Oxysternon (Oxysternon) silenus smaragdinum d'Olsoufieff , 1924,

Chamorro, William, Marin-Armijos, Diego, senjo, Angelico & Vaz-De-Mello, Fernando Z., 2019, Scarabaeinae dung beetles from Ecuador: a catalog, nomenclatural acts, and distribution records, ZooKeys 826, pp. 1-343: 202-204

publication ID

http://dx.doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.826.26488

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:B1550A3A-E547-4450-9A44-BC4366D5E110

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/9DAF3E0D-7FC8-C466-021C-5D7D2B31031B

treatment provided by

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scientific name

Oxysternon (Oxysternon) silenus smaragdinum d'Olsoufieff , 1924
status

 

Oxysternon (Oxysternon) silenus smaragdinum d'Olsoufieff, 1924  Plate 45C

Oxysternon smaragdinum  d’Olsoufieff, 1924: 117 (original description. Type locality: Loja, Amazones [= Amazonas]: Pebas).

Oxysternon smaragdinum  : Balthasar 1941: 351 (cited for Peru); Blackwelder 1944: 210 (list of species from Latin America); Balthasar 1951: 337 (cited for Peru); Vulcano and Pereira 1967: 569 (characters in key); Arnaud 1982a: 117 (catalog of the types of the MNHN); Vaz-de-Mello 2000: 194 (cited for Brazil); Vitolo 2000: 599 (characters in key); Medina et al. 2001: 140 (cited for Colombia); Vitolo 2004: 288 (diagnosis); Hamel-Leigue et al. 2009: 63 (cited as synonym of Oxysternon silenus  Laporte de Castelnau, 1840); Solís and Kohlmann 2012: 7 (cited as synonym of Oxysternon silenus  Laporte, 1840); Figueroa et al. 2014: 130 (cited as synonym of Oxysternon silenus  Laporte, 1840).

Oxysternon (Oxysternon) silenus smaragdinum  : Arnaud 2002a: 74 (diagnosis); Edmonds and Zídek 2004: 29 (synonym of Oxysternon (Oxysternon) silenus  Laporte, 1840); Arnaud 2004: 10 (revalidated status); Carvajal et al. 2011: 322-323 (cited for Ecuador); Ratcliffe et al. 2015: 197 (cited for Peru); Chamorro et al. 2018: 83 (figures 6F and 6G), 97 (cited for Ecuador).

Type specimens.

Oxysternon smaragdinum  d’Olsoufieff, 1924. The lectotype (♂) is deposited in the MNHN (see Arnaud 1982a: 117). Locality: Équateur [= Ecuador], Loja, not examined.

Distribution.

Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Venezuela.

Records examined.

