Pseudopucrolia discrepans, (ROEWER, 1943), Mendes, 2011

Mendes, Amanda Cruz, 2011, Phylogeny and taxonomic revision of Heteropachylinae (Opiliones: Laniatores: Gonyleptidae), Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 163 (2), pp. 437-483: 457-465

publication ID

http://doi.org/ 10.1111/j.1096-3642.2011.00706.x

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/A60A87F2-FF8B-FF99-DAA9-E90F5CAD401C

treatment provided by

Valdenar

scientific name

Pseudopucrolia discrepans
status

 

PSEUDOPUCROLIA DISCREPANS ( ROEWER, 1943)  

COMB. NOV. ( FIGS 7 View Figure 7 , 8 View Figure 8 , 12E, F View Figure 12 , 27 View Figure 27 )

Tribunosoma discrepans Roewer, 1943: 25   , pl. 2, figure 16; Soares & Soares, 1954: 298; Acosta, 1996: 223. Kury, 2003a: 143.

Distribution ( Fig. 27 View Figure 27 ): BRAZIL. Sergipe (Aracaju, Maroim and Santo Amaro das Brotas), Paraíba (João Pessoa), Pernambuco (Moreno, Recife and Rio Formoso) and Ceará (Crato). WWF: Ecoregions NT0106, NT0123, NT0151 and NT0152, respectively, Caatinga Enclaves moist forests, Fernando de Noronha-Atol das Rocas moist forests, Pernambuco coastal forests and Pernambuco interior forests.

Material examined: m lectotype (here designated); 3m, f, and 1juv paralectotypes (here designated) ( SMF RII 6194 /105); 2m, f, and 3juv   paralectotypes (here designated) ( SMF8832 View Materials /116) from BRAZIL, Pernambuco; 9m and 9f ( MNRJ04683 View Materials ) from Ceará, Crato, Mané Côco Carrasco, 23.vi.2000, Kury AB.; m ( MNRJ05788 View Materials ) from Paraíba, Gurinhém , 15.iii.1999, Kury AB & Giupponi APL; 2m ( MNRJ06976 View Materials ) from João Pessoa , Mata do Buraquinho , iii.1996, Kury AB; m and f ( MNRJ06815 View Materials ), 8m and 11f ( MNRJ06874 View Materials ), 15m and 4f ( MNRJ05613 View Materials ), 4m and 6f ( MNRJ04922 View Materials ) from Jardim 13 de Maio, viii.1993 - ix.1996. Batista LV; m ( MNRJ42328 View Materials ), 10m and 12f ( MNRJ42706 View Materials ) from Pernambuco, von Ihering R; m ( MNRJ05792 View Materials ) from 3 km ao Norte de Rio Formoso . 27.iii.1999. Kury AB & Giupponi APL; 9m and 16f ( MNRJ06434 View Materials ) from Moreno, Bonança [Tapera], 20.ii.1989, Baptista RLC; 6m and 4f ( MNRJ01456 View Materials ), 3f ( MNRJ01518 View Materials ), m ( MNRJ27066 View Materials ) from Moreno, Bonança [Tapera], Pickel B; m and f ( MNRJ14334 View Materials ) from Recife, Parque Zoobotânico Dois Irmãos, de Castro AL; m ( HEMS0167 View Materials ) from Sergipe, Aracaju, Atalaia, dunas, 5.x.1952, Schubart O; 4m and 4f ( MNRJ04648 View Materials ) from Aracaju, Campus Universitário da Universidade Federal do Sergipe, 12.ii.1974; m ( HEMS0942 View Materials ) from Aracaju, Campus Universitário da Universidade Federal do Sergipe, 18.xi.1977, Almeida A; 1f ( HEMS1057 View Materials ) from Aracaju, Morro dos Urubus , 2.x.1952, Schubart O; f ( HEMS0168 View Materials ) from Maroim, Mata da Lombada , roça, 5.x.1952, Schubart O; m and f ( HEMS0169 View Materials ) from Santo Amaro das Brotas, 8.x.1952, Schubart O; 2m and 2f ( MZSP 11328 View Materials ), 3m and f ( MZSP 11328 View Materials ), f ( MZSP 11329 View Materials ) from Santo Amaro das Brotas, Gravatá, x.1978 - ix.1979; m ( HEMS1056 View Materials ) without data   .

