Sphenarium histrio Gerstaecker, 1873

Sanabria-Urbán, Salomón, Song, Hojun, Oyama, Ken, González-Rodríguez, Antonio & Castillo, Raúl Cueva Del, 2017, Integrative taxonomy reveals cryptic diversity in neotropical grasshoppers: taxonomy, phylogenetics, and evolution of the genus Sphenarium Charpentier, 1842 (Orthoptera: Pyrgomorphidae), Zootaxa 4274 (1), pp. 1-86: 51-52

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http://doi.org/ 10.5281/zenodo.804182

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Sphenarium histrio Gerstaecker, 1873


Sphenarium histrio Gerstaecker, 1873  

(http://lsid.speciesfile.org/urn:lsid: Orthoptera   .speciesfile.org:TaxonName:37005)

Sphenarium carinatum Bolivar, 1904  

Description. External morphology ( Figs. 15 View FIGURE 15 Q, R, S, T; 18C, D; 20A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I, J): total body length ranging from 22.01 to 41.8 mm in females and from 18.57 to 38.87 mm in males. In most cases: antennae filiform, slightly shorter in females or longer than head and pronotum together in males; head subtriangular-elongated slightly longer than wide in females or conical notably longer than wide in males, with oval eyes in both sexes; fastigium moderately elongated, nearly half the length of interocular space in females or notably elongated, nearly as long as the interocular space in males; tegmina strap-like in both sexes; subgenital plate of males somewhat tapered in the apex; dorsal ovipositor valves rounded or lanceolate slightly elongated towards the apex. Male genitalia: bridge of ectophallus slightly longer than the length of lateral plates ( Figs. 19 View FIGURE 19 G-I, J-I; 21A-I, D-I, G-I). Ectophallus in dorsal view small with lateral borders of ramus convergent, straight (morphotypes 1, 3, and 4; Figs. 19 View FIGURE 19 G-II; 21A-II, D-II, respectively) or slightly rounded (morphotypes 2 and 5; Figs. 19 View FIGURE 19 J-II; 21G-II, respectively); basal emargination of cingulum notably or slightly developed; interspace between the apodemal plates notably closed. Ectophallus in posterior view with a conspicuous sclerotized hollow in the sheath closed (morphotype 4; Fig. 21 View FIGURE 21 E) or moderately open (other morphotypes; Figs. 19 View FIGURE 19 H, K; 21B, H); inflections of supraramus moderately developed, with distal borders ventrally (morphotypes 1, 2, and 5; Figs. 19 View FIGURE 19 H, K; 21H, respectively) or laterally directed (morphotypes 3 and 4; Fig. 19 View FIGURE 19 B, E, respectively); valves of cingulum principally triangular but with distinct variations, each morphotype with its own form; Figs. 19 View FIGURE 19 H, K; 21B, E, H), small (morphotypes 1-4) or moderately large (morphotype 5). Ectophallus in lateral view with valves of cingulum moderately developed dorsoposteriorly (morphotype 5; Fig. 21 View FIGURE 21 I) or not developed posteriorly (morphotypes 1-4; Figs. 19 View FIGURE 19 I, L; 21C, F, respectively). Endophallus in lateral view ( Figs. 19 View FIGURE 19 G-III, J-III; 21A-III, D-III, G-III) with a short pseudoarch tightly joined to the valves of cingulum; aedeagal valves very small, tapered in the apex without apical spine; aedegala valves and sclerites as long as (morphotype 5, Fig. 21 View FIGURE 21 G-III) or about ¾ (other morphotypes; Figs. 19 View FIGURE 19 G-III, J-III; 21A-III, D-III) the length of dorsal inflections of endophallic apodemes.

Colouration. Ground colours vary from olive green, yellow or brown. Body uniformly coloured ( Fig. 15 View FIGURE 15 R, T; 20B) or with the following colour traits ( Figs. 15 View FIGURE 15 Q, S; 20A, B, C, D, E, F): antennae black, gray or dark blue; fastigium blue, brown or black; lateral postocular bands frequently present, narrow and yellowish; dorsal medial line frequently present, wide, yellowish or whitish; dorsal shades frequently present black, brown to dark blue, in southern populations covering entirely the dorsal portion of the body ( Fig. 20 View FIGURE 20 C, D); lateral shades often present, black or dark blue; lateral bands of blotches frequently present, mostly reddish, in some populations in northern ranges of the species yellowish ( Fig. 15 View FIGURE 15 S); ventral bands of pronotum often present, wide, whitish or bluish; pronotum with white lateral carinas and small strips and dots in the posterior margin; mesonotum dorsally red; frequently mesonotum and metanotum laterally white or yellow; lateral blotches of 1st abdominal segment frequently present and whitish; tegmina green, red, magenta or blue; generally hind femora uniformly coloured with knees laterally black, dorsally bluish or brownish; hind tibia green, brown, reddish or blue.