CARCHI: Tobar Donoso, 300 m (5 specimens MECN). ESMERALDAS: Colón del Onzole (7 specimens MECN; 11 specimens MQCAZ); Charco Vicente (8 specimens MECN; 3 specimens MQCAZ); Estación Biológica Bilsa, 500 m (3 specimens MEPN); Majua (4 specimens MECN; 6 specimens MQCAZ); Palma Real (7 specimens MECN; 11 specimens MQCAZ); Playa de Oro (1 specimen CEMT); Salto del Bravo (5 specimen MECN); Tsejpi Charco Grande (2 specimens CEMT). IMBABURA: El Chontal, El Cauchero, 900 m (1 specimen MUTPL); Lita, 680 m (1 specimen MECN). MORONA SANTIAGO: km 8 road Mendez-Paute, 1250 m (1 specimen CEMT; 4 specimens MQCAZ); San Pedro de Apondio, 1600 m (1 specimen MECN). NAPO: Bosque Protector la Cascada Río Coca, 640 m (1 specimen MUTPL); southeast of Puerto Napo, 610 m, Pungarayacu (1 specimen MQ CAZ). ORELLANA: Cononaco, Bloque 16 YPF Parque Nacional Yasuní (1 specimen MUTPL); Dayuma Campo Hormiguero, plataforma Hormiguero, 320 m (1 specimen MUTPL); Dayuma Campo Pindo, 305 m, Pindo Este 1 (1 specimen MUTPL); Dayuma plataforma Ungurahua, 300 m (1 specimen MUTPL); Eden Yuturí, 225 m, Bloque 15 (1 specimen MUTPL); El Dorado plataforma Guarango, 300 m (1 specimen MUTPL); Estación Científica Yasuní PUCE, 215 m, Parque Nacional Yasuní (21 specimens MQCAZ); Estación de Biodiversidad Tiputini USFQ, 280 m, Parque Nacional Yasuní (1 specimen MUTPL); Payamino Research Stn, 300 m (1 specimen CEMT); Rodrigo Borja IAMOE (2 specimens CEMT; 7 specimens MQCAZ); San Sebastian del Coca, Comuna Guataraco, 345 m, Campo Pata (1 specimen MUTPL); San Sebastian del Coca, Comuna Shamanal, 345 m Campo Palo Azul (1 specimen MUTPL); San Pedro del Lago, plataforma Copal, 310 m (1 specimen MUTPL); Yasuní (1 specimen MUTPL). PASTAZA: Bosque Protector Oglán Alto, 555-950 m (1 specimen MUTPL). PICHINCHA: San Roque Río Guayllabamba, 580 m, Pedro Vicente Maldonado (1 specimen MUTPL). SUCUMBÍOS: 6 km de Dureno, 300 m, Precooperativa Los Vergeles (1 specimen MGO-UC); Cuyabeno Campo Hormiga (1 specimen CEMT); Pacayacu Campo Libertador, 260 m (1 specimen MUTPL); Tarapoa, Nuevo Manabí, 270 m (1 specimen MUTPL); Tipishca (2 specimens MECN). ZAMORA CHINCHIPE: km 4 Zumbí-Yantzaza, 900 m (1 specimen CEMT; 4 specimens MQCAZ); Zurmi, Comunidad La Wants, 1010 m (3 specimens MUTPL; 1 specimen MEPN); Zurmi Las Orquideas Río Nangaritza, 870 m (1 specimen MUTPL).

Literature records.

CARCHI: without specific locality ( Arnaud 2002a: 74). ESMERALDAS: 11 km SE San Lorenzo, Estación Forestal La Chiquita 5 m ( Edmonds and Zídek 2004: 31). LOJA: without specific locality ( Arnaud 1982a: 117). LOS RÍOS: Quevedo ( Edmonds and Zídek 2004: 31). MORONA SANTIAGO: Macas ( Edmonds and Zídek 2004: 31); km 8 road Mendez-Paute, 1250 m. NAPO: 20 km E Puerto Napo, 450 m ( Edmonds and Zídek 2004: 31); Tena, 400 m ( Edmonds and Zídek 2004: 31); 20 km S Tena, 600 m ( Edmonds and Zídek 2004: 31); 5 km W Tena, 500 m ( Edmonds and Zídek 2004: 31); Jatun-Sacha, Biological Station, 450 m ( Edmonds and Zídek 2004: 31); Misahuallí Jungle Lodge, 550 m ( Edmonds and Zídek 2004: 31). NAPO [= ORELLANA]: Estación Científica Yasuní, 215 m ( Edmonds and Zídek 2004: 31). NAPO [= SUCUMBÍOS]: Limoncocha, 250 m ( Edmonds and Zídek 2004: 31). PASTAZA: Ashuara, Río Macuma 10 km hacia el Río Morona, 300 m ( Edmonds and Zídek 2004: 31); 25 km NNE Puyo, 1000 m ( Edmonds and Zídek 2004: 31); PICHINCHA [= SANTO DOMINGO DE LOS TSÁCHILAS]: Tinalandia, 680 m, 16 km E Santo Domingo de los Colorados ( Edmonds and Zídek 2004: 31). SUCUMBÍOS: Cuyabeno, 270 m ( Edmonds and Zídek 2004: 31). ZAMORA CHINCHIPE: Sabanilla ( Edmonds and Zídek 2004: 31).

Temporal data.

Collected every month of the year.

Remarks.

Inhabits coastal lowland evergreen forests and coastal evergreen foothill forests from 5-680 m a.s.l. In the Amazon, it was recorded in the lowland evergreen forests, the foothill evergreen forests, and evergreen lower montane forests from 215-1700 m a.s.l. Collected manually and with pitfall traps baited with carrion and human feces.