Diagnosis: Dorsal surface of the body not densely covered by dark granules. Free tergite II with armature on corners on males (protuberant corners) ( Fig. 7A, E, F View Figure 7 ); median apophysis of free tergite II with length comparable to the tergite length ( Fig. 7A, E View Figure 7 ); free tergite III with posterior border only slightly convex and bearing tubercles on the lateral corners ( Fig. 7F View Figure 7 ). Calcaneus I about half the length of metatarsus I. Main dorsal row of tubercles of femur IV with an enlarged medial apophysis ( Fig. 7C, D View Figure 7 ).

Measurements: Male lectotype: CL: 2.1; MCW: 3.0; ASL: 3.4; MASW: 6.2. FL: 4.4; Males (N = 5): CL: 1.9 (1.7–2.1); MCW: 2.5 (2.4–3.0); ASL: 3.2 (3.1–3.4); MASW: 5.4 (5.2–6.2). FL: 3.6 (3.3–4.4). Females (N = 4): CL: 1.7 (1.6–1.7); MCW: 2.3 (2.2–2.3); ASL: 2.8 (2.7–3.0); MASW: 4.7 (4.5–4.9). FL: 3.0 (3.0–3.1).

Description

Male lectotype: Dorsum ( Fig. 7A View Figure 7 ). Scutum outline pyriform, widest at mesotergal area II. Anterior margin of carapace with one to two small tubercles at each side. Frontal hump covered with granules. Eye mound with pair of small paramedian tubercles ( Fig. 7C View Figure 7 ) and some granules near the eyes. Carapace smooth. Mesotergum divided into three areas; mesotergal area I divided into left and right halves by median longitudinal groove; mesotergal areas I–II with pair of small paramedian granules; mesotergal area III bearing pair of paramedian tubercles. Posterior margin and free tergites I–II with a transversal row of granules each. Free tergites I–II fused to the dorsal scutum; free tergite II bearing median robust blunt apophysis with wide basis ( Fig. 7A View Figure 7 ) pointed backwards ( Fig. 7C View Figure 7 ), and a blunt apophysis on each corner ( Fig. 7A, E, F View Figure 7 ); free tergite III with posterior border slightly convex ( Fig. 7A View Figure 7 ), with transversal keel ( Fig. 7F View Figure 7 ) and projected corners ( Fig. 7A, E, F View Figure 7 ). Lateral areas of mesotergum with row of tubercles larger at area II. Dorsal anal operculum coarse, projected backwards on median portion forming a blunt apophysis of wide base ( Fig. 7F View Figure 7 ). Appendages. Pedipalps ( Fig. 7A, E View Figure 7 ) – Trochanter with two ventral setiferous granules. Femur with ventral row of setiferous granules and with subapical mesal spine. Tibia with four mesal (IiIi) and three ectal (i+Ii) spines. Tarsus with four mesal (IiIi) and four ectal (IiIi) spines. Legs – calcaneus I about half length of metatarsus I, thicker than astragalus but not differently coloured. Coxa IV ( Fig. 7A View Figure 7 ) armed with apical prolateral blunt apophysis. Trochanter IV ( Fig. 7A View Figure 7 ) armed with apical prolateral blunt apophysis and distal retrolateral curved apophysis. Femur IV ( Fig. 8 View Figure 8 ) short, distinctly curved in dorsal view and straight in lateral view, bearing rows of tubercles; femur IV without dorsobasal apophysis, with three dorsal rows of rounded tubercles, medial row with larger tubercles and medial apophysis, ending in a rounded tubercle with acuminate apex; retrolateral surface with row of rounded tubercles equal sized, and prolateral row of rounded tubercles, the sizes of which increase progressively towards apex of the femur; apical portion with retrolateral tubercle and prolateral rounded apophysis with acuminate apex ( Fig. 7D View Figure 7 ). Tarsal counts: 6/9/6/6. Male genitalia ( Fig. 12E, F View Figure 12 ). Ventral plate with distal border slightly concave. Group of four distal short setae on the dorsal portion, two short distal blunt setae on the ventral portion of ventral plate, one large basal seta after group of distal setae. Glans   with dorsal thumb-like process. Stylus   with apical setae of subequal size. Colour (in alcohol). Background colour of body orange-brown, uniform, black shaded. Coxa, trochanter, and femur IV orange-brown. Chelicerae, pedipalps, and trochanters I–III yellow. Metatarsi with dark rings. Tarsi pale yellow. Females ( Fig. 7B View Figure 7 ). Free tergites not fused to the dorsal scutum, free tergite II bearing a small median spine. Apical apophysis of coxa IV reduced in relation to males and spiniform. Trochanter IV narrow without armature. Femur IV without conspicuous armature.

