Petracola ventrimaculatus ( Boulenger, 1900 ), Boulenger, 1900

Kizirian, David, Bayefsky-Anand, Sarah, Eriksson, April, Le, Minh & Donnelly, Maureen A., 2008, A new Petracola and re-description of P. ventrimaculatus (Squamata: Gymnophthalmidae), Zootaxa 1700, pp. 53-62: 58-61

publication ID 10.5281/zenodo.180786


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Petracola ventrimaculatus ( Boulenger, 1900 )


Petracola ventrimaculatus ( Boulenger, 1900)  

( Figures 3–4 View FIGURE 3 View FIGURE 4 ; Table 1 View TABLE 1 )

Proctoporus ventrimaculatus Boulenger 1900: 185   [Original description. Holotype BMNH 1946.8. 2.34 (formerly 1900.3.30.17), sex undetermined (SVL 34 mm; tail [26] mm) from Cajamarca, Peru, 10000 ft, collected by P. O. Simons].

Proctoporus ventrimaculatus: Uzzell (1970)   [for holotype and MCZ 18807 View Materials ].

Proctoporus ventrimaculatus: Kizirian (1996)   [for specimens from northern Peru].

Proctoporus ventrimaculatus: Köhler & Lehr (2004)   [for specimens from Amazonas and Cajamarca provinces].

Petracola ventrimaculatus: Doan & Castoe (2005)   [new genus for Proctoporus ventrimaculatus   group].

Diagnosis. Scales smooth, juxtaposed; prefrontals absent; supraoculars two; anteriormost superciliary extends onto dorsal surface; superciliary row usually incomplete; loreal usually absent; genials usually two; transverse dorsal scale rows 29–38; transverse ventral scale rows 17–23; palpebral disk nearly transparent; femoral pores 1–5, present in females; dark brown with pale stripes; venter pale yellow with wide black bands.

Description of holotype. Rostral scale wider than long, taller than adjacent supralabials, in contact with frontonasal, nasals, and anteriormost supralabials. Frontonasal longer than wide, widest at posterior suture of nasal, distinctly larger than frontal. Frontal longer than wide, widest at anterior suture, with distinct extension between frontoparietals. Frontoparietals subhexagonal, in contact medially, in contact with supraoculars. Interparietal triangular. Parietals about as broad as long. Postparietals three, subequal, posterior sutures form point at middorsal line. Suproculars two, subequal in size. Superciliary series discontinuous. Anterior superciliary undivided. Anterior sutures of frontal and anteriormost superciliary form a curved line. Medial scales of anteriormost dorsal scale row much larger than adjacent posterior dorsals ( Fig. 4 View FIGURE 4 ).

Nasal pentagonal, pierced anteriorly by nostral. Loreal absent. Frenocular quadrangular. Central palbebral scale nearly transparent. Supralabials seven. Suboculars three. Postoculars two. Supratympanic temporals three. Tympanum mostly transparent, with some pigmentation posteriorly ( Fig. 4 View FIGURE 4 ).

Infralabials six. Genials in two symmetrical pairs, meeting at broad midventral sutures. Pregulars subequal in size, in three regular rows. Gulars in seven rows ( Fig. 4 View FIGURE 4 ).

Dorsals smooth, rectangular, in 35 transverse, 18 longitudinal rows (at tenth transverse ventral scale row). Ventrals smooth, in 22 transverse, 10 longitudinal rows. Dorsals and ventrals separated by approximately three rows of small to granular scales, continuous with small to granular scales on body at insertion of limbs. Cloacal plate with two large anterior and four large posterior scales. Distal portion of tail lost; dorsals rectangular, smooth, glossy, in [36] transverse rows.

