Cladonia confusa R. Sant. (1942: 13)

Yánez-Ayabaca, A., Ahti, T. & Bungartz, F., 2013, The Family Cladoniaceae (Lecanorales) in the Galapagos Islands, Phytotaxa 129 (1), pp. 1-33 : 12

publication ID 10.11646/phytotaxa.129.1.1

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scientific name

Cladonia confusa R. Sant. (1942: 13)


Cladonia confusa R. Sant. (1942: 13)

= C. galapagosensis Ahti (1961:46) ; according to Ahti (2000).

( Figs. 3a–d View FIGURE 3 )

Primary thallus evanescent; podetia forming cushions, 4–12 cm tall; densely branched; branching pattern mainly isotomic trichotomous, rarely dichotomous, therefore not forming distinct principal axes; axils frequently perforate; tips slender; surface ecorticate, slightly verruculose; algal clumps (glomerules) visible in old podetia; pycnidia with hyaline jelly; apothecia pale brown, uncommon.

Notes: Cladonia confusa is the most common reindeer lichen in Galapagos. Superficially similar species are C. arbuscula subsp. boliviana and C. arcuata . Because of its growth form, Cladia aggregata could also be mistaken for a reindeer lichen. For differences see the notes for these species.

Two forms can be distinguished according to their color and the presence, respective absence of usnic acid:

Cladonia confusa f. bicolor (Müll. Arg.) Ahti & DePriest (2001: 501) ( Figs. 3a–b View FIGURE 3 )

Podetia ash gray to brownish gray, often with dark brown tips.

Spot tests and chemistry: P−, K−, C−, KC−, UV+ bright greenish white; with perlatolic acid only.

Distribution and ecology: Know from Fernandina, Isabela, San Cristóbal, Santa Cruz Island; less common than C. confusa f. confusa , but both forms often growing side by side; most specimens collected from the humid zone, but occasionally also found in the transition zone, or rarely even in the dry zone; when well developed forming extensive reindeer lichen heaths.

Selected specimens examined: ECUADOR. GALAPAGOS: Isabela Island, Volcán Darwin, Tagus Cove, 800 m, humid zone, on large masses 1 ft or more in diam. on lava, 24 Mar 1906, Stewart, A. 430 ( CAS-DS 640479 ), Cerro Beagle, 15 June 1984, Luong, T.T. ( CDS 10886 View Materials ), southwestern slope, above Tagus Cove, 0°13’43.29”S, 91°19’47.3”W, 724 m, transition zone, on soil, 12 Nov 2007, Ertz, D. 11797 ( CDS 37156 View Materials ) GoogleMaps . Santa Cruz Island, at the base of the eastern slope below the summit of El Puntudo, 0°38’42”S, 90°20’14”W, 780 m, humid zone, on soil, 28 Feb 2006, Bungartz, F. 3986 ( CDS 27916 View Materials ), summit area NW of La Copa (= Media Luna), 830 m, humid zone, in bottom of a small crater, 18 Feb 1964, Horneman, S. [distributed as Weber, Lich. Exs. no. 106 ( COLO 185828 , LSU, M, NY)] GoogleMaps .


Charles Darwin Research Station


Louisiana State University - Herbarium














Cladonia confusa R. Sant. (1942: 13)

Yánez-Ayabaca, A., Ahti, T. & Bungartz, F. 2013

Cladonia confusa f. bicolor (Müll. Arg.)

Ahti, T. & DePriest, P. T. 2001: )

C. galapagosensis

Ahti, T. 1961: )