Variation: Less developed exemplars are smaller, the body granulation is more evident, and the armature of the free tergite II and coxa, trochanter and femur IV is little developed.

Notes: The material SMF RII 8832/116 was not cited in the original description of the species, but this material must have come to the hand of the author at the same time as the other material (SMF RII6194/ 105). On the label there is the name ( Tribunosoma discrepans   ) besides ‘n.g. n.sp.’, a fact already noted by Acosta (1996).

This species is very much like P. mutica   , especially in the case of the intermediate (but not ‘female-like’) males of that species. It is possible to differentiate them by the presence of a medial dorsal apophysis in femur IV of P. discrepans   , a condition shared with P. rugosa   comb. nov. Exemplars from Sergipe state, an intermediate locality between the distribution areas

D

of both species, are not typical of P. discrepans   as the medial apophysis is not conspicuous. This may suggest a morphological cline, but further analyses are necessary to elucidate the identity of ‘non-typical’ P. discrepans   .

PSEUDOPUCROLIA MUTICA ( PERTY, 1833)  

( FIGS 9 View Figure 9 , 10 View Figure 10 , 12G, H View Figure 12 , 27 View Figure 27 )

Eusarcus muticus Perty, 1833: 203   . Gonyleptes muticus: Koch, 1839a: 13   , 1839b: 41, pl. 225, figure 557; Butler, 1873: 114; Sørensen, 1884: 606.

Eusarchus muticus   [misspelling]: Gervais, 1844: 113. Heterogonyleptes muticus: Roewer, 1913a: 180   , 1923: 468; Mello-Leitão, 1923: 134, 1932: 312; Soares & Soares, 1949: 184; Soares & Bauab-Vianna, 1972: 206, figure 1.

Pseudopucrolia spinosa Roewer, 1912: 167   , 1923: 125, figure 130. Synonym established by Kury, 2003a.

Triaenosoma singularis Roewer, 1913a: 182   , figure 76, 1923: 469, figure 587; Mello-Leitão, 1923: 134, 1926: 377; Roewer, 1930: 350; Mello-Leitão, 1932: 249, figure 184, B. Soares, 1945: 365; Soares & Soares, 1949: 217. [= Eusarcus muticus Perty, 1833   : Soares & Bauab-Vianna, 1972].

Triaenosoma bahiensis Mello-Leitão, 1926: 376   ; Roewer, 1930: 350; Mello-Leitão, 1932: 249, figure 185, B. Soares, 1945: 365; Soares & Soares, 1949: 216. Synonym established by Soares & Bauab- Vianna, 1972.

Pseudotriaenosoma pickeli Mello-Leitão, 1927: 17   [= Triaenosoma singularis Roewer, 1913   : Roewer, 1930].

Pseudopucrolia mutica: Kury, 2003a: 143   .

Distribution ( Fig. 27 View Figure 27 ): BRAZIL. Espírito Santo (São Matheus), Bahia (Arraial d’Ajuda, Conde, Cruz das Almas, Feira de Santana, Itabuna, and Porto Seguro). WWF Ecoregions: NT0103 and NT0104, respectively, Bahia coastal forests and Bahia interior forests.

