Heteropachylus peracchii, SOARES & SOARES, 1974

Mendes, Amanda Cruz, 2011, Phylogeny and taxonomic revision of Heteropachylinae (Opiliones: Laniatores: Gonyleptidae), Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 163 (2), pp. 437-483 : 475-478

publication ID

https://doi.org/ 10.1111/j.1096-3642.2011.00706.x

persistent identifier

https://treatment.plazi.org/id/A60A87F2-FFB9-FFAD-D926-E9E25CFB4795

treatment provided by

Valdenar

scientific name

Heteropachylus peracchii
status

 

HETEROPACHYLUS PERACCHII SOARES & SOARES, 1974 ( FIGS 21 View Figure 21 , 22 View Figure 22 , 25I, J View Figure 25 , 28 View Figure 28 )

Heteropachylus peracchii Soares & Soares, 1974: 609 , figures 44–51. Kury, 2003a: 142; Sigrist & Carvalho, 2008: 39.

Distribution: BRAZIL. Bahia (Ilhéus and Itajibá). WWF Ecoregions: NT0103 and NT0104, respectively, Bahia coastal forests and Bahia interior forests.

Material examined: m holotype ( HEMS 485 View Materials ), m and juv paratypes ( HEMS 486 View Materials ), BRAZIL. Bahia. Itajibá. Fazenda Pedra Branca. 13.i.1972. Jim J. 2m, f, and juv ( HEMS 665 View Materials ), CEPLAC. 19–20.v.1977, de Menezes M .

Diagnosis: Four mesotergal areas; mesotergal area I divided by longitudinal groove ( Fig. 21A View Figure 21 ); complete groove between mesotergal areas II and III; mesotergal area III bearing row of granules with pair of paramedian tubercles and at the same level of the other areas ( Fig. 21A, E View Figure 21 ); mesotergal area IV entire, without a longitudinal groove ( Fig. 21A View Figure 21 ). Free tergites I–III with a small tubercle on each corner, free tergites II–III bearing median conical apophysis ( Fig. 21A, E View Figure 21 ); free tergite III without keel and not fused to the dorsal scutum in males ( Fig. 21A View Figure 21 ). Dorsal anal operculum covered by tubercles and bearing median apophysis ( Fig. 21E, F View Figure 21 ). Femur IV ( Fig. 22 View Figure 22 ) with anvil-shaped dorsobasal apophysis and robust dorsodistal apophysis. Male genitalia: the four pairs of distal setae equal sized and forming a group.

Measurements: Male holotype. CL: 1.5; MCW: 2.1; ASL: 2.8; MASW: 4.0. FL: 2.4. Males (N = 3). CL: 1.5 (1.5–1.5); MCW: 2.1 (2.0–2.1); ASL: 2.9 (2.8–2.9); MASW: 4.0 (3.8–4.2). FL: 2.4 (2.2–2.5). Female (N = 1): CL: 1.5; MCW: 2.1; ASL: 2.5; MASW: 3.8. FL: 2.4.

