), 18 Jun.–3 Aug. 1987, flight interception trap, S. and J. Peck leg. ( CMNC); 1 ♀, Padre Pedro Chien, 20 km EL Palmar, 18 Jun. 1996, dung, H. and A. Howden leg. ( CMNC); 1 ♀, Río Chicanan, 40 km SW of El Dorado, 22–23 Jul. 1986, B. Gill leg. ( CEMT), 27 ♂♂, 12 ♀♀, Same collecting data as for preceding ( CMNC); 7 ♂♂, 9 ♀♀, Río Sipao, 110 km E of Caicara, 17 Jun.–4 Aug. 1987, flight interception trap, S and J. Peck leg ( CMNC); 2 ♀♀, Sinfontes, 10 km S of El Dorado, 200 m, 17 Jul. –7 Aug. 1986, B. Gill leg. ( CEMT); 35 ♂♂ (1 dissected), 49 ♀♀, Same collecting data as for preceding ( CMNC); 2 ♂♂, 1 ♀, Sinfontes, 20 km S. of El Dorado, 220 m, 20–23 Jul. 1986, B. Gill leg. ( CMNC); 2 ♂♂, Sinfontes, 22 km S. of El Dorado, 25 Jun.–12 Jul. 1987, flight interception trap, S. and J. Peck leg. ( CMNC); 5 ♂♂, 3 ♀♀, Sinfontes, 33 km S of El Dorado, 220 m, 2–7 Aug. 1986, B. Gill leg. ( CMNC); 1 ♂, Sinfontes, El Dorado, 7 Aug. 1966, Milan Křiž leg. ( OUMNH); 2 ♂♂, Sucre, Salto Pará, 250 m, 20–22 Nov. 1978, A.H.Chacon leg. ( CMNC). – Delta Amacuro: 1 ♂, 1 ♀, Casacoima, 11 km W of Piacoa, 14–31 Jul. 1987, flight interception trap, S. and J. Peck leg. ( CMNC). – Mérida: 1 ♂, Libertador, Mérida, Monte Zerpa, Nov. 1987, D. Harraner(?) leg. ( CMNC). – Monagas: 2 ♀♀, Maturín, 15 km N of Maturín, 19–31 Jul. 1987, flight interception trap, S. and J. Peck leg. ( CMNC); 1 ♂ (dissected), Teresen (?), 800 m, 12 Jun. 1963, R. Hernandez leg. ( CMNC).

Erroneous data: ECUADOR: Napo: 1 ♀, Lago Agrio, Feb. 1986, illegible collector ( CMNC).

PERU: Huánuco: 1 ♀, Leoncio Prado, Rupa-Rupa, Tingo María, Universidad Nacional Agraria de la Selva (“Tingo María Universidad”), Jul. 1974 ( CMNC).

No data: 1 ♀ ( ISNB, “Collection E. Candeze”), 1 ♂ ( MNHN).

Description

COLOURATION. With evident geographical variation on dorsum: in southern populations (specimens examined from Manaus, Belém and Bom Jardim), head and pronotum purple and elytra greenish with contrasting striae (usually of the same colour as, or darker than, pronotum) ( Fig. 37A View Fig ); individuals from northern populations with head purple with greenish reflections and pronotum and elytra bright green ( Fig. 37C View Fig ) or dark blue ( Fig. 37B View Fig ), with elytral striae contrasting; pronotum usually with purplish reflections, especially on the sides. Metaventrite dark, with purplish or coppery reflections ( Fig. 37D View Fig ); specimens from Trinidad and a few others from Venezuela with greenish reflections at centre of disc. Meso- and metafemora reddish-brown or dark brown, base distinctively darker than apical two-thirds. Pygidium ranging from predominantly coppery with greenish shine, to the south, to totally greenish or bluish, on northern populations.

HEAD. Tegument with little shine and strong alveolar microsculpture; micropunctation evident on posterior region of clypeus and especially on frons ( Fig. 6E View Fig ). Clypeus with two apical teeth obtuse and only slightly separated; with a single transverse row of setae covering base of both teeth. Genae with strong tooth immediately behind clypeal-genal juncture. Posterior edge of head completely unmargined.