Limbs pentadactyl, with claws. Anterodorsal scales smooth, glossy, polygonal, distinctly larger than those on posterior side. Dorsal scales on brachium much larger than adjacent scales. Ventral scales on brachium small to subgranular. Anterior scales on antebrachium polygonal, smooth, glossy. Posteroventral scales on antebrachium roundish, smooth, glossy. Palmar scales granular. Dorsal scales on I 3 / 3, on II 5 / 5, on III 7 / 7, on IV 6 / 6, on V 5 / 4. Subdigital lamellae undivided; on I 4 / 4, on II 8 / 8, on III 11 / 10, on IV 11 / 11, on V 6 / 6. Scales on anterodorsal surface of thigh polygonal, smooth, glossy, distinctly larger than adjacent scales. Scales on anteroventral surface of thigh polygonal to round, smooth, glossy. Femoral pores 3 / 3. Scales on posterior surface of thigh small to granular. Scales on dorsal surface of crus rounded diamonds, subimbricate, smooth, glossy. Scales on anteroventral surface of crus distinctly larger than adjacent scales. Scales on dorsal surface of foot polygonal, irregularly arranged, subimbricate, of varying sizes. Dorsal scales on I 3 / 3, on II 5 / 5, on III 8 / 8, on IV 10 / 10, on V 6 / 6, single except for proximal row on V. Plantar scales ovoid, slightly domed. Subdigital lamellae single or divided, on I 5 / 5, on II 8 / 9, on III 13 / 13, on IV 14 / 15, on V 9 / 9.

Overall color pattern faded, dark brown. Pale dorsolateral stripe bordered by black, especially distinct anteriorly. Dorsal surface of head brown, without distinct markings. Large irregular black markings laterally on head and neck. Weakly organized ocelli near insertion of forelimbs. Ventral surface of head yellow with scattered, large, dark brown markings. Venter yellow with thick, dark brown bands with irregular posterior borders. Subcaudal pattern consisting of black spots proximally, ocelli distally. Irregularly arranged yellow, brown, and black markings on limbs.

Variation. “Dorsum dull brown with tan stripes, becoming dull reddish tan on tail. Throat cream with black spots; belly and underside of tail black with cream borders to scales. In adult males cream areas dull red (William E. Duellman field notes for KU 181966 View Materials – 76)...Labial region dull yellowish tan....Juveniles with reddish tint on tail and creamy tan venters; adults with black venter. Iris red-brown” (William E. Duellman field notes for KU 181943 View Materials – 76). “Dorsum black or dark brown with two orange-brown dorsal lateral stripes. Flanks same with three longitudinal lines of lighter orange-brown spots. Dorsum of head is mottled black and brown. Venter is gray with few orange-brown spots. Tail dark, with five longitudinal orange-brown stripes. Iris intense red” (Erik R. Wild field notes for KU 219835 View Materials ). Dorsum reddish brown with pinkish orange stripes, throat pale orange (William E. Duellman field notes for KU 212689 View Materials – 707). Whereas specimens from west of the Río Marañon, including the holotype, tend to have thick black bars on the venter, those from east of the Río Marañon often have nearly unicolored black venters, with regularly arranged small white spots or fine lines on scale margins.

Distribution and ecology. Petracola ventrimaculatus   is known from multiple isolated localities at 3050– 3600 m in the Peruvian Andes, including those on both sides of the Río Marañon ( Fig. 3 View FIGURE 3 ). Adults and eggs have been found under rocks in cloud forest or along roads (Erik R. Wild field notes for KU 219835 View Materials – 38), under rocks in bunch grass- Baccharis   association (William E. Duellman field notes for KU 181943 View Materials – 76), and under rocks in “wet paramo” and plowed fields (William E. Duellman field notes for KU 212689 View Materials – 707).

Etymology. The epithet, an adjective, is probably a conflation of the Latin words venter and macula terminated by the adjectival suffix -atus referring to the black markings on the venter.


Museum of Comparative Zoology














Petracola ventrimaculatus ( Boulenger, 1900 )

Kizirian, David, Bayefsky-Anand, Sarah, Eriksson, April, Le, Minh & Donnelly, Maureen A. 2008

Proctoporus ventrimaculatus

Boulenger 1900: 185