Rahavavy ida, Griswold & Wood & Carmichael, 2012, Griswold & Wood & Carmichael, 2012
Griswold, Charles E., Wood, Hannah Marie & Carmichael, Anthea D., 2012, The lace web spiders (Araneae, Phyxelididae) of Madagascar: phylogeny, biogeography and taxonomy, Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 164 (4), pp. 728-810: 801-803
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RAHAVAVY IDA SP. NOV.
Types: Holotype male and paratype female ( CASENT9003423) from Talatakely , Parc National Ranomafana, Madagascar, collected in January 2001 from pitfall traps in disturbed rainforest by D. Kavanaugh, R. Brett, and E. Elsom, deposited in CASC . Paratype female ( CASENT9016988), same locality, collected in leaf litter in April 1998 by C. Griswold and D. Ubick, also in CASC .
Etymology: The specific name honours Ida George Meikle , mother in law of Charles Griswold, who always offered encouragement in Arachnology; a noun in apposition.
Diagnosis: Male with palp as in Figures 19A–C View Figure 19 and 28A–E View Figure 28 , bulb elongate, length greater than 1.7 times width, embolic base projects retrolaterally beyond cymbium, conductor apex blunt, reflexed back toward centre of bulb. Epigynum as in Figure 35D View Figure 35 , ML width less than 2.5 times length, copulatory openings inconspicuous ventrally, large openings hidden in deep, anteromedian depression, visible dorsally in cleared preparations ( Fig. 41A, B View Figure 41 ); vulva as in Figures 35E, F View Figure 35 and 41B View Figure 41 , anterodorsal spiral of copulatory ducts with more than six well-defined turns.
Male (Holotype): Total length 3.40. Markings as in Figure 9C View Figure 9 , like female except paler. Carapace 1.80 long, 1.40 wide; thoracic fovea 0.20 long, length 0.12 times that of carapace; clypeus 0.12 high; ocular area 0.24 long, 0.53 wide; ratio of eyes AM/AL/PM/PL, 1.25:2.62:1.00:1.25, diameter of PM 0.08. Chelicerae 0.70 long, slender, smooth, promargin of fang furrow with five teeth, retromargin with six teeth. Sternum 1.02 long, 0.90 wide; labium 0.30 long, 0.32 wide; palpal coxa 0.54 long, 0.24 wide. Legs elongate, femur I length 1.39 times carapace length; metatarsi I prolateral concavity and clasping spine as in Figure 44H, I View Figure 44 . Leg measurements (femur + patella + tibia + metatarsus + tarsus = [total]): I: 2.50 + 0.75 + 2.40 + 2.15 + 1.10 = [8.90]; II: 2.05 + 0.65 + 1.70 + 1.55 + 0.90 = [6.85]; III: 1.75 + 0.55 + 1.40 + 1.40 + 0.80 = [5.90]; IV: 2.40 + 0.65 + 2.10 + 2.10 + 0.95 = [8.20]; palp: 0.95 + 0.35 + 0.35 + (absent) + 1.15 = [2.80]. Palpal femur with six stout, thorn-like probasal setae ( Fig. 48A View Figure 48 ); tibial DTA as in Figures 19C View Figure 19 and 28D, E View Figure 28 , bulb elongate, length greater than 1.7 times width, embolic base projects retrolaterally beyond cymbium, conductor apex blunt, reflexed back toward centre of bulb, median apophysis slender, length greater than 4.5 times width ( Figs 19A–C View Figure 19 , 28A–C View Figure 28 ).
Variation (N = 2): Total length 3.40–3.80; carapace length 1.25–1.29 times width, height 0.31–0.36 times width; PER width 2.21–2.26 times OAL; OQP 1.24– 1.30 times OQA; clypeal height 1.40–1.50 times AM diameter; cheliceral length 5.00–5.83 times clypeal height, sternum length 1.13–1.14 times width; femur I length 1.33–1.39 times carapace length; metatarsus I length 1.19–1.25 times carapace length.
