Trujano-Ortega, Marysol, Garcia-Vazquez, Uri Omar, Callaghan, Curtis J., Avalos-Hernandez, Omar, Luis-Martinez, Moises Armando & Llorente-Bousquets, Jorge Enrique, 2018, Two new genera of metalmark butterflies of North and Central America (Lepidoptera, Riodinidae), ZooKeys 729, pp. 61-85: 71-74
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Neoapodemia Trujano-Ortega gen. n. Figs 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
Chrysophanus nais Edwards, 1876 by present designation.
The original generic name for Apodemia nais , Chrysophanus Hübner, 1818, is unavailable, having been suppressed by the ICZN. In 1886, Godman and Salvin proposed the generic name Polystigma , with Chrysophanus nais W.H. Edwards as its type species. However, Polystigma Godman & Salvin, 1886 is invalid, being a junior homonym of Polystigma Kraatz, 1880 ( Coleoptera ). Therefore, we propose the name Neoapodemia for this taxon.
This genus contains two species that can be distinguished from other Riodinidae by the presence of the labial palpi that are medium sized, slender, sharp apically and projected upward and forward; the second segment is twice the length of the third segment; third segment and apical third of the second segment are visible from dorsal view (Fig. 2, Table 2). Radial veins originate near the end of the discal cell, costal vein parallel to Sc+R1 separated by at least twice the width of R1 in the closest portion. Vein R4 reaches de margin in the wing apex (Fig. 3). Prothoracic legs of male are slender, trochanter joint beyond the middle of the coxa, tibiae are slightly wider than the tarsi and the length of the femur + trochanter is nearly the same as tibia length. Tarsus with three tarsomeres, the third tarsomere is small, wide at the base tapering toward the apex but with a blunt end (Fig. 4). Male genitalia with tegumen typically oval-shaped, wide, strongly sclerotized in the dorsal region, posterior half hyaline; the uncus is rectangular with a groove in the distal margin, with setae. Gnathi are wide, curved and ending in a sharp tip projected dorsally. Vinculum is a wide sclerotized band not covering the whole margin of the tegumen, generally straight and convex toward the saccus, with an evident swallowing in the mid region. Valvae bifurcated, dorsal process conical of variable width and setae all along, ending in a sharp tip projected dorsally, this process is shorter than the posterior edge of the uncus; the ventral process is short and with a rounded tip, projected anteroventrally, also with setae. Cornuti are a series of long, flatten laterally, strongly sclerotized spines, joined at the base in a crest-like shape (Fig. 5).
Male. Anterior wing length: 15-18 mm. Head. Ringed antennae with 40 flagellomeres with white scales at the base of each flagellomere. Widen in the apical 18-22 flagellomeres, where a nudum is present and it extends to the apex ending in a whitish or yellowish tip. The antennal club is formed by the apical 10-12 flagellomeres, black dorsally and sometimes with a line of white scales. Labial palpi white with black or brown scales in the third segment.
Wings (Figs 3, 6). Triangular with four radial veins. In dorsal view, background color varies in both wings from brown to copper-orange, margins are darker and costal and external margins are outlined with black. External margin with a line of seven rounded dots and a line of rectangular spots in the submarginal area which cross the wing from the costal to the anal margin in both wings. Three subapical white spots, the first two are just short lines and the third is squared and large, situated in the R4 cell. After the spots is an irregular band of black spots in the postmedian area going into the median area. Discal cell with four black bands, with the most external one larger and wider than the remainder. Under the discal cell are three other bands in the postbasal and submedian areas. White and black fringe present in diverse patterns. Particularly, N. nais comb. n. presents copper-orange scales in the discal cell and between the lines of black spots on both wings. Ventrally, anterior wing is orange, lighter and brighter than dorsal view, with the same pattern of black spot as in dorsal side, white spot of R4 cell extends till the apex; the black dots forming the marginal line are surrounded by white scales, as the dots approach the tornus the white scales are present only in the posterior margin. The posterior wing is white at the base and with essentially the same pattern of black spots as in dorsal view, however the base of N. nais comb. n. is white-greyish and the white scales over the veins provide a less uniform pattern to the wing than in N. chisosensis comb. n. This species presents three orange spots in the posterior margin of the line of submarginal spots, while in N. nais comb. n. the orange area is between the line of black submarginal and marginal spots, getting wider as it approaches the tornus. This species also presents an orange area along the costal margin just before the apex and another one in the anterior margin of the irregular band of black spots in the median area.
Legs. Prothoracic legs have dense and long scales generally white or whitish; mid and hind tibiae and tarsi with a series of multiple short and dense white, whitish or yellowish spines in the inner margin.
Genitalia. Generally strongly sclerotized, genital capsule medium sized. The margin of the uncus in dorsal view presents great variation, it can be rounded or straight with a groove of variable depth. Dorsal processes of the valve are conic and membranous toward the transtilla but narrower in N. nais comb. n. than in N. chisosensis comb. n.; the ventral process is also narrower and longer in N. nais comb. n. Aedeagus of N. nais comb. n. is wide, short and sclerotized, of uniform width all along, with a more sclerotized plate in the dorsum and ending in a sharp tip in the posterior edge where it opens dorsally. In N. chisosensis comb. n. aedeagus is narrower, longer and less curved, it slightly widens in the anterior edge and makes narrow toward the posterior edge, with a more sclerotized dorsal plate ending in a blunt tip. Cornuti are a series of long, flattened laterally, strongly sclerotized spines, joined at the base in a crest-like shape (Fig. 5E).
The name is a combination of the Greek prefix neo, meaning new, and Apodemia , in reference to the genus from which it separates.
Distribution and habitat.
This genus has a disjunct distribution. Neoapodemia nais comb. n. is distributed in montane areas with medium to high elevations (1600-2300 m), mostly in the southern and southwestern Rocky Mountains in the USA. In USA inhabits chaparral and open areas of coniferous forests in northern and central Colorado, southeastern New Mexico, and central and southeastern of Arizona where its presence appears to be sporadic ( Scott 1986, Brock and Kaufman 2006). In Mexico it can be found in the Sierra Madre Occidental in the states of Sonora, Chihuahua, and Durango ( Warren et al. 2017). On the other hand, the distribution of N. chisosensis comb. n. is restricted to western Texas in the Chisos Mountains in Big Bend National Park, where it inhabits the chaparral of submontane shrubland.
Larvae of Neoapodemia Trujano-Ortega, gen. n. can be found feeding on plants of the Rosaceae family, Prunus havardii (W. Wight) S.C. Mason, and the Rhamnaceae , Ceanothus fendleri A. Gray ( Scott 1986, Brock and Kaufman 2006, Warren et al. 2017).
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