Passiflora trinifolia Mast., Bot. Jahrb. 8: 217. 1887.

Porter-Utley, Kristen, 2014, A revision of Passiflora L. subgenus Decaloba (DC.) Rchb. supersection Cieca (Medik.) J. M. MacDougal & Feuillet (Passifloraceae), PhytoKeys 43, pp. 1-224: 90-93

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Passiflora trinifolia Mast., Bot. Jahrb. 8: 217. 1887.


8. Passiflora trinifolia Mast., Bot. Jahrb. 8: 217. 1887.   Figs 38, 39


Guatemala. Baja Verapaz: Santa Rosa, 1600 m, 16 Apr 1882, J. Lehmann 1314 (holotype: K [K000323139, photograph seen, photograph DUKE!]; isotype: G! [G00441028]).


Small, slender, low-climbing or trailing, perennial vine 0.2-1.5 (-2) m long, minutely antrorsely appressed-puberulent throughout (except ovary) with unicellular, curved and erect trichomes, 0.1-0.2 mm long, 0.02-0.03 mm wide. Flowering stems 0.9-1.8 mm in diameter, terete, sometimes red (5R 4/8) or dark purplish red, with the base somewhat cork covered. Stipules (3.8-)5.3-10.1 mm long, 2.2-7.3 mm wide, asymmetrically ovate, acute to attenuate, 5-13, veins departing from base; petioles 0.4-1.2 cm long, with 1 or 2 (rarely eglandular), round or elliptic, opposite to subopposite, sessile or shortly stipitate, saucer-shaped nectaries with flat rims, 1.0-1.5 mm wide (on the widest axis), 0.8-1.1 mm high, borne below the distal third of the petiole (0.29-0.90 of the distance from the base toward the apex of the petiole). Laminas 1.6-4.0 cm long, 2.1-6.7 cm wide, coriaceous, 3-lobed (very rarely 5-lobed) 0.05-0.52 the distance to the leaf base, lateral lobes 1.3-3.1 cm long, 0.5-1.7 cm wide, elliptic, acute, central lobe elliptic, acute to rounded, central vein 1.6-4.0 cm long, angle between the lateral lobes 93-145°, ratio of lateral lobe to central lobe length 0.67-1.28, margins entire, hyaline, primary veins 3, diverging and branching at base, laminar nectaries 1-4, circular, submarginal, associated with the minor veins of the abaxial surface, 0.6-1.1 mm in diameter, sessile; tendril 0.2-0.7 mm wide, present at flowering node. Flowers borne in leaf axils. Pedicels 5.3-7.6 mm long, 0.3-0.7 mm wide, 2 per node; bract(s) absent; spur(s) absent. Flowers 26.6-30.9 mm in diameter with stipe 1.8-3.4 mm long, 0.5-1.0 mm wide; hypanthium 8.1-8.4 mm in diameter; sepals 9.1-11.4 mm long, 5.5-6.3 mm wide, ovate-triangular, acute, abaxially and adaxially greenish yellow, reflexed at anthesis; coronal filaments in 2 series, the outer 35-39, 4.7-5.1 mm long, 0.4-0.5 mm wide, linear, somewhat dilated toward tips, semi-erect, greenish yellow at base, yellow at tips, ratio of outer coronal row to sepal length 0.42-0.53, the inner 38-47, 1.9-2.5 mm long, 0.1-0.2 mm wide, linear, capitate, erect, greenish yellow with purple (5P 5/8) spots and streaks toward base, tips whitish, ratio of inner coronal row to outer coronal row length 0.37-0.51; operculum 1.8-1.9 mm long, plicate, whitish, tinged with purple, the margin with narrow minutely fimbrillate teeth; nectary 0.1-0.5 mm high, 0.9-1.0 mm wide; limen erect, 0.1 mm high, 0.3-0.4 mm wide, limen floor 4.0-4.3 mm in diameter, whitish; androgynophore 3.8-4.0 mm long, 1.2-1.4 mm wide, whitish with purple spots and streaks; free portions of the staminal filaments 3.5-4.2 mm long, 0.7-0.9 mm wide, linear, greenish yellow; anthers 2.9-3.3 mm long, 1.8-2.0 mm wide, greenish yellow; styles 4.4-5.3 mm long including stigmas, 0.4-0.5 mm wide, greenish yellow; stigmas 1.3-1.7 mm in diameter; ovary 1.9-2.3 mm long, 1.8-2.0 mm wide, widely ellipsoid, greenish yellow. Berry 10.5-12.9 mm long, 10.3-10.5 mm in diameter, ellipsoid or globose, very dark purple. Seeds 19 (n = 1 MacDougal 6228), 3.6-4.0 mm long, 2.1-2.4 mm wide, 1.6-1.8 mm thick, obovate in outline, acute at both ends, reticulate-foveate with each face marked with ca. 12-15 foveae.


Flowering and fruiting in February, April, and July.


Endemic to Guatemala, in the department of Baja Verapaz. Seasonally dry rocky (the vernacular name for the rock type is “cascajo”) hills with open grassy forest of pine, some oak, and agave, especially near rock outcroups or cracks on cliffs and roadcut faces; 1345-1600 m.


Passiflora trinifolia   is known only from Baja Verapaz, Guatemala. It is usually easily distinguished from other members of supersection Cieca   by its small, stiff and rigid (often scleophyllous) leaves and very small stature. Passiflora trinifolia   has been confused with Passiflora eglandulosa   , but several vegetative and reproductive characters can be used to separate these taxa, as presented under the description of Passiflora eglandulosa   . The most notable of these is the presence/absence of petiolar and laminar nectaries, with Passiflora trinifolia   possessing 1-4 laminar nectaries and 1-2 petiolar nectaries, and Passiflora eglandulosa   having neither laminar nor petiolar nectaries.

Specimens examined.

GUATEMALA. Baja Verapaz: Hacienda Santa Rosa, now in the Estrada family, type locality on old rd. from Pantín to Salamá (Rt. 5), ca. 4.5 km S of Pantín, 21 km from Salamá, 5200 ft., MacDougal & Miley 637 (FLAS, MO); Finca Santa Rosa on old road between Pantín and Salamá, hill directly behind ruins of main finca house, ca. ½ way up, 1585 m, 15°13 N, 090°17 W, MacDougal & Moroni 6223 (MO); Finca Santa Rosa on old road between Pantín and Salamá, first ridge on road leading out of valley to the SW from the old homestead, 1592 m, 15°13 N, 90°16 W, MacDougal 6225 (MO); Finca Santa Rosa on old road between Pantín and Salamá, first ridge on road leading out of valley to the SW from the old homestead, 1592 m, 15°13 N, 90°16 W, MacDougal & Moroni 6226 (MO); S of old Finca Santa Rosa on old road to Salamá, 1512 m, 15°13 N, 90°17 W, MacDougal & Moroni 6227 (MO); old road between Pantín and Salamá, S of Finca Santa Rosa, near small river crossing, 1345 m, 15°12 N, 90°17 W, MacDougal & Moroni 6228 (MO); Cuesta de Cachil, near Salamá, 1200-1600 m, Pittier 160 (US); Santa Rosa, von Tuerckheim 1207 (G, GH).