Phragmatopoma californica ( Fewkes, 1889 )

Chávez-López, Yessica, 2020, New species and new records of Phragmatopoma (Polychaeta: Sabellariidae) from Tropical America, Zootaxa 4845 (3), pp. 301-330 : 305-307

publication ID 10.11646/zootaxa.4845.3.1

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Phragmatopoma californica ( Fewkes, 1889 )


Phragmatopoma californica ( Fewkes, 1889) View in CoL

Figure 3 View FIGURE 3 A–L

Sabellaria californica Fewkes, 1889: 34–36 View in CoL , pl. 7, figs. 3–4. Type locality: Coronado, California, intertidal, on rocks.

Sabellaria californica View in CoL .— Moore 1909: 293–294, pl. 9, figs. 66a–b (San Diego and Monterey Bay, California); Chamberlin, 1918: 180 (Monterey Bay, California); Chamberlin 1919: 261 (Mendocino, California); Salazar-Vallejo & Londoño-Mesa 2004: 51 (checklist of polychaetes from tropical eastern Pacific).

Phragmatopoma californica ( Fewkes, 1889) View in CoL .— Hartman 1944: 349–350, pl. 29, figs. 15–17, pl. 37, figs. 86–89, pl. 41, fig. 105 (California; south of Ensenada, Baja California, intertidal— 73.2 m); Dales 1952: (La Jolla, California); Rioja 1963: 199 (Asunción Island, occidental cost of Baja California Sur, 21.9 m, on brown macroalgae, possibly Macrocystis sp.); Amieba et al. 1987: 260 (Sunset Cliffs, San Diego, California); Kirtley 1994: 28–31, figs. 2.2.1–2.2.3 (California, intertidal— 230 m); Hernández-Alcántara et al. 2003: 9 (Asunción and Coronado Islands, Baja California Sur); Salazar-Vallejo & Londoño-Mesa 2004: 51 (checklist of polychaetes from tropical eastern Pacific).

Material examined: eight specimens. Baja California: ECOSUR-P3081, six spec. (Punta San Miguel, Ensenada , 31°54’02”N, 116°43’46”W, March 21, 1982, coll. S.I. Salazar-Vallejo) GoogleMaps ; ECOSUR-P3082, one spec. (Villa Las Rosas, Ensenada , 31°52’10”N, 116°40’39”W, on Phyllospadix sp., March 15, 1984, coll. S.I. Salazar-Vallejo) GoogleMaps ; ECO-SUR-P3083, one spec. (Villa Las Rosas, Ensenada , 31°52’10”N, 116°40’39”W, March 6, 2004) GoogleMaps .

Description. Color pattern of preserved specimens. Body pale yellow ( Fig. 3A View FIGURE 3 ). Outer paleae with dark amber blade and handle; median plume translucent ( Fig. 3E View FIGURE 3 ). Middle paleae cherry to light yellow from the nape toward the tip ( Fig. 3 View FIGURE 3 F–G). Inner paleae light amber ( Fig. 3H View FIGURE 3 ). Opercular papillae yellowish with a light brown oval spot in the center. Median ridge with light brown eyespots. Tentacles, building organ, branchiae and the rest of the body pale yellow. Parathoracic chaetae yellowish ( Fig. 3 View FIGURE 3 I–J). Abdominal neurochaetae and uncini translucent ( Fig. 3 View FIGURE 3 K–L). Caudal peduncle yellowish to translucent toward distal part.

Body. Complete specimen of 19 mm total length; parathoracic region 3 mm wide; 34 abdominal segments; caudal peduncle 6 mm long ( Fig. 3A View FIGURE 3 ).

Operculum. Opercular crown and opercular stalk completely fused ( Fig. 3 View FIGURE 3 A–B). Opercular crown conical and oval, slightly protruding in lateral view ( Fig. 3 View FIGURE 3 A–C). Three rows of paleae, only two visible: ~62 outer paleae, 27 middle and inner paleae. Outer paleae geniculate with a pair of heterodont teeth, one straight and lacerate, and the other curved; flat blade almost three times longer than wide, serrated margin and transversal thecae; median plume declined, short and flat, 1/3 as long as blade, hard proximally and covering of thin filaments entangled ( Fig. 3E View FIGURE 3 ). Middle paleae strongly geniculate with declined peak, rough surface ( Fig. 3G View FIGURE 3 ) and transversal thecae; sub-circular nape, straight, serrated, wider than peak, and large, 1/3 as long as peak; small chin, as long as wide, with margin slightly serrated; sharp tip curved ( Fig. 3F View FIGURE 3 ). Inner paleae strongly geniculate with serrated peak straight, 11 times longer than wide; nape smooth; tip with filaments ( Fig. 3H View FIGURE 3 ). Papillae small and oval. Oral tentacles unbranched. Median ridge small, 1/6 as long as opercular stalk, with marginal eyespots ( Fig. 3D View FIGURE 3 ). Median organ absent. Building organ ‘U’- shaped.