Description

Male holotype: Dorsum ( Fig. 21A View Figure 21 ). Scutum outline pyriform, widest at groove between mesotergal areas I and II. Anterior margin of carapace with three granules at each side. Frontal hump covered with granules. Eye mound with pair of small paramedian tubercles ( Fig. 21A, C View Figure 21 ). Carapace with sparse small granules. Mesotergum divided into four areas; mesotergal area I divided into left and right halves by median longitudinal groove; mesotergal areas I–IV with row of granules each, the paramedian of areas I–III larger than the remaining; mesotergal area IV entire. Posterior margin with row of granules. Free tergites I–II fused to the scutum, each with transversal row of granules and one tubercle on each corner ( Fig. 21A, E View Figure 21 ); free tergite II bearing median spiniform apophysis pointed backwards ( Fig. 21A, E View Figure 21 ); free tergite III with transversal row of rounded tubercles, with posterior border slightly convex, one tubercle on each corner and median blunt apophysis ( Fig. 21A, E View Figure 21 ). Lateral areas of mesotergum each with row of tubercles larger at area II reaching area III ( Fig. 21A, E View Figure 21 ). Dorsal anal operculum covered by tubercles and bearing median apophysis with broad basis ( Fig. 21E, F View Figure 21 ). Appendages. Pedipalps ( Fig. 21E View Figure 21 ) – trochanter with two ventral setiferous granules. Femur with ventral row of setiferous granules and with subapical mesal spine. Tibia with four mesal (IiIi) and two ectal ([Ii]) spines. Tarsus with four mesal (IiIi) and four ectal (IiIi) spines. Legs – calcaneus I less than half the length of metatarsus I, lighter in colour, and thicker than astragalus. Coxa IV ( Fig. 21A View Figure 21 ) armed with apical prolateral blunt apophysis. Trochanter IV ( Fig. 21A View Figure 21 ) armed with apical prolateral blunt apophysis and retrolateral curved and acuminate distal apophysis. Femur IV ( Fig. 22 View Figure 22 ) short, distinctly curved in dorsal view and with two curvatures (‘S-shaped’) in lateral view, bearing rows of tubercles; with anvilshaped dorsobasal apophysis preceded by a basal rounded tubercle; dorsal surface with three rows of rounded tubercles equal sized, the distal tubercles forming a circle around a large conical distal apophysis; retrolateral surface with row of rounded tubercles, two subdistal larger than the remaining; prolateral of femur IV with row of blunt apophysis located at the distal two-thirds, larger at the median portion of the row; apex ( Fig. 21D View Figure 21 ) with retrolateral conical apophysis, pointed upwards in apical view, and prolateral rounded apophysis of acuminate apex. Tarsal counts: 5/8/6/6. Male genitalia ( Fig. 25G, H View Figure 25 ). Ventral plate with distal border distinctly concave. Group of four distal short setae on the dorsal portion, two short distal blunt setae on the ventral portion of ventral plate, one large seta after group of distal setae. Glans without dorsal process. Stylus with apical setae of subequal size. Colour (in alcohol). Background colour of body, and coxa, trochanter, and femur IV dark brown. Chelicerae and pedipalps light brown, reticulated by dark brown. Trochanters I–III orange-light brown. Metatarsus I–IV with dark rings. Tarsi orange-yellow. Female ( Fig. 21B View Figure 21 ). Free tergites not fused to the dorsal scutum, free tergite II bearing small median spine. Dorsal anal operculum granulous, unarmed. Apical apophysis of coxa IV reduced in relation to the male and spiniform. Trochanter IV narrow, armed with a subdistal retrolateral spine. Femur IV without conspicuous armature.

Variation: The description was based on a not fully developed male (the holotype). In more developed exemplars, the ratio between the maximum width of the abdominal scutum and the carapace is greater and the apophyses of the free tergites and leg IV are more developed. Exemplars less developed than the holotype were also detected. The armature of their coxa, trochanter, and femur IV is even shorter.

HETEROPACHYLUS SPINIGER ROEWER, 1913

( FIGS 23 View Figure 23 , 24 View Figure 24 , 25K, L View Figure 25 , 28 View Figure 28 )

Heteropachylus spiniger Roewer, 1913a: 76 , figure 34, 1923: 421, figure 525; Mello-Leitão, 1923: 123, 1932: 186, figure 113; Soares & Soares, 1954: 267; Soares & Soares, 1974: 611; Acosta, 1996: 217. Kury, 2003a: 142; Sigrist & Carvalho, 2008: 39.

Distribution ( Fig. 28 View Figure 28 ): Species known only from its type locality, in the original description Santos, Brazil ( Roewer, 1913a: 77). However, on the holotype label only ‘Brasilien’ is given, without mention of the exact locality. It could be a mistake or ‘Santos’ in this case may correspond to ‘ Bahia de Todos os Santos’, and not to the town Santos in São Paulo Brazilian state. This would be reasonable considering the distribution of the genus. In the map ( Fig. 28 View Figure 28 ), this species was plotted in Santos but with a question mark.

Material examined: m lectotype (here designated) ( SMF RI – 798), BRAZIL .

Other material: f paralectotype ( SMF RI – 798), BRAZIL, lost .

Diagnosis: Four mesotergal areas ( Fig. 23A View Figure 23 ); mesotergal area I divided by longitudinal groove; complete groove between mesotergal areas II and III ( Fig. 23A View Figure 23 ); mesotergal area III bearing pair of paramedian tubercles and at the same level as the other areas ( Fig. 23A, D View Figure 23 ); mesotergal area IV divided by longitudinal groove ( Fig. 23A View Figure 23 ). Free tergites I–III with a tubercle on each corner ( Fig. 23A View Figure 23 ); free tergites II–III bearing median conical apophysis ( Fig. 23A, B, D View Figure 23 ); free tergite III without keel and not fused to the dorsal scutum in males ( Fig. 23A, B, D View Figure 23 ). Dorsal anal operculum bearing median apophysis ( Fig. 23B, D View Figure 23 ). Femur IV ( Fig. 24 View Figure 24 ) with anvil-shaped dorsobasal apophysis and lacking dorsodistal one. Male genitalia ( Fig. 25K, L View Figure 25 ). The four pairs of distal setae equal sized and forming a group.

Measurements: Male holotype. CL: 1.7; MCW: 2.4; ASL: 3.2; MASW: 4.7. FL: 2.9.