Female (Paratype): Total length 3.10. Markings similar to Figure 9B View Figure 9 , carapace yellow-brown, shading to dusky laterally, pars cephalica shading anteriorly to orange-brown with posterior, darker V-shaped mark; black pigment surrounding each eye and extending between lateral eyes; carapace dark red-brown, boss yellow-brown; sternum, labium, and palpal coxa yellow-brown; legs and palpi yellow-brown; abdomen grey-brown, dorsum with median longitudinal broken light band and four pairs of lateral light spots. Carapace 1.50 long, 1.05 wide; thoracic fovea length 0.10 times that of carapace; clypeus 0.12 high; ocular area 0.19 long, 0.47 wide; ratio of eyes AM/AL/PM/PL, 1.33:2.00:1.00:1.33, diameter of PM 0.06. Chelicerae 0.58 long, robust, smooth, promargin of fang furrow with five teeth, retromargin with six teeth. Sternum 0.84 long, 0.72 wide; labium 0.28 long and wide; palpal coxa 0.46 long, 0.24 wide. Femur I length 1.07 times carapace length. Palpal femur with five anterobasal thorns. Leg measurements (femur + patella + tibia + metatarsus + tarsus = [total]): I: 1.60 + 0.55 + 1.50 + 1.25 + 0.85 = [5.75]; II: 1.30 + 0.45 + 1.00 + 0.95 + 0.70 = [4.40]; III: 1.15 + 0.45 + 0.85 + 0.85 + 0.70 = [4.00]; IV: 1.55 + 0.50 + 1.30 + 1.20 + 0.75 = [5.30]; palp: 0.55 + 0.20 + 0.33 + (absent) + 0.70 = [1.78]. Calamistrum origin at 0.45 from metatarsus base, length 0.45 that of segment. Epigynum as in Figures 35D View Figure 35 and 41 A View Figure 41 , copulatory openings hidden in deep, anteromedian depression, visible dorsally in cleared preparations; vulva as in Figures 35E, F View Figure 35 and 41B View Figure 41 , anterodorsal spiral of copulatory ducts with more than six well-defined turns. Variation (N-5): Total length 3.10–4.00; carapace length 1.39–1.43 times width, height 0.36–0.52 times width; PER width 2.33–2.95 times OAL; OQP 1.28– 1.39 times OQA; clypeal height 1.43–2.14 times AM diameter; cheliceral length 4.83–6.00 times clypeal height; sternum length 1.14–1.22 times width; femur I length 1.03–1.07 times carapace length; metatarsus I length 0.73–0.97 times carapace length.
Natural history: Most records of this species are from leaf litter or pitfall traps, suggesting that R. ida is terrestrial.
Distribution: Known only from Ranomafana in southeastern Madagascar ( Fig. 59 View Figure 59 ).
Material examined: MADAGASCAR: Fianarantsoa Prov. Ranomafana National Park, Talatakely , 21.25041°S, 47.41945°E, elev. 900 m, ‘mixed tropical forest, pitfall traps’, 4–16 January 2001, D. & K. Kavanaugh, R GoogleMaps . Brett, E. Elsom & F. Vargas, holotype ♂ and paratype ♀, CASC ( CASENT9003423), 21°14.9′S, 47°25.6′E, pitfall traps, 13–27 April 1998, C. Griswold, D. Kavanaugh, N. Penny, D. Ubick, M. Raherilalao, J. Schweikert & S. Ranorainarisoa, 1♀, CASC ( CASENT9016990), 1 ♂, CASC ( CASENT9003422), 21°15′S, 47°26′E, elev. 915– 1000 m, 30 October–20 November 1998, V GoogleMaps . Lee and K. Ribardo, 1 ♀, CASC ( CASENT9016991), 21°14.9′S, 47°25.6′E, ex leaf litter, 19–30 April 1998, C. Griswold & D. Ubick GoogleMaps , paratype ♀, CASC ( CASENT9016988), 1 ♀, CASC ( CASENT9016989), 21°12′S, 47°27′E, from foliage, April 1992, V GoogleMaps . & B. Roth, S. Kariko, 1 ♀, CASC ( CASENT9016197), 1 ♀, CASC ( CASENT9017005), 1 ♀, CASC ( CASENT9016196), 2 ♀, MCZ ( CASENT9016195); Talatakely forest , 42.3 km 58° NE Fianarantsoa, 21°15′28.0″S, 47°25′21.8″E, elev. 1050 m, general collecting in montane rainforest, 24 December 2005 – 14 January 2006, H. Wood, J. Miller, J. J. Rafonomezantsoa, E. Rajeriarison, and V GoogleMaps . Andriamananony, 1 ♀, CASC ( CASENT9019100) .
Phyxelida malagasyana Griswold 1990: 167 ; Platnick 2011.
Types: Holotype and paratype females collected at 2100 m at Majakatompo in the Ankaratra Mountains, 19°25′S, 47°12′E, Tananarive District, Madagascar, 25 November 1959, by E. S. Ross, deposited in CASC, type #16385, examined GoogleMaps .
Diagnosis: Male with palp as in Figures 20A–C View Figure 20 and 29A–E View Figure 29 , bulb short, length less than 1.5 times width, embolic base projects retrolaterally beyond cymbium, conductor apex elongate, pointed, extending ventrad from bulb, median apophysis short, base narrow. Epigynum as in Figures 20D, E View Figure 20 , 35G View Figure 35 and 41E View Figure 41 , ML broad, width greater than three times length, ML convex or with narrow, transverse concavity, copulatory openings inconspicuous, at upper lateral corners of ML; spermathecae as in Figures 35H, I View Figure 35 and 41F View Figure 41 , each with long, anteromedian lobate capsule with interior spiral chamber, with five or fewer poorly defined spirals, and with posterior dorsolateral lobe.
