Apioninae, Schoenherr, 1823

Wanat, Marek, 2021, New basal taxa of South African Apioninae (Coleoptera: Curculionoidea: Brentidae), Zootaxa 5035 (1), pp. 1-60: 52-53

publication ID

https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.5035.1.1

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:95CC79A1-8A2D-4532-8E59-A3DA1A437A62

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/A40A5638-E873-CD6D-FF6B-2D73FA6E6933

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Apioninae
status

 

Key to the basal genera of South African Apioninae  

[supplementary diagnostic information added in square brackets]

1 Elytral suture sinuately distorted apically due to development of a pocket-like apical elytral lock; sutural slot on left elytron open; striae joining apically according to the 1+2+9 or (1+9) (2+8) formula, never with longer remains of stria 10 separate from stria 9. Procoxae conical, without dentiform process limiting rotation of trochanter. Mesoventral and metaventral processes separating mesocoxae of similar length or both reduced and not meeting............... derived Apioninae   (tribe Apionini   )

- Elytral suture straight and not modified apically, sutural slot on left elytron closed ( Fig. 138 View FIGURES 132–143 ); striae joining apically in a different way. Procoxae pyriform, pro- and mesocoxae with variably developed dentiform process limiting rotation of trochanter ( Fig. 201 View FIGURES 200–211 ). Mesocoxal septum complete, consisting mainly of mesoventral process at least twice as long as metaventral process................................................................................................. 2

2 Procoxal cavities fully separated by flattened process of prosternum joining prosternellum. Procoxae not or slightly projecting beyond prothorax outline in lateral view. [Body broad and flattened. Elytral striae mostly confused and apically not connecting. On cycad genus Encephalartos   ]......................................................................... 3

- Procoxal cavities contiguous. Procoxae strongly projecting beyond prothorax outline in lateral view.................... 4

3 Rostrum in male over 2.5 × as long as wide, in female over 2 × as long as pronotum. Profemora in males with angular protuberance on ventral side, usually covered with dense light setae. Protibiae without outer apical teeth............................................................................................................. Antliarhis Billberg  

- Rostrum in male less than twice as long as wide, in female not longer than pronotum. Profemora in males even and bare ventrally, globose on dorsal side. Protibiae modified apically, double-toothed on outer edge............................................................................................................... Platymerus Schoenherr  

4 Fore femora enlarged (bizarre in males), on whole length with multiple rows of numerous small tubercles varying in height. Bi-lobed tarsomere 3 of all legs enlarged and encompassing onychium, the latter with a pair of straight dorsal setae, close to each other and projecting far beyond claws. [Body length> 4.5 mm].......................... Mecolenus Schoenherr  

- Fore femora not or only slightly enlarged, at most with a few small spines close to knee or unarmed. Tarsal onychium distinctly protruding from not conspicuously enlarged tarsomere 3, without forward-projecting paired setae or with setae broadly separated and not surpassing apex of onychium................................................................. 5

5 Body 6.5–9.0 mm long, flattened, strongly elongate. Pronotum with a peculiar, very short basal flange, which is retracted on sides and much narrower than rounded sides of pronotal disc. All tibiae clearly shorter than pronotum. [In inflorescences of several Protea spp.   ]..................................................................... Tanaos Schoenherr  

- Body smaller (1.4–5.0 mm), not distinctly flattened. Pronotum subcylindrical, its basal flange absent or ill-defined and not retracted. Tibiae not shorter than pronotum................................................................. 6

6 Pronotal disc coarsely tuberculate, lacking punctures........................................ Apiomorphus Wagner  

- Pronotal disc entirely or in part with punctures.............................................................. 7

7 Elytra 9-striate, stria 10 entirely absent; striae joining apically 1+9, 2+7, stria 8 apically free, ending far before elytral apex. Antennal scape as long as about 0.7 of funicle. [On Brabejum   ( Proteaceae   )]................... Setapion Balfour-Browne  

- Elytra with at least apical portion of stria 10 present, striae joining apically (1+10)+(2+9), stria 8 not shortened apically. Antennal scape not longer than half of funicle, usually much shorter................................................. 8

8 Head, pronotum and elytra with moderately dense vestiture consisting of appressed whitish hair-like scales, on elytra present in one row within striae and 1–2 confused rows on intervals, not aggregated in fasciae. Epifrons between eyes with 3 low keels. Pronotum 1.28–1.35 × as long as wide. [Erect setae absent. Subhumeral portion of the 10 th elytral stria present.].............................................................................................. Turnerapion   gen. n.

- Body naked, setose, or with irregular patches of recumbent hair-like scales accompanied with long erect setae on whole body. Epifrons between eyes glabrous, punctate or irregularly sulcate. Pronotum 1.1–1.2 × as long as wide................... 9

9 Antennae long: all segments of funicle elongate, club loose. Apical setal tufts on tibiae uniform...................... 10

- Antennae short, at least three distal funicular segments isodiametric or transverse, club compact.Apical setal tufts on tibiae with a pair of outstanding white setae.................................................. Afrotibicina Alonso-Zarazaga  

10 Head, pronotum, elytra and legs with numerous erect setae, on tibiae protruding from outer margin................... 11

- Erect setation missing except for several minute specialized setae on elytral intervals. [Elytra usually bi-colored, each black with a red stripe on intervals 4–6. On Apodytes dimidiata   .].................................... Apodytapion   gen. n.

11 Erect setae very long, partly ruffled and varying in length, usually at least 2–3 × longer than breadth of elytral intervals, on pronotum and head mostly forward-directed. Appressed pilosity on pronotum and elytral intervals absent. Subhumeral portion of the 10 th elytral stria present. Rostrum thin, in profile subparallel-sided. Male protibia with mucro....................................................................................................... Rhynchitapion   gen. n.

- Erect setae shorter, on elytra at most 1.5 × as long as breadth of interval or, if longer, accompanied with recumbent pilosity. Subhumeral portion of the 10 th elytral stria absent. Rostrum short and stout. Male protibia without mucro.............. 12

12 Elytra red with darkened sutural and marginal intervals, well contrasting with piceous-black rest of body. Erect setae on elytra all light and fine, slightly shorter than breadth of interval. Appressed pilosity absent. Rostrum profile in female subparallelsided. [Femora with protruding setae.].......................................... Lepanomidius magdaloides   sp. n.

- Body uniformly dark testaceous to piceous-black, or elytra with transverse crescentic flavescent mark. Erect setae on elytra longer than breadth of interval. Appressed pilosity present at least on outermost intervals and pronotum sides. Rostrum profile tapering in both sexes................................................................................. 13

13 Body piceous-black with flavescent markings on elytra. Elytral clothing consisting of appressed hair-like scales arranged in irregular patches and mixed dark and light erect setae bifid or truncate apically. Pronotum densely covered with appressed hairlike scales; prescutellar fovea distinct. Rostrum short, 1.3–1.5 × as long as wide and 0.60–0.65 × as long as pronotum, in profile with tooth-like ventral prominence. Femora with numerous sub-erect setae. Body length <3.6 mm ................................................................................................... Lepanomus Balfour-Browne  

- Body uniformly dark testaceous to piceous-black, without markings. Elytra and pronotum with inconspicuous, evenly distributed appressed pilosity only on sides; erect setae thin, pointed apically. Pronotal prescutellar fovea obsolescent. Rostrum longer, 2.2–2.6 × as long as wide and 0.8–0.9 × as long as pronotum, in profile gently angulate ventrally. Femora only with appressed pilosity. Body length>4.0 mm.......................................................... Lepanomidius   gen. n.