Ptychoderes nebulosus ( Olivier, 1795 )

Mermudes, José Ricardo M. & Napp, Dilma Solange, 2006, Revision and cladistic analysis of the genus: Ptychoderes Schoenherr, 1823 (Coleoptera, Anthribidae, Anthribinae, Ptychoderini), Zootaxa 1182 (1), pp. 1-130: 70-73

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scientific name

Ptychoderes nebulosus ( Olivier, 1795 )
status

 

Ptychoderes nebulosus ( Olivier, 1795)  

Figs. 7, 9, 11–51 View FIGURES 1–11 View FIGURES 12–15 View FIGURES 16–18 View FIGURES 19–21 View FIGURES 22–23 View FIGURES 24–36 View FIGURES 37–40 View FIGURES 41–42 View FIGURES 43–46 View FIGURES 47–54 , 55–63 View FIGURES 55–57 View FIGURES 58–60 View FIGURES 61–63 , 69 View FIGURES 64–69 , 78 View FIGURES 70–84 , 92, 106 View FIGURES 85–112 , 120 View FIGURES 113–126 , 158–161 View FIGURES 158–176 , 226–227 View FIGURES 221–227 , 229, 235, 238 View FIGURES 228–238 , 261 View FIGURES 251–262 , 268 View FIGURES 267–268. 267

Macrocephalus nebulosus Olivier, 1795   (n° 80): 5, t. 1, fig. 3 a–c.

Ptychoderes nebulosus   ; Schoenherr, 1823: col. 1135; Jekel, 1855: 48; Gemminger & Harold, 1872: 2722 (cat.); Bovie, 1906: 220 (cat.); Wolfrum, 1929: 6 (cat.); Wolfrum, 1953: 3 (cat. supl.); Faustini & Halstead, 1982: 45, 64 (setiferous sex patches); Marvaldi et al., 2002: 764 (molecular); Rheinheimer, 2004: 10 (cat.).

Ptychoderes nebulosa   [sic]; Blackwelder, 1947: 765 (cat.).

Ptychoderes elongatus   ; Lacordaire, 1830: 158; Gyllenhal in Schoenherr, 1833: 120 (non Germar, 1824).

Ptychoderes tricostifrons Fåhraeus   in Schoenherr, 1839: 158; Jekel, 1855: 53; Gemminger & Harold, 1872: 2722 (cat.); Bovie, 1906: 220 (cat.); Jordan, 1906: 303, t. 10, Figs. 1, 1a View FIGURES 1–11 ; Wolfrum, 1929: 6 (cat.); Blackwelder, 1947: 765 (cat.); Holloway, 1985: 162 (setiferous sex patches). Syn. nov.

Ptychoderes tricosifrons   [sic]; Jekel, 1849: 10 (list.) (misspelling).

Ptychoderes nebulosus   s. tricostifrons   [sic]; Rheinheimer, 2004: 10 (cat.).

Ptychoderes columbianus Jekel, 1855: 50   ; Gemminger & Harold, 1872: 2722 (cat.); Bovie, 1906: 219 (cat.); Wolfrum, 1929: 6 (cat.). Syn. nov.

Ptychoderes columbiana   [sic]; Blackwelder, 1947: 765 (cat.).

Ptychoderes nebulosus   s. columbianus   [sic]; Rheinheimer, 2004:10 (cat.).

Male. Vestiture ( Figs. 226–227 View FIGURES 221–227 , 229 View FIGURES 228–238 ): pale dorsal vitta with dense, appressed, whitish scales intermingled with decumbent light­brown scales denser on rostrum, head, and elytral interstriae 2 and 4; apical two thirds of elytra with sparse, suberect, fusiform, lightbrown scales. Pygidium with predominance of brownish scales. Ventral body surface ( Fig. 201 View FIGURES 196–201 ) and legs with dense, appressed yellowish­white to grayish­white scales; sides of prosternum, below lateral carina, with continuous dark vitta of blackish­brown scales. Sides of mesosternum with wide glabrous vitta. Anterior angles of ventrites III–V with small, dark spot of dense, blackish­brown scales. Sides of metasternum, metepisterna and ventrites with shallow setigerous punctures, each provided with a light­brown scale. Outer surface of meso­ and metafemora with strip of blackish­brown scales.

Rostrum ( Figs. 7, 9, 11–23 View FIGURES 1–11 View FIGURES 12–15 View FIGURES 16–18 View FIGURES 19–21 View FIGURES 22–23 ) 1.3–2.0 times as long as wide across base. Distance between scrobe and eyes from half as long to slightly longer than maximum width of eye. Sides looking tricarinate due to careniform upper margin of scrobe; upper carina elongate; with or without transverse carina between scrobal margin and lower carina. Scrobes careniform at dorsal and basal margins; extension wide, slightly deep with deep distal pit slightly wider than extension. Mentum with fine, shallow punctures; weakly impressed at sides and shallowly grooved at apical margin. Gula dull with sparse, fine punctures. Frons almost flat, not impressed near ocular margin, with prominent carinae. Head elongate behind eyes; vertex almost flat.

