Crossopalpus goliathus,

Freitas-Silva, Rafael A. P. & Ale-Rocha, Rosaly, 2019, New South American species of Crossopalpus Bigot (Diptera: Hybotidae: Tachydromiinae), including biogeographical insights and a reinterpretation of female abdominal tergite 10 in Drapetidini, Zootaxa 4559 (1), pp. 111-135: 120-123

publication ID

https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4559.1.4

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:F2186E8E-E924-4259-AD0D-3AE5FE55C6DA

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/941D87B9-3E2F-C346-FF24-FA1504A035F2

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Crossopalpus goliathus
status

sp. nov.

Crossopalpus goliathus  sp. nov.

( Figs 12–15View FIGURES 12–15, 27, 28View FIGURES 23–30, 34View FIGURES 31–35, 36View FIGURE 36)

Diagnosis. Black species with predominantly brownish yellow legs, hind femur slightly darkened on apical 1/2, tarsi homogeneously brown infuscate, all tarsomeres 5 and hind tarsomeres 1 dark brown. Head lacking tomentum on ocellar triangle and on vertex. Dorsocentral bristles numerous, about 5-serial. Hind femur and tibia strongly thickened, hind femur ventrally covered with numerous short bristles, hind tibia bearing elongate bristles, ventral ones longer on apical 1/2. Fore and mid femora brownish-yellow, hind femur brownish-yellow with brown infuscation on apical 2/3, tibiae yellow with homogeneous brown infuscation.