THORAX. Pronotum with shiny, lustrous tegument, with microsculpture in general very diffuse and effaced or even totally absent at centre; on sides, with stronger alveolar microsculpture; micropunctation denser and more clearly marked at centre and progressively weaker towards the sides. Posterior edge with fine transverse line at centre (usually extending up to the second elytral stria). Hypomeral cavity entirely glabrous or, at most, with some very few short setae at centre; long setae, when present, restricted to posterior region ( Fig. 35A View Fig ); external margin with very short tubercle. Metaventrite entirely glabrous; tegument with evident rivose microsculpture on sides and anterior region, and weaker microsculpture adjacent to internal margin of mesocoxae; at centre, alveolar microsculpture very fine and progressively more diffuse and ill delimited towards posterior region; micropunctation very fine and not evident.

LEGS. Ventral surface of all femora and tibiae bright. Profemora with tegument with strong rivose microsculpture and without micropunctation. Protibiae narrow and with internal edge straight and simple, without expansion; at their apical third, with three small acute teeth on external edge, the two most apical ones subequal in length and larger than basal tooth. Mesofemora margined anteriorly only at their basal half; unmargined portion of anterior edge with row of very short setae; posterior margin absent; tegument with effaced rivose microsculpture. Metafemora margined anteriorly, posterior margin absent; apical half of anterior edge covered by a row of setae; tegument covered by effaced rivose microsculpture and without any trace of coarse punctation at base. Metatarsomeres II and V subequal in length and longer than the others; metatarsomere IV shorter than the others.

ELYTRA. In most cases with nine well-visible striae: in general, the first six or seven striae well marked, very finely carinulate and slightly widened at base; seventh stria finer than the others, but always visible; eighth and ninth striae very fine; all striae lack carinulae at apex of elytra, where they are completely indistinct; humeral carina absent. Tegument of interstriae very shiny and lustrous; at centre, ranging from weak alveolar microsculpture (populations on the banks of the Amazon River) to diffuse microsculpture or even totally smooth; at apex and on sides, always with strong alveolar microsculpture; micropunctation clearly visible at 20 × magnification.

ABDOMEN. Ventrite VI with very diffuse rivose microsculpture, or microsculpture absent; in both cases, micropunctation very subtle; in both sexes without lateral foveae. Pygidium with tegument distinctly micropunctated and with variable microsculpture: at centre, alveolar microsculpture distinctly marked

(populations on the banks of the Amazon River), diffuse, or even totally absent; on the sides, alveolar microsculpture always present.

AEDEAGUS. Parameres half as long as phallobase and strongly asymmetrical: external face of right paramere flat and external face of left paramere concave, strongly excavated. In lateral view, parameres with ventral keel strongly projected, giving squarish appearance to apical half of parameres, and with pronounced notch posteriorly to ventral keel ( Fig. 18B View Fig ).

SEXUAL DIMORPHISM. Males: Protibial spur wide at base and with two apical projections: external projection spiniform and longer than internal one, usually only slightly indicated ( Fig. 15J View Fig ). Ventrite VI with posterior edge strongly narrowed at centre; anterior edge slightly covered by medial flange of ventrite V. Females: Protibial spur spiniform, simple. Ventrite VI very wide at centre, posterior edge straight, without emargination; anterior edge distinctly covered by medial flange of posterior edge of ventrite V.

Measurements

Males (N = 15). TL: AV: 7.5 ± 0.46; MX: 8.5; MN: 6.8. EW: AV: 5.7 ± 0.31; MX: 6.1; MN: 5.2. PrL: AV: 2.3 ± 0.18; MX: 2.7; MN: 2.1. PrW: AV: 4.8 ± 0.28; MX: 5.3; MN: 4.4. PgL: AV: 1.4 ± 0.05; MX: 1.5; MN: 1.3. PgW: AV: 2.3 ± 0.13; MX: 2.5; MN: 2.1.

Females (N = 13). TL: AV: 7.9 ± 0.31; MX: 8.4; MN: 7.4. EW: ME: 6.01 ± 0.24; MX: 6.3; MN: 5.6. PrL: AV: 2.6 ± 0.12; MX: 2.9; MN: 2.5. PrW: AV: 5.0 ± 0.21; MX: 5.5; MN: 4.8. PgL: AV: 1.4 ± 0.08; MX: 1.5; MN: 1.3. PgW: AV: 2.5 ± 0.12; MX: 2.7; MN: 2.2.

Geographical distribution

Northern Amazonia in Trinidad, Venezuela, Guyana, Suriname, French Guiana and Brazil.

Ecoregions

Venezuelan Andes Montane Forests, Trinidad and Tobago Moist Forests, Guianan Highlands Moist Forests, Negro-Branco Moist Forests, Guianan Moist Forests, Paramaribo Swamp Forests, Guianan Savanna, Uatuma-Trombetas Moist Forests, Japurá-Solimões-Negro Moist Forests, Tocantins-Pindaré Moist Forests.