Antennae ( Figs. 226–227 View FIGURES 221–227 , 229 View FIGURES 228–238 ) from short, reaching basal third of elytra, to slightly longer than body, exceeding elytral apex by two club segments. Segments II to VII increasing in length; VIII–IX slightly shorter than VII; IX about 3 times as long as X; XI one third longer than X (II = 0.6–2.1; III = 0.6–2.5; IV = 0.6–3.3; V = 0.6–4.0; VI = 0.5–4.4; VII = 0.5–4.5; VIII = 0.3–4.1; IX = 0.6–3.5; X = 0.4–1.2; XI = 0.8–1.7).

Prothorax ( Figs. 33 View FIGURES 24–36 , 37–46 View FIGURES 37–40 View FIGURES 41–42 View FIGURES 43–46 , 226–227 View FIGURES 221–227 , 229 View FIGURES 228–238 , 261 View FIGURES 251–262 ) slightly longer than wide, convergent anteriorly from antebasal carina. Longitudinal pronotal depression deep, with almost rounded tubercle, slightly prominent and flat on top, not reaching margins of depression. Rugae short and thickened, restricted to depression, less conspicuous in front of tubercle. Antebasal carina interrupted at middle (more than twice width of carina), sinuous towards lateral carina. Lateral carina strongly sinuous. Secondary carina barely curved, widely interrupted at middle, reaching lateral carina. Laterobasal carina not reaching posterior margin of prothorax. Prosternum ( Fig. 261 View FIGURES 251–262 ) almost flat, with shallow, slightly conspicuous punctures; antecoxal furrow vestigial and curve. Intercoxal process of prosternum at same level of prosternum. Mesosternum uniformly, finely punctate, slightly impressed near intercoxal process. Intercoxal process of mesosternum with longitudinal impression at base, not swollen at lateral and apical margins, with lateroapical projections. Elytra about 2.5 times longer than wide across humeri, flattened between suture and interstriae 3; basal gibbosities inconspicuous. Surface rugose only at base, rugae more prominent at sides. Sides parallel at basal half, then slightly convergent apically. Apex ( Fig. 229 View FIGURES 228–238 ) with subtransverse, prominent, anteapical tubercles, interstriae 3–9 not swollen. Wings with radial cell.

Abdomen. Ventrite I ( Fig. 238 View FIGURES 228–238 ) with developed, almost rounded to suboval setiferous sex patch, clothed with dense, erect, moderately long, yellowish­white pilosity; intercoxal process deeply grooved. Ventrite V not impressed on disk, slightly emarginate at apical margin. Pygidium wider than long, subconvex at anterior half, with short groove to fit elytra; apical margin rounded­truncate.

Terminalia. Tergite VIII ( Fig. 78 View FIGURES 70–84 ) wider than long, subparallel­sided, apical margin almost rounded; sternite VIII ( Fig. 92 View FIGURES 85–112 ) almost rounded at sides, apical margin emarginate forming large, poorly defined lobes, apodeme triangular and sclerotised; apodeme of sternite IX ( Fig. 106 View FIGURES 85–112 ) 2.6 times as long as arms. Tegmen ( Fig. 120 View FIGURES 113–126 ) rounded at apex. Aedeagus ( Figs. 158–161 View FIGURES 158–176 ) with arc between apodemes; tectum ( Fig. 159 View FIGURES 158–176 ) almost straight at proximal margin, narrow at apical third; pedon ( Figs. 158, 160 View FIGURES 158–176 ) with body strongly curved, thickened apically; apodemes curved or not. Internal sac ( Fig. 158 View FIGURES 158–176 ) slightly shorter than aedeagus, spiculated at middle; median sclerites narrowed and sclerotised ( Fig. 161 View FIGURES 158–176 ).

Female. Rostrum 1.2 times as long as wide across base. Antennae short, exceeding middle of prothorax; segments II to IV subequal in length, V–VII slightly shorter and subequal; VIII shortest; IX and XI conspicuously longer than remaining segments (II = 0.3–0.7; III = 0.3–0.7; IV = 0.3–0.7; V = 0.2–0.6; VI = 0.2–0.5; VII = 0.2–0.5; VIII = 0.1–0.4; IX = 0.4–0.7; X = 0.6–0.9; XI = 0.6–0.9). Prothorax as long as wide. Elytra less flattened, lacking fusiform scales. Ventrite V expanded on each side at apex. Disk of ventrite I, in some females with undamaged ventral vestiture, with dense, shining pilosity looking like male sex patch, but pilosity not erect. Terminalia similar to that of P. mixtus   , differing by elongate spermathecal gland, about 5 times as long as spermatheca.

Measurements, in mm, male/female, respectively. TL = 11.5–24.2/9.0–20.5; RL = 1.7–4.3/1.2–2.7; RAW = 1.5–2.3/1.2–2.3; RBW = 1.3–2.0/1.0–2.2; HW = 1.8–3.1/ 1.5–2.9; DSO = 0.6–1.8/0.4–1.0; MLO = 1.1–1.7/0.7–1.7; PL = 3.2–6.5/2.5–5.7; PW = 3.0–5.2/2.4–5.1; EL = 7.5–15.9/5.8–13.5; EW = 3.3–6.3/2.8–5.8.