Description. Holotype male. Body length: 1.82 mm; wing length: 2.00 mm, wing width: 0.78 mm. Head. Shiny black ( Figs 27, 28View FIGURES 23–30); bare on ocellar triangle, wide area on upper 1/2 of postocular area ( Fig. 27View FIGURES 23–30), and lower gena; other parts densely covered with white tomentum including frons; denser and silvery tomentum on lower 2/3 of postocular area; bristles yellow, setae coppery. One pair of strong ocellar setae, divergent, upturned, stronger than vertical seta; postocellar setae divergent, relatively long, 1/2 length of ocellar setae. Inner vertical setae 2/3 length of ocellar setae, convergent, inclinate, outer vertical minute, as long as postoculars. Antenna dark brown, scape and pedicel each with small yellow basal spot. Pedicel circled with almost uniformly short apical bristles, 1 long ventral seta 2.7 x longer than pedicel; postpedicel ovate ( Fig. 28View FIGURES 23–30), 1.8 x longer than pedicel, 1.8 x longer than wide. Stylus brown, long, 13.6 x longer than pedicel, short pubescent, bare near base. Gena short, about 1/5 eye height. Proboscis yellow bordered with dark brown, palpus brownish-yellow, clypeus black, palpus covered with yellow bristles and bearing 1 long and strong dark brown apical seta. Thorax ( Figs 27, 28View FIGURES 23–30). Shiny black, postalar callus with medial corner brownish; yellow tomentum on posterior margin of scutum, lower margins of katepisternum and pleural suture, margin of scutellum, fully covering mediotergite, absent on meron and katatergite. Bristles yellowish, reclinate, anterior ones slightly shorter, setae dark brown. Proepisternum bearing 1 long upturned seta on lower margin. Acrostichal bristles ( Fig. 28View FIGURES 23–30) biserial, lateral series extended posteriorly to horizontal plane of notopleural setae and inclinate, medial-most dc series complete; dorsocentrals ( Fig. 28View FIGURES 23–30) about 5 complete series, slightly longer on prescutellar disc. Prominent setae: 1 presutural erect acrostichal, 2 prescutellar dorsocentrals, anterior one 1/2 of and posterior one 0.8 x length of apical scutellar, 1 notopleural and 1 anterior supra-alar, both 2/3 length of apical scutellar, 1 posterior supra-alar 1/2 length of apical scutellar, and 1 postalar 0.7 x length of apical scutellar. Scutellum with 1 apical and 1 lateral pairs of subequally long setae, and 1 very short pair of basal scutellar seta about 1/3 as long as apical setae. Legs ( Fig. 27View FIGURES 23–30). Coxae, trochanters, fore and mid femora brownish-yellow; hind femur brownish-yellow with brown infuscation on apical 2/3; tibiae, fore and mid tarsomeres 1–4, and hind tarsomeres 2–4 dark yellow with homogeneous brown infuscation; hind tarsomere 1 and all tarsomeres 5 dark brown. Covering bristles on legs yellow, setae dark brown; fore and mid tarsomeres 2–4 ventrally covered with dense yellowish setulae. Coxae and trochanters with ordinary chaetotaxy, except fore coxa bearing 1 strong dorsobasal seta. Fore femur slightly thickened near base, with 1 anteroventral and 1 posteroventral row of short bristles, and bearing 1 stronger anterior and 1 slightly thinner anteroventral subapical seta. Fore tibia 0.9 x length of fore femur, slightly thickened near mid-length, with covering bristles longer and denser on distal 1/ 3 of anteroventral surface of tibia; bearing 1 short and erect dorsobasal and 1 longer basal anteroventral thin seta, latter proximal to tibial gland; bearing 1 anteroventral and 1 posteroventral strong subapical seta. Fore tarsomeres: 18/ 10/9/7 /12; fore tarsomere 1 with 2 anteroventral and 2 posteroventral short spine-like setae on basal 1/2. Mid femur slender, with row of 3 short and erect anterodorsal bristles along basal 2/3, ventrally densely setose, bearing 1 strong anterior subapical seta. Mid tibia slightly shorter than mid femur, bristles not erect, bearing 1 anteroventral and 1 posteroventral strong subapical seta. Mid tarsomeres: 23/11/10 /8/10; mid tarsi lacking prominent bristles. Hind femur strongly thickened throughout, curved towards apex, with 8 erect dorsobasal bristles, bristles denser ventrally, 2 long and strong anteroventral subapical setae. Hind tibia thickened throughout, 0.9 length of hind femur, bristles elongate, ventral ones longer on apical 1/2, bearing 3 setae near apex: 1 stout anteroventral subapical seta, and 1 stout anteroventral and 1 long and thin anterior seta, both apical; posteroventral lappet long, strongly pointed, covered with yellow dense tomentum. Hind tarsomeres: 43/15/12 /10/12; hind tarsomere 1 thickened with dense golden setulae ventrally, with anteroventral and posteroventral rows of short spine-like setae. Wing ( Figs 27View FIGURES 23–30, 34View FIGURES 31–35). Wide, anal lobe developed. Hyaline with some brown infuscation; covered with microtrichia; veins yellow to brown. Vein C with 1 very long black seta near base; bristles on first costal section somewhat longer than in other sections. Costal sections: 42/ 28/29/7. Vein Rs slightly shorter than first sector of R 4+5, M 1 gently bowed near apex, M 4 straight, evanescent apically, CuA+CuP apparent as a fold. Crossvein br-m 2/3 length of vein Rs; crossvein bm-m oblique, 3 x longer than crossvein br-m. Cell br wider on medial part, narrowed apically, 2/3 length of cell bm. Halter pale yellow, knob somewhat yellowish near base. Abdomen ( Fig. 27View FIGURES 23–30). Strongly telescoped. Tergites 2–4 laterally striated, tergites and sternites shiny black, except tergites 2 and 5 opaque, tergite 4 laterally covered with fine pollinosity. Bristles long, yellow, denser laterally on posterior margin of all tergites, denser laterally and along basal margin on tergite 4; squamiform setae absent; sternites with erect bristles, each sternite with 2 longer ventrolateral setae; tergite 8 with posterior bristles longer. Terminalia aligned with body axis, globose, shiny black. Left cercus ( Fig. 12View FIGURES 12–15) very long and pointed on medial part, covered with numerous long bristles on anal 1/2 and apical margin, laterally projected covering partially left surstylus; right cercus ( Fig. 12View FIGURES 12–15) very narrow, slender, curved apically, bearing several short bristles throughout, 1 long subapical and 1 long apical seta. Epandrial lamellae not fused dorsally ( Fig. 12View FIGURES 12–15). Left epandrial lamella wide, fused to hypandrium. Left surstylus ( Fig. 14View FIGURES 12–15) reduced, divided into two lobes: left dorsal lobe strong, very long, strongly curved behind cercus, bearing several long bristles on distal margin; left ventral lobe drop-like, minute, with numerous long apical setae. Right epandrial lamella ( Fig. 12View FIGURES 12–15) very wide, evenly covered with short and strong bristles, about 2/3 length of left cercus. Right surstylus ( Fig. 13View FIGURES 12–15) divided into three lobes, all fused at base: right dorsal lobe longest, widest, apex truncate, with only few short bristles; right medial lobe with intermediary length, main projection finger-like, elongate, with strong and short apical bristles, bearing secondary basal projection close to right dorsal lobe, also finger-like, with minute apical bristles; right ventral lobe minute, shorter than secondary right medial projection, finger-like, positioned at very base of right dorsal lobe, bearing several strong apical bristles. Hypandrium short, ejaculatory and ventral apodemes present ( Fig. 12View FIGURES 12–15).

