Habenaria psammophila J.A.N.Bat., Bianch. & B.M.Carvalho, 2010

Batista, João A. N., Ramalho, Bruno M. Carvalho Aline J. & Bianchetti, Luciano B., 2010, Three new species of Habenaria (Orchidaceae) from Serra da Canastra, Minas Gerais, Brazil, Phytotaxa 13, pp. 27-39 : 28-32

publication ID

https://doi.org/ 10.11646/phytotaxa.13.1.2

DOI

https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4899901

persistent identifier

https://treatment.plazi.org/id/A21087AC-FFA4-490F-FF58-69F4FAC7FB46

treatment provided by

Felipe

scientific name

Habenaria psammophila J.A.N.Bat., Bianch. & B.M.Carvalho
status

sp. nov.

Habenaria psammophila J.A.N.Bat., Bianch. & B.M.Carvalho , sp. nov. ( Figs. 1 View FIGURE 1 , 2 View FIGURE 2 )

Habenariae cultelifoliae vegetative similis sed distinguitur petali segmento anteriore longiore (1.5–1.6-plo longiore quam segmento posteriore), labelli segmentis lateralibus longioribus (1.8–2.0-plo longioribus quam segmento mediano) et calcari breviore ((3.0–)4.0– 4.5 mm).

Type:— BRAZIL. Minas Gerais: São Roque de Minas, Parque Nacional da Serra da Canastra, entre a portaria principal a partir de São Roque de Minas e a nascente do Rio São Francisco , 20°15’40.7”S, 46°25’37.3”W, 1370 m, 8 January 2007 (fl), Batista, Mota, Faria & Borges 1794 (holotype: BHCB, isotypes: AMES, CEN, MBM, RB, SP) GoogleMaps .

Terrestrial herb. Tuber and roots not examined. Stem erect or slightly sinuose, 26–53 cm long, including the inflorescence, 1.0–2.2(–2.6) mm wide. Leaves 5–8, erect, spreading, widest at the middle, straight, linear, 4.5–18.0 × 0.2–0.5 cm, narrowly acute, conduplicate, somewhat papery, non-membranous. Inflorescence 4– 15 cm long, few to many-flowered, lax, usually one-sided; bracts elliptic, caudate, 5.0–23.0(–27.5) × 3.5–5.0 mm, about the same size as the ovary and pedicel. Flowers 3–27, greenish; ovary and pedicel (7–) 9–11 mm long; ovary slightly arched, 6–9 mm long, pedicel 1 mm long. Sepals green, discretely mucronate, margins whitish, smooth; dorsal sepal concave, when flattened elliptic, 4.0–6.0(–7.0) × 3.0–4.0(–4.5) mm; lateral sepals obliquely lanceolate or obliquely elliptic, acute, reflexed or deflexed, 4.0–6.0 (–7.0) × 1.5–2.0 mm. Petals bipartite, green, base whitish, turning light green towards the segments apices; posterior segment linear-falcate, (3.5–)4.0–5.0 (–6.0) × 0.8–1.0 (–1.3) mm, acute, adherent to the dorsal sepal; anterior segment erect, linear-filiform, inserted at the base of the posterior segment, (5.0–)6.0–8.0 (–9.5) mm long. Lip tripartite, green, base whitish, turning light green towards the segments apices, undivided basal part short, 0.5–1.0 mm long; lateral lobes perpendicular to midlobe, erect, linear-filiform, (6–)7–10(–11) mm long; midlobe linear, straight, 3.5–5.5(–7.0) × 0.8–1.0 mm. Spur deflexed, free from the bracts, slightly clavate, shorter than the ovary and pedicel, (3.0–)4.0– 4.5 mm long, base 0.5–0.8 mm wide, whitish, apex 0.8–1.0 (– 1.3) mm wide, green. Column erect, 1.5 mm high; connective emarginate, green; auricles fleshy, verrucose, whitish, 1.0 × 0.7–1.1 mm. Anther locules 0.7–0.8 mm high, canals obscure, 0.0– 0.3 mm long; hemipollinaria 2, separate, 0.8 mm long each; viscidia rounded, dorsiventrally flat, 0.2 × 0.2 mm, ca. 0.2 mm apart from each other; caudicles, 0.3–0.4 mm long; pollinia 0.4 mm long. Stigma lobes 2, base parallel, apices in contact to each other, 1.5–2.3 mm long, receptive part green, 1.1–1.3 mm long, slightly convex, turned upwards, inner margins thickened, apices with a short protrusion that touches the rostellum midlobe, dividing the entrance of the spur into two openings; rostellum 1.0– 1.3 mm long, green; midlobe triangular, fleshy, acute, 0.7 mm long, 0.8–1.1 mm high, apex curved frontwards, completely situated between anther locules or partially projecting beyond; lateral lobes apically convergent, 0.4–0.5 mm long.