Variability

The dorsal whitish vitta may be either more or less conspicuous depending on the density of the light­brown scales ( Figs. 198–199 View FIGURES 196–201 ). Intercoxal process of mesosternum rarely without lateroapical projections. Large males with elytra more strongly depressed ( Fig. 199 View FIGURES 196–201 ). All the variations including the colour of ventral vestiture, shape of setiferous sex patch and apodemes of pedon, are randomly found having no relation with geographical distribution.

Type material

The type material of Macrocephalus nebulosus Olivier, 1795   , was not located, and that of P. tricostifrons Fåhraeus, 1839   (NHRS), not examined. P. nebulosus   was described from French Guiana, and P. tricostifrons   from Mexico.

Jekel (1855) did not mention the number of specimens he studied. Syntypes of P. columbianus Jekel, 1855   (1 male, 1 female) (MNHN), were examined. The specimens have a single common label fixed at the box bottom, written: “Columbianus, Jek. Ins. Saund., Columb.” The female has an additional label, written: “Columb”. Type locality. Jekel (1855) reported specimens from Colombia (Bogotá and Cartagena) and Brazil (Amazonas and Pará).

Remarks

P. nebulosus   differs from P. elongatus   by the characters given in the key. See other remarks under P. elongatus   .

Jordan (1906: 302) questioned the distinction among the Ptychoderes species   of the "Group 1", mainly among those having elytral anteapical tubercles ( P. nebulosus   , P. tricostifrons   , P. columbianus   and P. elongatus   ). Actually, the characters mentioned by Jekel (1855: 51) to differentiate P. columbianus   from P. elongatus   are so subtle that they are not sufficient to recognize them. The exam of large amount of specimens widely distributed showed that, probably, they have been identified according to their provenance.

The knowledge of new characters to distinguish P. nebulosus   and P. elongatus   plus the study of great amount of material recorded from wide distribution area, showed: 1) the strong variability of characters mentioned by previous authors as distinctive of P. nebulosus   , P. tricostifrons   and P. columbianus   ; 2) that the variability is not related to geographical distribution, occurring randomly in specimens from the same locality; 3) the consistency of characters used in the present work to differentiate P. nebulosus   from P. elongatus   , also in areas where they are sympatric. These facts justify the proposed synonymy of P. columbianus   and P. tricostifrons   under P. nebulosus   , and the distinction of the latter from of P. elongatus   , partially corroborating Jordan (1906).

Distribution ( Fig. 268 View FIGURES 267–268. 267 )

From southern MEXICO to PARAGUAY, reaching ECUADOR at west, and coast of BRAZIL (São Paulo) at east. In eastern BRAZIL (Espírito Santo, Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo), P. nebulosus   occurs in sympatry with P. elongatus   .

Material examined

MEXICO. 1 M ( MZSP)   ; 1 M, 1 F, Le Moult vend. ( ISNB)   ; 1 M, 1 F, ex­coll. K. Jordan ( BMNH)   ; 1 M, ex­coll. Dejean & ex­coll. Roelofs ( ISNB)   . Canelas (not stated). 1 F, Heyne , Berlin­Wilm. leg. ( ISNB)   . Las Mercedes (not stated) (3.000 ft), 1 F, ex­coll. Champion ( ISNB)   . Ghiesbrecht (not stated)1 M, 1 F ( ISNB)   ; Vermächtnis (not stated). 1 M, 1907, Lorenz leg. ( NHMB)   . Nayarit: Tuxpan , 1 F, ex­coll Sallé ( ISNB)   . Colima: Colima, 2 M; VeraCruz : ( Lake Catemaco ), 1 F, VI.1969, Howden leg. ( CPHH)   . BELIZE. 1 M ( BMNH)   ; Stann Creek: Stann Creek Valley , 1 M, VIII.1933, 1 M, XI.1933 ( BMNH)   .

GUATEMALA. El Peten: Tikal,1 F, XII.1960, ex­coll. F. Tutzing ( NHMB)   . Rio Maria Linda (not stated) (500 ft.), 1 F, ex­col. Champion ( BMNH)   . Alta VeraPaz: Panzos, 1 F, ex­col. Champion ( ISNB)   ; Atitlan Vulcano (25–3560 ft), 2 M, ex­col. Champion ( ISNB), (25–2500 ft)   , 1 M ex­col. Champion ( BMNH)   . NICARAGUA. Rio Ran Juan: Rio San Juan (Refugio Barbola) 1 M ( MZSP)   , 1 F ( SEAN), XI.1999, Maes & Hernandez leg..  