Male (Andasibe, CASENT9016182): (Note: the male is here described for the first time.) Total length 8.60.
Markings as in Figure 9I View Figure 9 . Carapace 2.08 long, 1.60 wide; thoracic fovea 0.36 long, length 0.18 times that of carapace; clypeus 0.13 high; ocular area 0.26 long, 0.53 wide; ratio of eyes AM/AL/PM/PL, 1.00:1.11:1.11:1.11, diameter of PM 0.10. Chelicerae 0.70 long, slender, smooth, pro- and retromargins of fang furrow with seven teeth. Sternum 1.12 long, 1.00 wide; labium 0.30 long, 0.34 wide; palpal coxa 0.61 long, 0.29 wide. Legs elongate, femur I length 1.29 times carapace length; metatarsus I concavity and clasping spines as in Figure 44F, G View Figure 44 . Leg measurements (femur + patella + tibia + metatarsus + tarsus = [total]): I: 2.68 + 0.96 + 2.72 + 2.32 + 1.00 = [9.68]; II: 2.22 + 0.76 + 2.04 + 1.76 + 0.88 = [7.66]; III: 1.88 + 0.48 + 1.60 + 1.56 + 0.80 = [6.32]; IV: 2.56 + 0.76 + 2.40 + 2.32 + 0.96 = [9.00]; palp: 1.00 + 0.34 + 0.34 + (absent) + 0.89 = [2.57]. Palpal femur with five probasal thornlike setae; tibial DTA as in Figures 20A, C View Figure 20 and 29B View Figure 29 , bulb short, length less than 1.5 times width ( Figs 20A–C View Figure 20 , 29A–D View Figure 29 ), embolic base projects retrolaterally beyond cymbium, conductor apex elongate, pointed, extending ventrad from bulb, median apophysis short, length less than 2.5 times width, base narrower than apex ( Fig. 29E View Figure 29 ).
Female (Holotype): Total length 7.00. Markings of dorsum as in Figure 9G View Figure 9 , venter as in Figure 9H View Figure 9 , carapace orange-brown, pars thoracica with margin dusky and with dusky anteromedian and median reticulate markings widening toward margin and posteriorly; with broad, dusky, V-shaped mark anteriad of thoracic fovea extending anteriorly as median line and with line on each side of pars cephalica with extensions to AL and AM; black pigment surrounding each eye and extending between AM and between lateral eyes; chelicerae red-brown; labium and palpal coxa red-brown, tips lighter; sternum, coxae, trochanters, legs, and palpi yellow-brown; sternum and coxae dusky; palpal tarsus, tibia I, and metatarsi – tarsi I and II red-brown; legs with faint dusky annuli: basal, median and apical on femora II–IV, apical on patellae II–IV, and median and apical on tibiae and metatarsi II–IV; abdomen grey-brown, dorsum with anteromedian light paired marks and series of chevrons posteriorly, sides mottled with oblique longitudinal light and dark marks, venter ( Fig. 9H View Figure 9 ) with longitudinal pair of narrow light bands. Carapace 3.09 long, 2.25 wide; thoracic fovea broad, short, deep, length 0.08 times carapace length; clypeus 0.26 high; ocular area 0.34 long, 0.99 wide; ratio of eyes AM/AL/ PM/PL, 1.00:1.29:1.14:1.29, diameter of PM 0.13. Chelicerae 1.38 long, robust, smooth, promargin of fang furrow with six teeth, retromargin with four large teeth and one minute tooth. Sternum 1.66 long, 1.34 wide, margin entire, apex pointed; labium 0.58 long, 0.52 wide; palpal coxa 0.97 long, 0.53 wide. Femur I length 1.40 times carapace length. Palpal femur with row of eight short, slender anterobasal thorns. Calamistrum origin at 0.48 from metatarsus base, length 0.33 times that of segment. Leg measurements (femur + patella + tibia + metatarsus + tarsus = [total]): I: 4.25 + 1.31 + 3.88 + 3.81 + 1.75 = [15.00]; II: 3.56 + 1.13 + 2.81 + 2.81 + 1.38 = [11.69]; III: 3.00 + 0.94 + 2.25 + 2.25 + 1.25 = [9.69]; IV: 3.81 + 1.06 + 3.06 + 3.25 + 1.38 = [12.56]; palp: 1.31 + 0.56 + 0.69 + (absent) + 1.31 = [3.87]. Epigynum similar to Figures 20E View Figure 20 and 41E View Figure 41 , copulatory openings hidden beneath recurved LTR, ML broad, width 3.34 times length, oval, with transverse concavity, posterior margin gently procurved; spermathecae similar to Figures 35H, I View Figure 35 and 41F View Figure 41 , each with posteromedian copulatory duct leading to afferent duct within long, anteromedian lobe with five ill-defined spirals ending in apical bulb, and with posterior dorsolateral lobe containing spherical efferent chamber.