Collecting sites ( Fig. 34 View Fig )

TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO. Arima (William Beebe Tropical Research Station), Couva-Tabaquite- Talparo, Sangre Grande (Arena Forest Reserve), Tunapuna-Piarco (Mount Saint Benedict).

VENEZUELA. Mérida: Libertador (Mérida: Monte Zerpa). Monagas: Maturín. Delta Amacuro: Casacoima. Bolívar: Gran Sabana (San Francisco Yuruaní), Isla Anacoco, Las Trincheras, Mata de Corocito, Padre Pedro Chien, Sinfontes, Sucre (Salto Pará). Amazonas: Alto Orinoco, Puerto Ayacucho (Atures: Cerro Camani), San Juan de Manapiare.

GUYANA. Potaro-Siparuni: Iwokrama Forest. Upper Takutu-Upper Essequibo: Upper Essequibo Conservation Concession.

SURINAME. Saramacca. Commewijne: Akintosoela. Marowijne. Para: Zanderij. Brokopondo: Brownsburg Nature Reserve.

FRENCH GUIANA. Cayenne (Camopi; Kourou; Matoury: Réserve naturelle nationale du mont Grand Matoury; Montsinéry-Tonnegrande: Montagne des Chevaux; Régina: Kaw, Réserve   naturelle nationale

des Nouragues; Roura: Réserve naturelle régionale Trésor; Saint-Georges-de-l’Oyapock), Saint-Laurentdu-Maroni (Maripasoula: Saül; Mana: Acarouany).

BRAZIL. Roraima: Cantá (Serra Negra), Pacaraima. Amazonas: Manaus. Amapá: Pedra Branca do Amaparí. Pará: Belém, Primavera, Santo Antônio do Tauá. Maranhão: Bom Jardim (Reserva Biológica Gurupi), Itapecuru-Mirim.

Intraspecific variation and taxonomic discussion

Sylvicanthon seag   sp. nov. is the only representative of the bridarollii   subgroup that, as far as we know, is totally allopatric in relation to the other species of its group: it occurs from the Cordillera de Mérida, in western Venezuela, and the island of Trinidad, in the Caribbean Sea, to the Guianas and the northern region of the Brazilian Amazonia ( Fig. 34 View Fig ). Throughout most of its extension, the distribution of S. seag   sp. nov. is restricted to the left banks of the Amazon River, crossing to the other side only near to its mouth with the Atlantic Ocean, being present in localities such as Belém and Santo Antônio do Tauá in Pará, and at the Reserva Biológica Gurupi in Maranhão. Sylvicanthon attenboroughi   sp. nov., the species most closely related to S. seag   sp. nov., is limited to the right banks of the Amazon. Because the distribution of S. attenboroughi   sp. nov. does not cross to the right banks of the Tapajós River   , this species does not occur so far east to be found in sympatry with the populations of S. seag   sp. nov. in Pará and Maranhão.

Throughout this vast area, S. seag   sp. nov. shows a noteworthy geographical variation related to the sculpture of pygidium and colouration. Individuals from southern populations, including those on the banks of the Amazon River (e.g., Manaus and Belém), have a pygidium covered by a distinct alveolar microsculpture and dorsal colouration very similar to that seen in S. attenboroughi   sp. nov.: head and pronotum purple and greenish elytra ( Fig. 37A View Fig ). To the north, the pygidial microsculpture becomes weaker and, in some specimens, the tegument seems to be completely smooth at the centre. Regarding the colouration, individuals from the Guianas and Venezuela possess a purple head with greenish reflections and pronotum and elytra shiny green or dark blue (the former colour more common than the latter) ( Fig. 37 View Fig B–C). A few specimens from French Guiana, however, have the pronotum mostly covered by a purple colouration, so appearing to be an intermediate phase between the colouration seen farther south and the more typical one seen in this part of the distribution of S. seag   sp. nov. Likewise, the two specimens known from Santo Antônio do Tauá also have this intermediate phase between the northern and southern colouration patterns. In Trinidad, finally, the colouration pattern is typically northern, but it differs from the continental populations in having the dark blue as the most frequent colour instead of shiny bright green.