COSTA RICA. Puntarenas: P. N. Corcovado, (Est. Sirena, 0–100 m,). 1 M, XI   .1989, 2 M, 5 F, XII.1989, 1 F, II.1990, 1 M, IV.1990, 1 M, III.1991, 1 F, IV.1991, 1 M, V.1992, 1 F, VI.1992, 1 F, III.1993, 1 M, 1 F, IV.1993, 1 M, 2 F, IX.1993, 1 M, IV.1994, 1 M, V.1994   , Fonseca leg., 1 M, 1 F, X.1990, 2 M, 1 F, XII.1990, Saborio leg., 1 M, 1 F, VI.1990, Obando leg., 1 M, IV.1992, Rodriguez leg., 1 F, IV.1995, Gamboa leg., 1 M, III – IV.1992, Fuentes leg., 1 F, III.1995, Zumbado leg., 1 F, VI.1990   , Maass leg., 1 M, I.1981, Janzzen & Hallwacks leg. ( INBC, MZSP); (Península de Osa, Rancho Queimado , 200 m,). 1 M, V.1991, Saborio leg., 3 M, IV.1992, Brenes leg., 1 M, V.1992, Quesada & Varela leg., 1 M, III.1993, Fonseca leg., 1 M, II.1994, 1 M, V.1994   , Marin leg. ( INBC, MZSP); Península Osa (Bosque Esquinas, 200 m). 1 M, I.1994, Quesada leg. ( INBC); Res. Biol. Carara ( Est. Quebrada Bonita , 50 m,). 1 M, VI.1990, Rojas leg., 2 M, 2 F, VII.1990, Bello & Rojas leg., 1 F, VI.1990, Bello leg., 1 M, III – IV, Campos leg., 1 M, X.1993, 1 F, I.1994, Guzmán leg., 1 M, 1 F, V   .1992, 1 F, I.1993, 1 F, IV   .1994, Saborio leg., 1 F, IV.1989, 2 F, VIII.1989, 2 M, 1 F, IX.1989   , 2 M, 2 F, X.1989, 1 M, 1 F, XI.1989, 1 M, XII.1989, 1 M, 1 F, V.1990, 2 F, VI.1990   , Zuniga leg. ( INBC, MZSP); ditto ( Est. Carara , 200 m, L–N 195250, 478700). 1 M, III.1990, Zuniga leg. ( INBC); R. N. Cabo Blanco (Est. San Miguel, 1 m). 1 M, IV   .1971, Alvarado leg. ( INBC); (Est. San Miguel, L–N 173174, 411412). 1 M, 1 F, IX   .1993, Ramírez leg. ( INBC); ( Est. Agujas , 300 m). 1 F, X.1995, 1 M, 1 F, IX   .1997, 1 M, III.1998, Azofeita leg., 1 M, XI.1997, 1 F, XII.1997   , Labo leg. ( INBC); P. N. Manuel Antonio (Quepos, 800 m). 1 M, IV.1991, Zuniga leg., 1 M, IV.1991, 1 F, VIII.1991, 1 F, XI.1991, 1 F, IV.1992   , Varela leg. ( INBC); ( Centro Juvenil Tropical , 100 m). 1 F, VII.1997   , Lobo leg. (light trap) ( INBC); P. N. Amistad. (Est. Las Mellizas, 1300 m). 2 M, IV.1989   , Ramírez & Mora leg. ( INBC); (Albergue Cerro de Oro, 150 m). 1 F, VIII.1995   , Angulo leg. (light trap), 1 F, V – VI.1995   , Gamboa leg. ( INBC); (Potrero, Gde B. Aires , Los Angeles, 700 m). 1 F, II.1992   , Ramírez, Quesada, Mora, Zumbado leg. ( INBC); Alajuela: (Caño Negro, R. N. V. S., 20 m). 1 F, II   .1995, Flores leg. ( INBC); San Ramon (San Luiz, Bajo Córdoba). 1 M, V   .1985, Roff leg. ( INBC). Limón: (Hamburgfarm, Reventazon), 1 F, VIII   .1934, Nevermann leg. (an trocknem Holz) ( NHMB); (Waldeck Farm), 1 M, V   .1930, Nivermann leg. (in frischem Holzchlag nachts); ( R. N. F. S. Gandoca y Manzanillo, Manzanillo, 0–100 m). 2 M, 3 F, IX   –X.1992, 2 M, XI.1992, 1 F, XII.1992, Quesada leg., 2 M, X– XI.1992   , Taylor leg. ( INBC, MZSP); ( Amubri , 70 m). 1 F, VI.1993, 1 F, IX.1993   , 2 F, X.1993, 1 M, I.1995, Gallardo leg. ( INBC); ( Amubri , Talamanca). 2 M, VII.1992   , Gallardo leg. ( INBC); ( Finca de E. Rojas, Sector Cerro Cocori, 150 m). 1 M, IX.1990, 1 F, III.1991, 1 F, VIII.1991   , 1 M, X.1991, 1 F, I.1992, 1 F, I– II.1992, 1 M, 3 F, V.1992, 3 M, 2 F, V – VI.1992, 1 M, IX.1992   , 1 F, X.1992, 1 F, XI.1992, 1 F, VIII.1993, 1 M, IX.1993, 3 M, XI.1993, 2 F, IV.1994, 1 M, 6 F, V.1994, 1 F, V – VI.1994   , 1 M, X.1994, Rojas leg., 2 M, 3 F, III. IV.1992   , Quesada leg. ( INBC, MZSP); Torturego (20 ft), 1 M, II – III.1982   Kirby leg. ( BMNH), P. N. Tortuguero (Cerro Tortuguero, 0–120 m). 