Diagnosis. Externally S. histrio   is very similar to S. mexicanum   , S. totonacum   sp.n., and S. occidentalis   sp.n. Nevertheless, the phallic structures of S. histrio   differ from other species as follows: ectophallus small, conspicuous sclerotized hollow of the sheath moderately open or close, inflections of supraramus moderately developed with distal portions ventrally directed in most cases (except in morphotypes 3 & 4), and valves of cingulum with distinct form not developed or slightly developed dorsoposteriorly.

Distribution. This species is distributed in elevations ranging approximately from 15 to 2225 m a.s.l. in Chiapas, Guerrero, Oaxaca, Tabasco, Veracuz, in southern Mexico; and in the states of Huehuetenango and Santa Rosa in Guatemala ( Fig. 7 View FIGURE 7 B). We observed that the five morphotypes identified within the species are apparently restricted to different geographic areas. The morphotype 1 is mainly distributed across the southern Pacific Cost and the outer slope of the Sierra Madre del Sur in Oaxaca. The morphotype 2 is distributed in the Pacific Cost south of the Isthmus of Tehuantepec, as well as in the mountain ranges of Chiapas and north-western Guatemala. The remaining morphotypes are more geographically restricted: the morphotype 3 is distributed principally in the central Valleys of Oaxaca in the Sierra Madre del Sur ( Fig. 7 View FIGURE 7 B, C), the morphotype 4 was observed in the southeastern portion of the Sierra Madre del Sur also in Oaxaca ( Fig. 7 View FIGURE 7 B, C), and morphotype 5 was observed only few localities in the Pacific Cost of Chiapas, Mexico ( Fig. 7 View FIGURE 7 B). Overall, here we recognised smaller distribution ranges for S. histrio   than in Boyle (1974) and Kevan (1977). Within the examined material we identified two S. histrio   males from Sonora (morphotype 2) and Sinaloa (morphotype 3). However, we considered these specimens as mislabelled records considering that multiple collectors, including us, have not recorded S. histrio   beyond the above-specified limits. Moreover, according to the revised material, S. histrio   is apparently absent from the lowlands of the Isthmus of Tehuantepec where S. mexicanum   is distributed. Additional fieldwork will clarify if these two species are sympatric in this geographic region.

Material examined. S. histrio   : holotype m ( Fig. 18 View FIGURE 18 C) from Mexico; designation by monotypy; location: BZM. S. carinatum   : holotype m ( Fig. 18 View FIGURE 18 D) from Guatemala: Santa Rosa, Testuaco; designation by monotypy; location: SIE. We could examine only the external morphology of this type material. Additional material: 398 m, 326 f, form 91 Mexican and Guatemalan localities (Appendix Table 5).  

Taxonomic discussion. Gerstaecker (1873) originally described S. histrio   based on a single male from an unknown Mexican locality considering mainly coloration traits as diagnostic characters for this species. Bolivar (1884) re-described this species based on a male and a female, but also from an unspecified Mexican locality. The validity of this species remained constant in posterior taxonomic studies. Hebard (1932) recognized a closer relationship between S. histrio   and S.mexicanum   based on their morphological resemblance. Later, Márquez (1962) and Boyle (1974) identified differences in endophallic morphology between these two species. However, Boyle (1974) and Kevan (1977) only recognized S. histrio   as a subspecies of S. mexicanum   ( S. mexicanum histrio   ). Recently, Pedraza-Lara et al. (2015) and Sanabria-Urbán et al. (2015) have proposed the recognition of S. histrio   as an independent and valid species within the genus based on morphologic and genetic evidence. In our phylogenetic analysis S. histrio   was recovered as a paraphyletic species despite its notable morphologic cohesiveness. Moreover, we observed notable genetic (with CO1 P-distance> 3%) and morphological differentiation in the male genitalia between S. histrio   and S. mexicanum   . Therefore, here we also agreed in considering S. histrio   as a valid species. Moreover, during this revision we examined several specimens collected near to the reported localities of two putative new taxa recently identified, Sphenarium   sp. Oax9 and Sphenarium   sp. Oax2 (Pedraza-lara et al. 2015) (L11, L167, L172, and L173; Appendix Table 5). The male genitalia of these specimens were similar to those of other S. histrio   individuals. Moreover, CO1 sequences of these taxa intermingled with our samples of S. histrio   ( Fig. 11 View FIGURE 11 ). Therefore, we consider that these putative new taxa probably represent part of S. histrio   .

Sphenarium carinatum   was originally described based on a single male from an uncertain Guatemalan locality, Testuaco, probably Tecuaco ( Bolivar 1904). In later taxonomic studies this species was synonymised with S. m. histrio   ( Boyle 1974; Kevan 1977). In this study we examined multiple specimens from north-western Guatemala; which were similar to other S. histrio   individuals in southern Mexico. Therefore, in the lack of additional evidence we agree in recognising S. carinatum   as a synonym of S. histrio   .














Sphenarium histrio Gerstaecker, 1873

Sanabria-Urbán, Salomón, Song, Hojun, Oyama, Ken, González-Rodríguez, Antonio & Castillo, Raúl Cueva Del 2017

Sphenarium carinatum

Bolivar 1904