Thorax. Chaetiger 1 with a pair of neuropodia.

Parathorax. Three parathoracic segments ( Fig. 3A View FIGURE 3 ). Chaetigers with a pair of branchiae. Notopodia with lanceolate chaetae interspersed with small and smooth capillary chaetae ( Fig. 3I View FIGURE 3 ). Neuropodia with lanceolate chaetae interspersed with small lanceolate chaetae ( Fig. 3J View FIGURE 3 ); neurochaetae thinner than notochaetae.

Abdomen. Segments with a pair of branchiae decreasing in size towards posterior segments. Neurochaetae verticillate of different lengths ( Fig. 3L View FIGURE 3 ). Notopodia with a series of uncini with six pairs of teeth ( Fig. 3K View FIGURE 3 ).

Caudal region. Caudal peduncle elastic and slightly annulated ( Fig. 3A View FIGURE 3 ).

Tube. Lost.

Variation. Body measurements varied from 13–33 mm total length, parathoracic region 0.5–3 mm wide and caudal peduncle 2–7 mm long (n= 8 spec.). The number of opercular paleae varied between ~ 50–76 in outer paleae and 25–41 in middle paleae. The abdominal segments varied from 15 in small specimens (13 mm total length) to 35–39 segments in the rest of specimens.

Habitat. Phragmatopoma californica can build large aggregations on rocks, forming massive reefs, from intertidal to 230 m ( Fewkes 1889, Moore 1909, Hartman 1944, Kirtley 1994). Phragmatopoma californica aggregations may be associated with Thylacodes squamigerus (Carpenter, 1857) , a reef-building vermetid mollusk ( Hartman 1944), or with a sea grass ( Phyllospadix sp.).

Distribution. Eastern Pacific, from California to Coronado Island, Baja California Sur; these specimens were collected in Punta San Miguel and Villa Las Rosas, Ensenada, Baja California ( Fig. 13 View FIGURE 13 ).

Remarks. Phragmatopoma californica was recorded by Hartman (1944) from California to Ensenada, Baja California. The specimens were described with outer paleae with heterodont teeth, one straight and lacerate and the other curved, blade with transversal thecae and median plume plumose ( Fig. 2 View FIGURE 2 E–F); middle paleae with sub-quadrangular decurrent nape, peak slightly declined and blunted tip slightly falcate ( Fig. 6A View FIGURE 6 ); and inner paleae slender, 11 times longer than wide, blade declined and tip with filaments ( Fig. 6B View FIGURE 6 ).

The specimens found in Ensenada, Baja California, differ only in the morphology of the median plume in outer paleae: plumose in Hartman’s specimens ( Fig. 2 View FIGURE 2 E–F) and covered with thin downy in my specimens ( Fig. 3E View FIGURE 3 ); and the shape of the nape in middle paleae: sub-quadrangular and decurrent in Hartman’s specimens ( Fig. 6A View FIGURE 6 ) and subcircular and straight in our specimens ( Fig. 3 View FIGURE 3 F–G).

Phragmatopoma californica is distributed in template waters of the Eastern Pacific ( Hartman 1944). For this reason, previous records of the species by Rioja (1942) from Mazatlán, Sinaloa and Acapulco, Guerrero, and by Kirtley (1994) from Panamá, are considered questionable because of their occurrence in warm waters, far from the typical distribution of species.














Phragmatopoma californica ( Fewkes, 1889 )

Chávez-López, Yessica 2020

Sabellaria californica

Salazar-Vallejo, S. I. & Londono-Mesa, M. H. 2004: 51
Chamberlin, R. V. 1919: 261
Chamberlin, R. V. 1918: 180
Moore, J. P. 1909: 293

Sabellaria californica

Fewkes, W. J. 1889: 36
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