1 F, Delgado leg. ( INBC), ( Est. Cuatro Esquinas , 0 m). 1 M, XII.1992   , 1 M, 2 F, I.1993, 3 M, 2 F, II.1993   , Delgado leg. ( INBC); (Res. Biol. Hitoy Cerere, Est. H. Cerere, 100 m, Rio Cerere ). 1 M, 1 F, VI.1992, 2 M, VII.1992, 3 M, XI.1992, 1 F, VI.1994, Carballo leg., 2 M, 1 F, VII.1992, Quesada leg., 1 M, IX.1990, Barrelier leg., 3 M, 2 F, VIII.1992   , Gallardo leg. ( INBC); ( R. B. H. Cerere, Valle La Estrella, 100 m). 2 M, 2 F, Carballo leg. ( INBC); ( R. B. H. Cerere, Est. Miramar , 500 m). 2 F, VIII.1992   , Carballo leg. ( INBC); Suretka (not stated), Rio Vatri , 60 m). 1 M, III.1987, Solis leg. ( INBC). Guanacaste: P. N. Guanacaste (Est. Pitilla, 700 m, 9 Km S Sta Cecília). 1 F, IV   – V.1993, 1 M, 1 F, VI.1993, Rios leg., 1 M, 1 F, V.1998   , Biodiversity Survey leg. ( INBC); ( Est. Pitilla , 400 m, 5 Km SO Sta Cecília). 3 M, XII. 1990   , Rios & Moraga leg. ( INBC); (P. N. Santa Rosa , 300 m). 1 F, XII.1982   , Janzen & Hallwachs leg. ( INBC); ( Est. Maritza , 600 m, O side of Orosi Vulcano, L–N, 326900, 373000). 1 M, I– III.1992, Brenes leg., 1 F, V.1992, II Curso ParaTaxonomos leg. ( INBC); P. N. Rincon de La Vieja (Est. Las Pailas, 800 m). 1 M, IX   –X.1992, 3 M, 2 F, X– XI.1992, Garcia leg., 1 F, IV.1993   , Taylor leg., 3 F, I.1992, 1 M, IX –X.1992, 1 F, XII.1992, Cano leg., 1 M, 1 F, XI – XII.1992, 1 F, I– IV.1993, Sihezar & Rodriguez leg. ( INBC, MZSP). Heredia: P. N. Bráulio Carrillo (Est. Magsasay, 200 m). 2 M, 1 F, X.1990, 1 M, 3 F, V   .1991, Fernandez leg., 1 M, IV.1991   , Fernandez, Salicetti & Foster leg., 1 M, VI.1990, Alcazar leg., 1 M, V.1991   , Aguilar leg. ( INBC), ( Est. El Ceibo , 400–600 m). 1 F, Chaves leg. ( INBC). Cartago: Turrialba (600m), 1 F, I.1971, 1 M, 1 F, VII   .1971, 1 M, I.1972, 1 F, I.1973, 1 F, IV   .1973, 1 M, VII.1973, V. Becker leg. ( DZUP, MZSP). PANAMA. Chiriquí: Vólcan de   Chiriqui (2–3000 ft.) 1 M, ex­col. Champion ( BMNH)   ; Chiriqui 2 M, 2 F ( NHMB), 1 F, ex­col. Bettinger ( ISNB). Canal Zone: Ilha Barro Colorado , 1 M, VIII   .1941, Johnson leg. ( UCMC), 1 M, XI.1956, Britski leg. ( MZSP), 1 F, IV.1924   , Bradley leg. ( NHMB); Frijoles (not stated), 1 M, V. 1981   , Gill leg. ( CPHH), Puerto Armuelles, 1 M, VI.1930, Bierig leg. ( NHMB). TRINIDAD & TOGAGO. Trinidad: Caparo. 1 M (no data), A. Heyne, Berlin­Wilm. leg. ( ISNB). VENE ZUELA   . Distrito Federal: Caracas. 1 M, VII   . 1965, Kultzer leg. ( NHMB). COLOMBIA. 2 M, ex­col. K. Jordan ( BMNH); 1 M (no data) ex­col. Madon ( ISNB); 1 M, ex­coll. Lacordaire ( ISNB); Choco : Darien , 1 M, Hodge leg. ( BMNH), PNN Enseada de Utria Cocalito (6°1’N, 77°20’W, 20 m), 1 F, XI GoogleMaps   – XII.2000, Pérez leg. (malaise) ( IAHC). Valle del Cauca   : Cali (1.035 m), 1 F, I.1960, Dirings leg. ( MZSP), Rio Dagua , 1 F, Rosemberg leg. ( BMNH)   . Cundinamarca: Bogotá, 1 F ( BMNH), 1 F, XII   .1996, Bürger leg. ( NHMB). Pehlke (= Hacienda Pehlke or Hamburgo), 2 M, 2 F, 1929, Pehlke leg. ( NHMB); 2 F (no data) ( NHMB). Cezar: Chiriguana ( Lago Sapatoza region = Ciénaga Zapatosa), 2 F ( BMNH), 1 F ( MZSP), IX   .1924, Allen leg. FRENCH GUIANA. Gourdonville, 1 F, VIII   .1905, 1 F, X.1905 ( BMNH), 1 M ( BMNH), 1 M ( MZSP), I.1906 (no leg.) ( BMNH); Pariacabo , 5 M, IX   .1905, 1 M, 1 F, XII.1905   , 1 F, I.1906 ( MZSP); Passoura, 1 M ( MZSP), 1 F ( BMNH), VIII.1905   , 1 M, I.1906 ( BMNH). EQUADOR. Napo: Lambaqui. 