Material examined: Pseudopucrolia spinosa   f holotype ( SMF) from BRAZIL, Bahia; Triaenosoma singularis   m   holotype ( SMF899 View Materials ) [from São Paulo]; Pseudopucrolia mutica   7m and 13f (04965) from Conde, Fazenda Tiririca, 12.i.1989, Zaher H & Silva H; m, 3f, and 7juv ( MNRJ06796 View Materials ) from same locality, 14.viii.1989. Silva H, Cox, M & Zaher H; 4m, 3f and 7juv ( MNRJ04998 View Materials ) from Cruz das Almas, 2.vii.1967, Becker J; 3m and 4f ( MNRJ04423 View Materials ) from Feira de Santana, Campus Universidade Estadual de Feira de Santana, 18.xi.1977; f ( MNRJ04318 View Materials ) from Itabuna, 1.vii.1989, Hélio R & Cox M; m ( IBSP 1014 View Materials ) from Porto Seguro, Estação Ecológica do Pau-Brazil , 17–20.iv.1998, Brescovit A, Bertani R & Pinto-da-Rocha R; 83m and 93f ( MNRJ 17724 View Materials ), from Porto Seguro , Arraial d’Ajuda , Fazenda do Sr. Valter (16°32′S, 39°08′W), 24–27.ii.2005, Expedição Arachné ; m and 4f ( HEMS0425 View Materials ) from Salvador , Rio Vermelho , vi.1955, Becker J; m ( IBSP352 View Materials ), 2m and f ( IBSP 442 View Materials ), m ( IBSP 452 View Materials ) from Espírito Santo, São Matheus , Reserva Florestal Vale do Rio Doce , i.1998 Brescovit et al.; m ( HEMS0738 View Materials ) without data GoogleMaps   .

Other material: Eusarcus muticus   f holotype (ZSMC) from BRAZIL, lost; Triaenosoma bahiensis   3 syntypes from Bahia, Prof O. lost (?); Pseudotriaenosoma pickeli   specimen(s) (Coll. Fr. Bento Pickel) from Pernambuco, lost (?).

Diagnosis: Dorsal surface of the body not densely covered by dark granules. Free tergite II with armature on corners (protuberant corners) ( Fig. 9A, E View Figure 9 ); median apophysis of free tergite II with length comparable to the tergite length ( Fig. 9A, B View Figure 9 ); free tergite

B

D

III posterior border only slightly convex and bearing an apophysis on each corner. Calcaneus I less than half the metatarsus length. Medial apophysis in the main dorsal row of tubercles of femur IV absent ( Fig. 10 View Figure 10 ).

Measurements: Males (N = 5): CL: 1.8 (1.6–1.9); MCW: 2.3 (2.3–2.4); ASL: 3.0 (2.8–3.2); MASW: 5.2 (4.9–5.5). FL: 3.4 (3.2–3.9). Females (N = 5): CL: 1.6 (1.5–1.6); MCW: 2.2 (2.1–2.2); ASL: 2.5 (2.5–2.6); MASW: 4.1 (4.1–4.1). FL: 3.0 (2.9–3.5).]

Description

Male MNRJ04965: Dorsum ( Fig. 9A View Figure 9 ). Scutum outline pyriform widest at area II. Anterior margin of carapace with three tubercles on each side. Frontal hump with granules. Eye mound with pair of small paramedian tubercles ( Fig. 9A, C View Figure 9 ), with some granules near the eyes. Carapace smooth. Mesotergum divided into three areas; mesotergal area I divided into left and right halves by median longitudinal groove; mesotergal areas I–II with pair of paramedian granules; mesotergal area III bearing pair of paramedian tubercles. Posterior margin and free tergite I with a transversal row of granules each. Free tergites I–II fused to the dorsal scutum; free tergite II smooth bearing median apophysis pointed backwards and a robust apophysis on each corner ( Fig. 9A, E View Figure 9 ); free tergite III smooth, with posterior border slightly convex, with transverse keel ( Fig. 9F View Figure 9 ) and protuberant corners. Lateral areas of mesotergum with row of tubercles, the last ones larger ( Fig. 9A View Figure 9 ). Dorsal anal operculum coarse, projected backwards in the median portion forming a blunt apophysis of wide base ( Fig. 9F View Figure 9 ). Appendages. Pedipalps ( Fig. 9A, E View Figure 9 ) – trochanter with two ventral setiferous granules. Femur with ventral row of setiferous granules and with subapical mesal spine. Tibia with four mesal (IiIi) and three ectal (i+Ii) spines. Tarsus with four mesal (IiIi) and four ectal (IiIi) spines. Legs – calcaneus I less than half the length of metatarsus I, colour lighter and thicker than astragalus. Coxa IV ( Fig. 9A View Figure 9 ) armed with apical prolateral blunt apophysis. Trochanter IV armed with apical prolateral blunt apophysis and distal retrolateral curved apophysis. Femur IV ( Fig. 10 View Figure 10 ) short, slightly curved in dorsal view and straight in lateral view, bearing rows of tubercles; without dorsobasal apophysis, with three dorsal rows of rounded tubercles, larger at the medial row, ending in a rounded tubercle with acuminate apex; retrolateral surface with row of rounded tubercles equal sized and prolateral surface with row of rounded tubercles, the sizes of which increase progressively towards apex of the femur; apical portion ( Fig. 9D View Figure 9 ) with retrolateral tubercle and prolateral rounded apophysis with acuminate apex. Tarsal counts: 6/9–10/6/6. Male genitalia ( Fig. 12G, H View Figure 12 ). Ventral plate with distal border slightly concave. Group of four distal short setae on the dorsal portion, two short distal blunt setae on the ventral portion of ventral plate, one large basal seta after group of distal setae. Glans   with dorsal thumb-like process. Stylus   with apical setae of subequal size. Colour (in alcohol). Background colour of the body and coxa, trochanter and femur IV reddish brown, uniform. Chelicerae, pedipalps, and trochanters I–III yellow. Legs I–III yellow, calcaneus I, and tarsi pale yellow. Female ( Fig. 9B View Figure 9 ). Apical apophysis of coxa IV reduced in relation to males and spiniform. Trochanter IV narrow without armature. Femur IV without conspicuous armature. Free tergites not fused to the dorsal scutum, free tergite II bearing small median spine and a tubercle at each corner.