Despite the wide geographical variation discussed above, there is one fundamental characteristic for the identification of S. seag   sp. nov. that does not seem to vary significantly, either intra- or interpopulationally: the shape of the parameres. In S. seag   sp. nov., these structures are strongly asymmetric (the external face of the right paramere is flat, while the external face of the left paramere is strongly excavated) and, in lateral view, possess a ventral keel strongly projected, with a squarish appearance ( Fig. 18B View Fig ). No other species of Sylvicanthon   has such an elaborate aedeagus. If, externally, individuals of S. attenboroughi   sp. nov. are extremely similar to specimens from southern populations of S. seag   sp. nov. and can be easily confused with them, the examination of the parameres leaves no doubt as to the correct identification of the specimens ( Fig. 18D View Fig ). Other differences between both species rest in the metaventral micropunctation, on the anterior margin of the female ventrite VI and on the pygidial tegument (see Table 4).

From the other two species of the bridarollii   subgroup, S. seag   sp. nov. is different simultaneously in having an evident micropunctation on the head, and by the hypomeral cavity strongly excavated ( Fig. 35A View Fig ), the shape of the anterior margin of female ventrite VI, metaventral and pygidial tegument, the shape of parameres ( Fig. 18B View Fig ) and the distribution ( Fig. 34 View Fig ). Specifically from S. edmondsi   sp. nov., S. seag   sp. nov. is different in dorsal colouration ( Fig. 37 View Fig A–C) and size, while it is distinguished from S. bridarollii   by the tegument of pronotum, the absence of setae at the centre of the hypomeral cavity ( Fig. 35A View Fig ), the shape of the protibiae ( Fig. 11 View Fig H–I), and the absence of coarse punctation at the base of the metafemora ( Table 4).

Comments

Two specimens from the collection of Antonio Martínez are certainly mislabelled: a female supposedly collected at Lago Agrio, in Napo, Ecuador, and another female labelled “Tingo María Universidad”, in Huánuco, Peru. From this latter locality, we have examined specimens of S. genieri   sp. nov. and S. bridarollii   , species that indeed occur in Huánuco and, therefore, should be correctly labelled. As they came from the same collection, it is possible the female of S. seag   sp. nov. now labelled “Tingo María Universidad” has been accidently mixed up with the material collected in that region and, consequently, received – erroneously – the same provenience label.

Natural history

Specimen labels show that S. seag   sp. nov. can be collected with a wide variety of traps: pitfalls baited with human faeces and pig dung, flight interception traps, malaise and light traps, both white and ultraviolet light. This species is collected year-round, but, in the Guianas, Venezuela, and Trinidad, places from where we could examine more material, it is clearly more abundant between May and September. Lastly, labels tell us that S. seag   sp. nov. occurs between 30 and 800 m (but near 2000 m for the sole specimen collected in Cordillera de Mérida).

Feer & Pincebourde (2005), studying the flight activity time of dung beetles from a locality in French Guiana, classified S. seag   sp. nov. (cited as S. candezei   ) as a diurnal species, a fact that would differentiate it from the other members of Sylvicanthon   . Nevertheless, by examining their data more carefully, we see that they collected only two specimens of S. seag   sp. nov., one at 9:00 and other at 21:00. Therefore, their results are very far from being conclusive for this species. The truth is that the few data we have on the flight time of S. seag   sp. nov. point to a nocturnal life: as said above, specimens are attracted to light traps, and a female collected in 1969 by Gonzalo Halffter at Îlet Massikiri, on the Oyapock River, also in French Guiana, was caught at night.

MNHN

Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle

INPA

Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazonia

MCNZ

Porto Alegre, Museu de Ciencias Naturais da Fundacao Zoo-Botanica do Rio Grande do Sul

UNSM

University of Nebraska State Museum

NMPC

National Museum Prague

CNCI

Canadian National Collection Insects

MZSP

Sao Paulo, Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de Sao Paulo

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Insecta

Order

Coleoptera

Family

Scarabaeidae

Genus

Sylvicanthon

Loc

Sylvicanthon seag

Cupello, Mario & Vaz-De, Fernando Z. 2018
2018
Loc

Sylvicanthon

Feer F. 2015: 3
2015
Loc

Sylvicanthon bridarollii

Price D. L. & Feer F. 2012: 327
2012
Loc

Sylvicanthon

Boilly O. & Vaz-de-Mello F. Z. 2013: 105
Vaz-de-Mello F. Z. & Edmonds W. D. & Ocampo F. C. & Schoolmeesters P. 2011: 67
Larsen T. H. & Lopera A. & Forsyth A. 2009: 1294
2009
Loc

Sylvicanthon candezei

Feer F. & Pincebourde S. 2005: 30
Feer F. 2000: 32
2000