1 F, III   .1983, Huggert leg. ( MZLU). El Oro: Zaruma, 1 M, 12–?–15, Rohwen leg. ( UCMC)   ; Pichincha: (250 m, 47 Km S of Santo Domingo, Rio Palenque), 1 F, II   .1979, Marshall leg.; (500 m, Tinalandia, 16 Km SO Santo Domingo), 1 M, VI   .1976, Peck leg. ( CPHH). Baron (not stated), 2 M, 6 F ( BMNH), 1 M ( MZSP). Dureno (150 m), 1 F, IX   .1977 (no leg.) ( SEAN). Archidona (not stated). 1 M, Haensch leg. ( NHMB). Balzapamba (not stated). 1 M, Haensch leg. ( NHMB)   . PERU. 1 M ( NHMB)   . Junin: Chanchamayo (not stated), 1 F ( NHMB)   . Pasco: Pozuzo. 1 F (no date) ( NHMB), 2 M, ex­col. Bettinger ( ISNB)   . Huanuco – Loreto: Rio Pachitea , 1 M, 1 F (no data) ( NHMB)   . Cuzco: Marcapata, 3 M, 1 F (no date) ( NHMB)   . Ayacucho: Rio Toro , 1 F (no date) ( NHMB)   . BOLIVIA. Cochabamba: Chaparé ([Villa] Tunari), 1 M, II   .1953, Martinez leg.; (Chipiriri), 1 M, 1 F, IV   .1943, Martinez leg. ( MZSP); Santa Cruz: Buenavista (Ichilo), 1 M, II   .1950, Martinez leg. ( MZSP), (450 m). 1 M, Steinbach leg. ( NHMB); ( Rio Colorado , Alto Surutu, not stated) 1 M, II   .1964, Martinez leg. ( MACN). BRAZIL. 1 M, ex­col. Lacordaire ( ISNB)   . Amapá: Ferreira Gomes ( Barragem do Bredão ), 1 F, VIII   .1996, Magno leg. ( MNRJ); Oiapoque ( BR 156, Km 12), 1 F, XII   .2000, Magno leg. ( MNRJ); Serra do Navio (assentamento), 1 M, X. 1996, 2 M, X.1997, Magno leg. ( MNRJ). Amazonas : Benjamin Constant, 1 M, IX   .1956, Lima leg. ( MNRJ); 1 M, X.1960, Pereira leg. ( MNRJ), ( Rio Javari ), 1 F, VII   .1954, 1 M, 3 F, VII.1956, 1 M, IV.1960, 1 F, VIII.1960   , 1 M, I.1961, 1 F, II.1961, 1 M, III.1961   , 10 M, 7 F, X.1961, 2 M, I.1962, 2 F, III.1962, 2 M, 3 F, V.1962, 1 M, 1 F, VI.1962, 6 M, 1 F, XII.1962, 1 F, II.1963, 1 M, VIII.1963, 1 M, II.1964, 3 F, Dirings leg. ( MZSP), 1 F, III.1942, 1 M, V.1942   , Pohl leg. ( MZSP); Manaus, 1 F, XI.1955, 3 M, XII.1955   , 1 M, 1 F, X.1957, 3 M, XI.1957   , Elias & Roppa leg. ( MNRJ), ( Est. Am 1, Km 64), 3 M and 3 F, VIII.1970   , Faustino leg. ( INPA); (Est. Colônia), 1 M, III.1976   , L. P.A. leg. ( INPA), Reserva Ducke, 1 M, V.1968   , (Col [ônia] Santo Antonio), 1 M, III.1982   , Antonio leg. ( INPA); Maturacá ( Rio Negro ), 1 M, I.1963, J. & B. Bechyné leg. ( MPEG); São Paulo de Olivença ( Rio Solimões ), 1 M, III   .1960, 1 M, 2 F, XII.1960   , Dirings leg. ( MZSP); Tabatinga, 1 F, VII.1956, Alvarenga leg. ( MNRJ), 1 M, IX.1956   , 1 M, 2 F, X.1956, Oliveira leg. ( MNRJ); 5 M, 1 F, X.1956, 2 M, 3 F, Sousa Lima leg. ( MNRJ), 2 M, 2 F, IV.1978   , Pereira leg. ( MNRJ). Pará: Conceição do Araguaia , 1 M, XI.1979   , Neto leg. ( MPEG); Itaituba (Rio Tapajós), 1 M, I.1961, 1 F, X.1963, Dirings leg. ( MZSP); Óbidos (Baixo Amazonas), 1 F, IV.1960, 1 F, III.1963   , Dirings leg. ( MZSP), (Colônia Rio Branco ), 1 F, XII.1952, Teles leg. ( MNRJ); 1 F, VIII.1955   , Brazilino leg. ( MNRJ), Jacareacanga, 1 F, X.1959, Alvarenga leg. ( MNRJ); Tucurui (right margin), 1 M, III.1979, Overal leg. ( MPEG). Acre: Rio Branco , 4 M, 2 F, XI   .1961, Oliveira leg. ( MNRJ). Rondônia: Forte Príncipe da Beira , 1 M, 4 F, XI   .1961, Oliveira leg. ( MNRJ); Ouro Preto d’Oeste. 