Description

Male holotype: Dorsum ( Fig. 23A View Figure 23 ). Scutum outline pyriform, widest at mesotergal area II. Anterior margin of carapace with three to four granules at each side; frontal hump covered with granules. Eye mound with pair of large paramedian tubercles ( Fig. 23A, C View Figure 23 ), with some smaller granules near the eyes. Carapace smooth. Mesotergum divided into four areas; mesotergal area I divided into left and right halves by median longitudinal groove; mesotergal area III with pair of paramedian tubercles; mesotergal area IV divided into left and right halves by longitudinal groove. Posterior margin with transversal row of granules. Free tergites I–II fused to the scutum, each with a transversal row of granules and with one tubercle on each corner ( Fig. 23A, D View Figure 23 ); free tergite II bearing median curved apophysis, pointed backwards ( Fig. 23A, B, D View Figure 23 ); free tergite III smooth, with posterior border slightly convex, bearing one tubercle on each corner and a median curved apophysis pointed backwards ( Fig. 23A, D View Figure 23 ). Lateral areas of mesotergum each with row of tubercles that increase in size towards the posterior margin of dorsal scutum, reaching mesotergal area II ( Fig. 23A View Figure 23 ). Dorsal anal operculum covered with rounded tubercles, bearing median apophysis pointed backwards ( Fig. 23B, D View Figure 23 ). Appendages. Pedipalps ( Fig. 23A, D View Figure 23 ) – trochanter with two ventral setiferous granules. Femur with ventral row of setiferous granules and with subapical mesal spine. Tibia with four mesal (IiIi) and three ectal (I + Ii) spines. Tarsus with four mesal (IiIi) and four ectal (IiIi) spines. Legs – calcaneus I less than half the length of metatarsus I, lighter in colour, and thicker than astragalus. Coxa IV ( Fig. 23A View Figure 23 ) armed with apical prolateral blunt apophysis. Trochanter IV ( Fig. 23A View Figure 23 ) armed with apical prolateral blunt apophysis and distal retrolateral curved apophysis. Femur IV ( Fig. 24 View Figure 24 ) short, distinctly curved in dorsal view and with two curvatures (‘S-shaped’) in lateral view, bearing rows of tubercles; with anvil-shaped dorsbasal apophysis preceded by a basal rounded tubercle; dorsal surface with three rows of rounded tubercles equal sized, the distal tubercles forming a circle; retrolateral surface with two subdistal rounded large tubercles; prolateral surface with row of blunt apophysis located at the distal two-thirds, larger at the median portion of the row; apex ( Fig. 23E View Figure 23 ) with retrolateral conical apophysis, pointed upwards in apical view, and prolateral rounded apophysis of acuminate apex. Tarsal counts: 6/8–9/6/6. Male genitalia ( Fig. 23K, L View Figure 23 ). Ventral plate subrectangular, narrower in basal portion, with distal border distinctly concave; dorsolateral surface excavated, seeming to be divided into ventral and dorsal layers. Group of four distal short setae on the dorsal portion, two short distal blunt setae on the ventral portion of ventral plate, one large seta after group of distal setae. Glans without dorsal process. Stylus with apical setae subequally sized. Colour (in alcohol). As it is old material, the examined exemplar has lost its colour and is entirely dark yellow. The original description says that the species body and all the appendages are rusty-brown (‘Färbung des Körpers und sämtlicher Gliedmaben einfarbig rostbraun’). Female. Translated from original description: apical apophysis of coxa IV reduced and spiniform. Trochanter IV narrow, armed with a distal spiniform apophysis without conspicuous armature on femur IV. Free tergites not fused to the dorsal scutum, free tergite II bearing a small median spine and free tergite III a small tubercle.

Notes: The original description was based on syntypes, a male and a female. The male was here designed as lectotype, although the female, that would have been the unique paralectotype, is lost.

SMF

Forschungsinstitut und Natur-Museum Senckenberg

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Arachnida

Order

Opiliones

Family

Gonyleptidae

Genus

Heteropachylus

Loc

Heteropachylus peracchii

Mendes, Amanda Cruz 2011
2011
Loc

Heteropachylus peracchii

Sigrist MS & Carvalho CJB 2008: 39
Kury AB 2003: 142
Soares BAM & Soares HEM 1974: 609
1974
Loc

Heteropachylus spiniger

Sigrist MS & Carvalho CJB 2008: 39
Kury AB 2003: 142
Acosta LE 1996: 217
Soares BAM & Soares HEM 1974: 611
Soares BAM & Soares HEM 1954: 267
Mello-Leitao CF 1932: 186
Mello-Leitao CF 1923: 123
Roewer CF 1913: 76
1913