Female. Similar to male, except for all femora densely covered with ventral microtrichia, hind tibia less thickened, tergites paler, shiny brown with some black markings. Terminalia ( Fig. 15View FIGURES 12–15) elongate, tergite 8 long, darkened on basal 1/2, anterior margin slightly concave, only slightly sunken mediodorsally; sternite 8 darkened except dorsal and ventral margins of apical 1/2, short, dorsal margin elevated in profile, apex wider and fan-like, apical 1/2 deeply divided ventrally, lateral strongly bent upwards. Epiproct fused to cercus, hypoproct elongate, very narrow in lateral view. Cercus very long, projected posteriorly, not bent downwards, bearing a few very long apical setae.

Variation. The most obvious variation is in the color of the legs. Hind tarsomere 1 and all tarsomeres 5 were always dark brown, while other parts of fore and mid legs may vary from largely yellow to having tibiae and tarsi being obviously darkened. The hind femur can also be almost fully yellow, but at least the very apex has some reddish mark. The most commonly found configuration is the tibiae and tarsi at least with some darkening, and the hind femur with the apical 1/3 dark brown. Male tergites may also be darker, particularly tergites 2–3, which may be almost as dark as tergites 4 and 5 laterally.

Type material. HOLOTYPEGoogleMaps  ♂ (CZMA). Brasil (CE [Ceará]), Ubajara / Parque Nac   GoogleMaps [ional] de Ubajara / Cachoeira do Cafundó   GoogleMaps / 03°50′13″S / 40°54′35″W [white, typeset]/ CZMA; Armadilha Malaise / 13–17.xi.2012, F./ Limeira-de-Oliveira, D. / W.A. Marques, cols [white, typeset]; Holótipo ♂ / Crossopalpus / goliathus  sp. nov. / Freitas-Silva & Ale-Rocha [red, typeset/handwritten]. Holotype condition: In excellent condition, left wing ripped shortly close to apex of M 1. Mounted on rightside on a triangular paper point, right wing glued to the triangle, not dissected. PARATYPES. Brazil. Ceará: Same data as  holotype (1♂, 1♀, CZMA; 3♂, INPA; alcohol 10♂, 6♀, CZMA; 8♂, 5♀, INPA). Piauí: Caracol, PAR[que]NA[cional] Serra das Confusões, Riacho dos Bois, 575m, 09°13′11.9″S 43°29′26.2″W, Armadilha de Malaise , 10–20.v.2014, J.A. Rafael, F. Limeira-de-Oliveira, T.L. Rocha, G.A. Reis, cols (1♂, CZMA)GoogleMaps  . Maranhão: Caxias, Fazenda Frexeira, Varredura , 28.ix.2004, F. Limeira-de- Oliveira (1♀, INPA)  .

Distribution. Brazil (Ceará, Maranhão, Piauí) ( Fig. 36View FIGURE 36). Crossopalpus goliathus  sp. nov. is known only from the savannah of Northeastern Brazil.

Etymology. From the Hebraic Goliath  , a giant Biblical character that was said to have been defeated by David in the battle of the Philistines against the people of Israel. The epithet refers to the robustness of the species, only compared in South America with C. armipes  .

Remarks. Crossopalpus goliathus  sp. nov. is very similar to C. armipes Bezzi  due to the relative large size of specimens and the presence of several rows of scutal bristles, but they differ more obviously in the color of coxae, femora, and antennae, which are all much darker in C. armipes  . Also, apical and subapical setae on the hind tibiae of C. armipes  are more slender than their stronger homologues in C. goliathus  sp. nov. Also, C. goliathus  sp. nov. is similar to C. pennescens  with dark antennae, scutum with several series of bristles, and the second and third costal sections subequally long, but in C. goliathus  sp. nov., the legs and palpi are much paler, the hind femur bear two subapical anteroventral setae (one in C. pennescens  ), and the wings are much darker in comparison with C. pennescens  .

This species occurs in the same area as C. albivertex  sp. nov. ( Fig. 36View FIGURE 36). However, the species can be more readily distinguished by its size, with C. goliathus  sp. nov. being very robust while C. albivertex  sp. nov. is smaller and more slender, and by the number of scutal series of bristles, which are numerous in C. goliathus  sp. nov. and scarce in C. albivertex  sp. nov., in addition to the silvery patch of tomentum on the vertex of C. albivertex  sp nov.

INPA

Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazonia

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Insecta

Order

Diptera

Family

Hybotidae

Genus

Crossopalpus