1 F, X.1987, Elias leg. (Polonoroeste) ( MNRJ); 1 M, 1 F, X.1986, Roppa, Magno & J. Becker leg. ( MNRJ); Porto Velho ( Guaporé ), 1 F, X.1954, Pereira, Dente & Alvarenga leg. ( MZSP), 1 M, 1 F, Pereira, Dente & Alvarenga leg. ( MNRJ); Vilhena , 1 F, XI   .1986, 1 F, I.1987, Elias leg. (Polonoroeste) ( MNRJ); 1 F, XI   .1960, Alvarenga leg. ( MNRJ). Ceará: Carquejo, 1 F, III   .1963, Dirings leg. ( MZSP). Mato Grosso: Barra Bugres, 1 M, IX   .1989, Matos leg. ( UFMT); Cuiabá, 1 M, XI   .1990, Silva leg. [light] ( UFMT); Diamantino (Alto Rio Arinos, Faz. São João ), 2 M, 1 F, X.1983, J. Becker, Roppa & Silva leg. ( MNRJ), Iguatemi , 1 M, XII   .1964, Kloss leg. ( MZSP), Rio Verde (400 m), 1 F, X.1960 (no leg.) ( DZUP), Rosário Oeste, 2 F, I.1972, Dirings leg. ( MZSP), Sinop (12°31’ S, 55°37’ W, 350 m), 4 M, 1 F, IX GoogleMaps   .1974, 1 M, 1 F, X.1975, 1 M, IX   .1976, Alvarenga & Roppa leg. ( MNRJ); ( Faz. Teles ), 3 F, X.1974, 1 M, X.1976, Silva leg. ( MNRJ); Juína, 2 M, 1 F, IV   – VI.1985, Silva leg. ( MNRJ). Mato Grosso do Sul: Dourados , 3 M, I.1976, Lorenzoni leg. ( DZUP)   . Goiás: Anápolis, 1 M, (no date) ( MZSP), Goiânia, 1 M, III   .1962, Oliveira leg. ( MNRJ), Mineiros , 5 M, 4 F, X.1994, 2 M, XI   .1994, Magno leg. ( MNRJ). Bahia: Camacã (Faz. Sta Maria) 1 F, XII   .1978, Benton leg.; 2 M, 4 F (ex­col Fry) ( BMNH – DZUP). Encruzilhada ( Estr. Rio – Bahia, Km 965, 960 m), 3 M, 1 F, XI   .1974, 3 M, XII.1974   , Seabra & Roppa leg. ( MNRJ); Itamaraju, 1 F, XI.1985   , Roppa leg. ( MNRJ); ( Prado Itamaraju ) 1 F, X.1969, Roppa leg. ( MNRJ). Minas Gerais: Araxá, 1 M, XI   .1965, E lias leg. ( DZUP); Ibiá , X.1965, Elias leg. ( DZUP)   . Espírito Santo: Conceição da Barra, 6 M, 2 F, V   .1968, 3 F, X.1968, 1 F, XI   .1968, 5 M, 3 F, XII.1968   , 1 M, 1 F, X.1969, 1 F, XI.1969   , 1 M, I.1970, Elias leg. ( DZUP, MNRJ); Barra do São Francisco ( Córrego Ita ), 1 M, 1 F, X.1954, 2 M, I.1955, 7 M, 6 F, XI.1956, Zikán leg., 2 M, 5 F, XI.1957, Almeida leg., 1 F, II.1955, 1 M, 1 F, XII.1959   , Grossmann leg. ( DZUP). Córrego dos Menezes , 1 M, I.1971 (no leg.), 1 M, 2 F, XII.1971   , Lima leg. ( DZUP). Linhares, 1 M, XII.1969, 1 M, IX.1973, Elias leg.; 3 F, XII.1969, 2 M, 3 F, XII.1970, Alvarenga leg.; 2 M, 1 F, XI.1971, Silva leg.; 2 M, 2 F, XII.1965   , 1 M, I.1967, Maller leg. ( DZUP), 1 F, X.1972, 1 F, XI.1972, 1 M, VI.1973, Elias leg. ( MZSP), 7 M, 3 F, XI – XII.1969, 1 F, II.1970, 2 M, 9 F, III – IV.1970   , 1 M, X.1971, 4 M, 2 F, III.1972, 1 M, IX.1972, Silva leg., 1 M, XI.1972, de Paula leg., 1 F, 1973, 1 M, II.1975   , Elias leg. ( MNRJ); (Bananal). 1 M, 3 F, XI.1971   , Lima leg. ( DZUP); (Parque Sooretama), 1 M, IV.1968, Silva leg. ( MNRJ), 4 M, II.1968   , Oliveira leg.; 3 F, I.1971, 1 F, II.1971   , Lima leg.; 2 M, 3 F, Werner, Oliveira & Seabra leg.; 3 F, V.1953, Teles leg.; 1 M, XII.1970 (no leg.) ( DZUP), 2 M, VI.1969   , Silva leg. ( MZSP); Pinheiros, 1 M, XI.1971   , Lima leg. ( DZUP). São Mateus (Barra Seca), 1 M, XII.1965, 1 F, XII.1969, 1 M, IV.1970, 1 M, 2 F, XII.1969, Lima leg. ( DZUP). Rio de Janeiro: Nova Friburgo, 1 F, III   .1969, Fragoso leg. ( MNRJ). São Paulo: Araras, 1 F, XI   .1986, Campos leg. (light trap) ( MZSP); Franca, 1 M, 1902, 3 F, XI   .1902, Dreher leg. ( MZSP), 2 F, XI.1902, Dreher leg. ( BMNH).; 1 M, 1 F, XII.1902, 1 F, VIII.1903   , (no leg.) ( MZSP); Peruíbe ( Barra do Una ), 1 F, XII.1980   , Expedição MZSP leg. ( MZSP); Porto Cabral, 1 M, 1 F, III.1974   , Travassos, Carreira, Dente leg. ( MZSP); Rio Preto , 1 M, I.1928, Pohl leg. ( MZSP). PARAGUAY. 1 M ( BMNH); 1 M, XI   .1949, 1 F XII.1949, Hokeman leg. ( NHMB).