Distribution:—The new species ranges from Chapada dos Veadeiros in the central plateau to Serra da Canastra in southwestern Minas Gerais, encompassing approximately 700 km in the north-south direction. However, it is known from just five localities: Chapada dos Veadeiros, Serra dos Pirineus, and Cristalina in Goiás, Serra da Canastra in Minas Gerais and Chapada da Contagem in the Federal District, all tropical upland grasslands. In a published account of Orchidaceae of the Federal District (Batista & Bianchetti 2003), H. psammophila was listed as H. aff. cultellifolia Barbosa Rodrigues (1877: 155) .

Habitat, ecology and phenology:—The new species has a range of 1200–1400 m, growing in sandy, shallow, seasonally wet grasslands, usually associated with murundus or campos rupestres vegetation. In Serra da Canastra other Habenaria species such as H. caldensis Kraenzlin (1892: 128) , H. pseudoculicina , H. cf. nuda Lindley (1835: 312) , H. magniscutata Catling (1987: 760) , H. guilleminii Reichenbach f. (1847: 375) and other terrestrial orchid species such as Platythelys paranaensis ( Kraenzlin 1911: 42) Garay (1977: 197) and Lyroglossa grisebachii (Cogniaux 1895: 207) Schlechter (1921: 27) occur in the same habitats and flower at approximately the same time. In the central plateau H. psammophila is sympatric with Habenaria pasbtii J.A.N.Bat. & Bianch. (Batista et al. 2003: 397), H. imbricata Lindley (1835: 313) and other orchid species such as Liparis bifolia Cogniaux (1895: 289) . Flowering occurs from the peak to the end of the rainy season, from January to March, and is usually accompanied by brushfires during the dry season. All collections of the species by the authors were made in areas previously burned. In some localities large numbers of flowering specimens were observed.

Etymology:—From the Greek psammo (sand) and philus (loving), referring to the sandy soils where the species grows.

Conservation status:—Using the World Conservation Union Red List Categories and Criteria ( IUCN 2001), H. psammophila would be classified as Least Concern. The species has a broad distribution, and although it is know from just five localities it is locally common; three of these areas, Serra da Canastra, Chapada dos Veadeiros and Serra dos Pirineus, are protected as national or state parks. Lastly it is unlikely to suffer collection pressure from orchid enthusiasts.

Additional specimens examined:— BRAZIL. Distrito Federal: Chapada da Contagem, Cachoeiras de Mumunhas , 31 March 1995 (fl), Batista & Bianchetti 569 ( CEN) ; Chapada da Contagem , 21 March 1973 (fl), Heringer 12773 ( UB, HB) ; Chapada da Contagem , 15 February 1973 (fl), Heringer 12850 ( HB) ; Goiás: Pirenópolis , 31 March 1990 (fl), Batista & Salles 073 ( CEN) ; Pirenópolis , 31 March 1990 (fl), Batista & Salles 074 ( CEN) ; Chapada dos Veadeiros , 27 January 1993 (fl), Batista & Bianchetti 385 ( CEN) ; Cristalina , BR-040, cerca de 4–5 km N de Cristalina, 11 March 1999 (fl), Batista & Bianchetti 882 ( CEN) ; Chapada dos Veadeiros, 20–25 km a noroeste de Cavalcante , 21 February 1997 (fl), Batista et al. 717 ( CEN) ; Alto Paraíso, Chapada dos Veadeiros , GO-118, km 187, ca. de 21 km ao N de Alto Paraíso, 25 March 2001 (fl), Batista et al. 1229 ( CEN) ; Alto Paraíso, Chapada dos Veadeiros, GO-118, 27 km N de Alto Paraíso em direção a Teresina de Goiás , 13º56’41.9”S, 47º27’12.9”W, 1490 m, 4 February 2010, Batista et al. 2953 ( BHCB) GoogleMaps ; Pirenópolis , 27 March 1991 (fl), Bianchetti et al. 1156 ( CEN) ; Pirenópolis, estrada velha Pirenópolis- Cocalzinho, a 5.6 km de Pirenópolis , 22 February 1993 (fl), Bianchetti 1466 ( CEN) ; Alto Paraíso, GO-118, Serra da Baliza , topo do morro, 15 March 1995 (fl), Cavalcanti et al. 1384 ( CEN, SP, SPF) ; Chapada dos Veadeiros , 16 February 1979 (fl), Gates & Estabrook 229 ( UB) ; Alto Paraíso, GO-12, Chapada dos Veadeiros , 1300–1500 m, 20 February 1975 (fl), Hatschbach et al. 36360 ( MBM, NY) ; 15–20 km O de Alto Paraíso , GO-118, 1400–1500 m, 13 February 1990 (fl), Hatschbach et al. 53944 ( MBM) ; Cristalina , 2 February 1967 (fl), Heringer 11328 ( UB) ; Chapada dos Veadeiros , 8 February 1966 (fl), Irwin et al. 12360 ( UB) ; Cristalina , 2 March 1966 (fl), Irwin et al. 13312 ( NY) ; Chapada dos Veadeiros , 10 km S of Alto Paraíso, 21 March 1969 (fl), Irwin et al. 24869 ( HB, NY, UB) ; Alto Paraíso , 19 March 1971 (fl), Irwin et al. 32176 ( NY) ; Chapada dos Veadeiros , 25 March 1971 (fl), Irwin et al. 33176 ( UB) ; Cavalcante, Chapada dos Veadeiros , 13 o 37'29''S, 47 o 32'01''W, 21 February 1997, Oliveira et al. s.n. ( UB) GoogleMaps ; Cristalina, 16 o 46’S, 47 o 37’W, 1050 m, ca. 5 km da cidade, estrada para Paracatu , 4 February 1987 (fl), Pirani et al. 1576 ( SPF) GoogleMaps ; Serra Topázio, 20 km de Cristalina , 15 February 1973 (fl), Rizzo 8810 ( UFG) ; Pirenópolis , 31 March 1990 (fl), Salles 1657 ( HEPH) ; Alto Paraíso , 6 February 1993 (fl), Salles 1863 ( HEPH) ; Alto Paraíso , 6 February 1993 (fl), Salles 1867 ( HEPH) ; Chapada dos Veadeiros , 16 February 1979 (fl), Sano 063 ( UB) ; 17,4 km da estrada Alto Paraíso / Colinas, fazenda Salto , 1300 m, 23 February 1991 (fl), Walter et al. 649 ( IBGE) ; Minas Gerais: São Roque de Minas, Parque Nacional da Serra da Canastra, estrada São Roque de Minas - Sacramento , em direção a Sacramento , cerca de 4 km após a portaria São Roque , 12 March 2000 (fl), Batista & Lemos 1064 ( CEN) ; 6.9 km a partir da portaria principal de São Roque de Minas, em direção a Sacramento, cerca de 1.1–1.3 km após a nascente do Rio São Francisco , 20°13'57.4"S, 46°26'36.7"W, 1407 m, 9 January 2007 (fl), Batista et al. 1807 ( BHCB) GoogleMaps ; estrada São Roque - Sacramento , km 55, 22 February 1997 (fl), Nakajima et al. 2273 ( HUFU) ; próximo a sede administrativa, 11 January 1996 (fl), Romero et al. 3248 ( HUFU) ; morro antes do Córrego dos Passageiros , 10 January 1998 (fl), Romero et al. 4964 ( HUFU) .