Variation (N = 15): This species varies in size and in epigynal morphology. The phylogenetic clustering of specimens from Manjakatompo, Andasibe, and Ambohimanga with a pp of 1.0 compels us to group disparate individuals together in a single species. Total length 5.25–8.40; carapace length 1.28–1.60 times width, height 0.32–0.56 times width; PER width 2.47–3.25 times OAL; OQP 1.21–1.50 times OQA; clypeal height 1.64–2.25 times AM diameter; cheliceral length 4.63–7.00 times clypeal height, promargin of fang furrow with 5–7 teeth, retromargin with 6–7 teeth; sternum length 1.10–1.26 times width; femur I length 0.96–1.50 times carapace length; metatarsus I length 0.76–1.45 times carapace length; palpal tarsus length 0.36–0.61 times carapace length. Epigynum with ML broad, width greater than 3.0 times length, lobe may be entire, e.g. specimens from Andasibe, some small specimens from Manjakatompo ( Fig. 20D View Figure 20 ) or with a transverse concavity, as in the malagasyana type series from Majakatompo and some other specimens from Manjakatompo, Ambohimanga, and Angovokely ( Figs 20E View Figure 20 , 35G View Figure 35 , 41E View Figure 41 ). A specimen from Ivohibe is tentatively assigned to this species in spite of occurring far south of other R. malagasyana : like other members of this species this specimen has a broad ML (length 3.7 times width) with a narrow transverse concavity.
Natural history: These spiders make small cribellate webs in leaf litter or under objects on or near the ground in rainforest.
Distribution: Known from highland and escarpment rainforests and forest fragments in central and south central Madagascar ( Fig. 58).
Material examined: MADAGASCAR: Antananarivo Prov. Station Forrestiere Angavokely, 22 km E Antananarivo, 18°55.6′S, 47°45′E, elev. 1300 m, low canopy remnant forest, general collecting, 8 September 2001, D. Andriamalala, J. J. Rafanomenzantsoa & D. Ubick, 2♀, CASC ( CASENT9001352); Sacred Forest , 10 km NE Tana, 18°45′32.6″S, 48°33′45.1″E, elev. 1300 m, 5 August 1992, V GoogleMaps . & B. Roth, 2♀, CASC ( CASENT9016230, 9016231); Ambohimanga , 18°44′S, 47°34′E, elev. 1400 m, berlese of fine leaf litter, 1 October 1993, R GoogleMaps . Andriamasamanana, J. Coddington, C. Griswold, S. Larcher & N. Scharff, 1♀, ZMUC ( CASENT9017004), 1♀, CASC ( CASENT9017003); F. Manjakatompo (sic), November 1946, J. Millot, 7♀, MNHN ( CASENT9017009, 9017007 View Materials , 9032853 View Materials ), Manjakatompo, 2000 m, vieux troncs pourris, 1946, J. Millot, 5♀, MNHN ( CASENT9017008, 9017010 View Materials , 9017006 View Materials ), Majakatompo, Ankaratra Mountains , 19°25′S, 47°12′E, elev. 2100 m, November 25, 1959, E. S. Ross, 1♀ paratype CASC ( CASENT9014037), 1♀ holotype CAS GoogleMaps type #16385; Manjakatomopo , 17 km W Ambatolampy, 18°58′S, 47°17′E, elev. 1500 m, disturbed montane rainforest, general collecting night, 11 February 2003, D. Andriamalala & D. Silva, 10♀, CASC ( CASENT9019995, 9019998, 9005754, 9020000, 9019999, 9020001, 9019996, 9005753, 9019997, 9019996) GoogleMaps . Fianarantsoa Prov. Res. Special Ivohibe, 7.5 km ENE Ivohibe, 22°28.2′S, 46°57.6′E, elev. 900 m, leaf litter, forest, 7–12 October 1997, B. L. Fisher, 1♀, CASC ( CASENT9016981); Ambatofitorahana, 33 km S Ambositra , 13 March 1994, forêt naturelle, A. Pauly, 3♀ MRAC ( MT201.625) GoogleMaps . Toamasina Prov. Res. Analamazaotra, Parc National Andasibe, 23 road km E Moramanga , 18°56′38″S, 48°25′3″E, elev. 960 m, rainforest, general collecting by day, 16–18 January 2003, D. Andriamalala, C. Griswold & D. Silva, 7♀, CASC ( CASENT9019984, 9018280, 9005253, 9019981, 9018307, 9019983, 9019982); Perinet , 18°55′S, 48°25′E, 1–3 August 1992, V GoogleMaps . & B. Roth, 1 ♂, CASC ( CASENT9016182) .
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