MZSP

Sao Paulo, Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de Sao Paulo

NHMB

Natural History Museum Bucharest

VI

Mykotektet, National Veterinary Institute

V

Royal British Columbia Museum - Herbarium

INBC

Instituto Nacional de Biodiversidad (INBio)

R

Departamento de Geologia, Universidad de Chile

DZUP

Universidade Federal do Parana, Colecao de Entomologia Pe. Jesus Santiago Moure

UCMC

University of Colorado Museum

MZLU

Lund University

MACN

Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales Bernardino Rivadavia

MNRJ

Museu Nacional/Universidade Federal de Rio de Janeiro

INPA

Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazonia

MPEG

Museu Paraense Emilio Goeldi

UFMT

Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Insecta

Order

Coleoptera

Family

Anthribidae

Genus

Ptychoderes

Loc

Ptychoderes nebulosus ( Olivier, 1795 )

Mermudes, José Ricardo M. & Napp, Dilma Solange 2006
2006
Loc

Ptychoderes nebulosus

Rheinheimer, J. 2004: 10
2004
Loc

Ptychoderes nebulosus

Rheinheimer, J. 2004: 10
2004
Loc

Ptychoderes nebulosa

Blackwelder, R. E. 1947: 765
1947
Loc

Ptychoderes columbiana

Blackwelder, R. E. 1947: 765
1947
Loc

Ptychoderes nebulosus

Rheinheimer, J. 2004: 10
Marvaldi, A. E. & Sequeira, A. S. & O'Brien, C. W. & Farrel, B. D. 2002: 764
Faustini, D. L. & Halstead, D. G. H. 1982: 45
Wolfrum, P. 1953: 3
Wolfrum, P. 1929: 6
Bovie, A. 1906: 220
Gemminger, M. & Harold, E. 1872: 2722
Jekel, H. 1855: 48
1855
Loc

Ptychoderes columbianus

Wolfrum, P. 1929: 6
Bovie, A. 1906: 219
Gemminger, M. & Harold, E. 1872: 2722
Jekel, H. 1855: 50
1855
Loc

Ptychoderes tricosifrons

Jekel, H. 1849: 10
1849
Loc

Ptychoderes tricostifrons Fåhraeus

Holloway, B. A. 1985: 162
Blackwelder, R. E. 1947: 765
Wolfrum, P. 1929: 6
Bovie, A. 1906: 220
Jordan, K. 1906: 303
Gemminger, M. & Harold, E. 1872: 2722
Jekel, H. 1855: 53
Schoenherr, C. J. 1839: 158
1839
Loc

Ptychoderes elongatus

Schoenherr, C. J. 1833: 120
Lacordaire, T. 1830: 158
1830