This is one of the several new species of Habenaria that was first collected in the sixties during the botanical exploration of the Brazilian central plateau that followed the founding of Brasília; it remained overlooked until now. As far as we could determine H. psammophila was first collected by Howard S. Irwin in 1966 in Chapada dos Veadeiros, Goiás. Guido F.J. Pabst, the most prominent orchid taxonomist in Brazil at that time, examined several collections of H. psammophila but misidentified them as H. culicina Reichenbach f. & Warming (1881: 79), H. armata Reichenbach f. (1854: 10), H. alpestris Cogniaux (1893: 74) , H. nasuta Reichenbach f. & Warm. (1881: 80), and H. confusa Cogniaux (1893: 65) , the former a synonym of H. secundiflora Barbosa Rodrigues (1881: 252) . These mistakes probably reflected the poor characterization of these species at that time and prevented the recognition of H. psammophila as a new species before.

Despite these misidentifications the species to which H. psammophila seems most similar is H. cultellifolia . In both species the leaves are linear, erect, straight, spread, somewhat papery, non-membranous, and conduplicated. However, the two species differ in length of pedicel and ovary (7–11 mm long in H. psammophila versus 14–19 mm long in H. cultellifolia ) and size of spur (3.0– 4.5 mm long in H. psammophila versus 10–15 mm long in H. cultellifolia ).

Habenaria culicina , H. alpestris , H. secundiflora and H. armata differ from H. psammophila in their habits. The first three species have linear leaves which are adpressed to the stem along most of its length (versus spread in H. psammophila ). In H. armata the leaves are lanceolate to oblong, and concentrated at the base of the stem. The identification as H. nasuta is unwarranted, since this species has much larger flowers (dorsal sepal 13–19 × 8–11 mm) and longer lateral segments of the petals and lip (25–55 mm long).

BHCB

Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais

AMES

Harvard University - Oakes Ames Orchid Herbarium

CEN

EMBRAPA Recursos Geneticos e Biotecnologia - CENARGEN

MBM

San Jose State University, Museum of Birds and Mammals

RB

Jardim Botânico do Rio de Janeiro

SP

Instituto de Botânica

UB

Laboratoire de Biostratigraphie

HB

Herbarium Bradeanum

N

Nanjing University

SPF

Universidade de São Paulo

NY

William and Lynda Steere Herbarium of the New York Botanical Garden

O

Botanical Museum - University of Oslo

S

Department of Botany, Swedish Museum of Natural History

UFG

Universidade Federal de Goiás

HEPH

Jardim Botânico de Brasília

IBGE

Reserva Ecológica do IBGE

HUFU

Universidade Federal de Uberlândia