Variation ( Fig. 26 View Figure 26 ): Less developed exemplars do not show an apophysis on each corner of free tergite II as robust as that of the exemplar described above. The apophyses are spiniform and as large as the median apophysis of free tergite II.

Notes: The types of Pseudotriaenosoma pickeli   were not found. The type locality (Pernambuco) coincides with the distribution area of Pseudopucrolia discrepans   that is very similar to P. mutica   (see notes on P. discrepans   ). It is possible that P. pickeli   is a junior synonym of P. discrepans   ; however, this could only be confirmed by analysis of the types because the original description is not very informative and it is not accompanied by illustrations.

The type locality of Triaenosoma singularis   (São Paulo) is not within the distribution area of the subfamily. Roewer (1923), in his catalogue, considered the type locality of T. singularis   doubtful (p. 468: ‘genauer Fundort?’ – exact place of discovery?), so it is probably a mistake and it was not considered as part of the distribution of the species in this paper. The type of T. singularis   is an exemplar of P. mutica   , and the only mention of locality on the label was ‘Brazilien’ ( Brazil), which reinforces the possibility of a mistake.

SMF

Forschungsinstitut und Natur-Museum Senckenberg

R

Departamento de Geologia, Universidad de Chile

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Arachnida

Order

Opiliones

Family

Gonyleptidae

Genus

Pseudopucrolia

Loc

Pseudopucrolia discrepans

Mendes, Amanda Cruz 2011
2011
Loc

Pseudopucrolia mutica: Kury, 2003a: 143

Kury AB 2003: 143
2003
Loc

Tribunosoma discrepans

Kury AB 2003: 143
Acosta LE 1996: 223
Soares BAM & Soares HEM 1954: 298
Roewer CF 1943: 25
1943
Loc

Pseudotriaenosoma pickeli Mello-Leitão, 1927: 17

Mello-Leitao CF 1927: 17
1927
Loc

Triaenosoma bahiensis Mello-Leitão, 1926: 376

Soares BAM & Soares HEM 1949: 216
Soares BAM 1945: 365
Mello-Leitao CF 1932: 249
Roewer CF 1930: 350
Mello-Leitao CF 1926: 376
1926
Loc

Triaenosoma singularis

Soares BAM & Soares HEM 1949: 217
Soares BAM 1945: 365
Mello-Leitao CF 1932: 249
Roewer CF 1930: 350
Mello-Leitao CF 1926: 377
Mello-Leitao CF 1923: 134
Roewer CF 1913: 182
1913
Loc

Pseudopucrolia spinosa

Roewer CF 1923: 125
Roewer CF 1912: 167
1912
Loc

Eusarchus muticus

Soares HEM & Bauab-Vianna MJ 1972: 206
Soares BAM & Soares HEM 1949: 184
Mello-Leitao CF 1932: 312
Roewer CF 1923: 468
Mello-Leitao CF 1923: 134
Roewer CF 1913: 180
Gervais P 1844: 113
1844
Loc

Eusarcus muticus

Sorensen WE 1884: 606
Butler AG 1873: 114
Koch CL 1839: 13
Koch CL 1839: 41
Perty JAM 1833: 203
1833