Pectinaria nonatoi, Nogueira & Ribeiro & Carrerette & Hutchings, 2019

Nogueira, João Miguel De Matos, Ribeiro, William M. G., Carrerette, Orlemir & Hutchings, Pat, 2019, Pectinariidae (Annelida, Terebelliformia) from off southeastern Brazil, southwestern Atlantic, Zootaxa 4571 (4), pp. 489-509 : 495-500

publication ID

publication LSID


persistent identifier

treatment provided by


scientific name

Pectinaria nonatoi

n. sp.

Pectinaria nonatoi n. sp.

( Figs 3–7 View FIGURE 3 View FIGURE 4 View FIGURE 5 View FIGURE 6 View FIGURE 7 , Table 1)

Pectinaria (Pectinaria) laelia sp. nov. (nomen nudum) Nonato 1981: 197 –200, figs 214–217.

Material examined. Holotype ( ZUEC Pol 5875) and Paratype 1 ( ZUEC Pol 21335): coll. Canal de São Sebastião , São Sebastião, state of São Paulo, 23°45'31"S 45°23'57"W GoogleMaps , 1997. Paratypes 2–5 ( ZUEC Pol 21336–21339): coll. Ubatuba, state of São Paulo, 23°31'00"S 45°06'30"W, 03 May 2002; paratype 5 ( ZUEC Pol 21339) dissected, some notochaetae and uncini mounted on microscope slide GoogleMaps . Paratype 6 ( ZUEC Pol 2257): coll. Ilhabela, state of São Paulo, 23°48'S 45°22'W, 21 May 1997 GoogleMaps . Paratype 7 ( ZUEC Pol 2258): coll. Ilhabela, state of São Paulo, 23°48'S 45°22'W, 19 Mar 1997 GoogleMaps . Paratype 8 (182F): coll. Angra dos Reis, state of Rio de Janeiro, 15 Jun 1967, intertidal . Paratype 9 (BN): coll. Pedra da Andorinha, Enseada do Flamengo , Ubatuba, state of São Paulo, 23°29'S 45°06'W, 09 Jul 1971 GoogleMaps . Paratype 10 ( ZUEC Pol 3259): coll. Ubatuba, state of São Paulo, 23°26'S 45°04'W, 05 Jul 1983, 10 m; mounted on SEM stub. All specimens collected intertidally. Morphological variation within the type series is shown in Table 1 GoogleMaps .

Description. Typical ice cream cone shaped tubes, composed of single layer of cemented sand grains ( Fig. 3A, B View FIGURE 3 ). Conical body, 9–35 mm long and 2–6 mm wide ( Table 1), pale cream in color. Operculum with smooth low all around marginal lobe; 9–12 pairs of long golden paleae ( Figs 3D, E, G View FIGURE 3 ; 4A, E View FIGURE 4 ; Table 1) distally tapering to filiform tips ( Fig. 5 View FIGURE 5 A–C), slightly curved dorsalwards, with narrow wings on distal half, minutely spinulated as observed under SEM ( Fig. 6 View FIGURE 6 A–C). Cephalic veil completely free from operculum, with few short blunt buccal tentacles; distal margin of cephalic veil with 17–31 slender cirri of variable sizes ( Figs 3 View FIGURE 3 D–G; 4A, E; Table 1); cephalic veil with 1 auricular convoluted lobe on each side ( Fig. 3E, F View FIGURE 3 ). Tentacular cirri of segments 1 and 2 thin and elongate, distally blunt; tentacular cirri of segment 1 shorter and ventrally aligned to those of segment 2 ( Figs 3 View FIGURE 3 C–G; 4A, E). Segments 2–6 distinctly raised ventrally as ventral crests; first crest on segment 2, with additional semi-circular mid-ventral lobe, 3–4 pairs of short, rounded lobes near bases of tentacular cirri, and another transverse ventral crest at mid-length ( Figs 3 View FIGURE 3 C–F; 4A, E); under SEM, mid-ventral lobe seen as covered with rounded papillae of variable sizes ( Fig. 4F View FIGURE 4 ); postero-dorsal ridge on segment 2 absent ( Fig. 3G View FIGURE 3 ); crest of segment 3 also with semi-circular mid-ventral lobe ( Figs 3C, E, F View FIGURE 3 ; 4A, E View FIGURE 4 ); crest of segment 4 terminating by pair of triangular lobes near ventral edges of second pair of branchiae ( Figs 3 View FIGURE 3 C–E; 4A, E). Two pairs of pectinate stalked branchiae, on segments 3 and 4, each pair consisting of numerous loose, flat and smooth rectangular lamellae, much higher than broad, first pair larger, inserted dorsolaterally, second pair inserted laterally ( Figs 3 View FIGURE 3 C–F; 4A–C, E). Notopodia beginning on segment 5, extending until segment 20; neuropodia beginning on segment 8, extending until segment 19; last segment at base of scaphe achaetous ( Figs 3 View FIGURE 3 H–J; 4A). Notochaetae of two types, arranged in two rows, those of anterior row with narrow limbation on one margin, only visible under SEM, terminating with finely serrated blade, with deep indentation and foliaceous process at base of blade ( Figs 5 View FIGURE 5 F–H; 6D–G); chaetae of posterior row narrowly-winged throughout, wings only visible under SEM, tapering to fine tips ( Figs 5F, G, I View FIGURE 5 ; 6E View FIGURE 6 ). Neurochaetae as pectinate uncini, each with 3–4 longitudinal rows of secondary teeth and with 4–5 horizontal rows of teeth, numbers varying within tori, stout handle directed posteriorly, about as long as crest, and rounded basal peg, composed of many densely packed denticles, as seen under SEM ( Figs 5D, J View FIGURE 5 ; 7 View FIGURE 7 A–E). Scaphe consisting on five fused posterior segments, separated from posterior body segments by clearly defined constriction at segment 21; scaphe oval in shape, flattened and arched ventrally, lateral margins with 6 pairs of lamellae, anal flaps broader than long, with numerous papillae along margins, and short anal cirrus inbetween ( Figs 3 View FIGURE 3 H–J; 4A, D, G); 9–21 pairs of brown dorso-lateral scaphal hooks distally sharp, slightly sigmoid, curved posteriorwards ( Figs 3J View FIGURE 3 ; 4A, D, G View FIGURE 4 ; 5E View FIGURE 5 ; 7 View FIGURE 7 F–H; Table 1).

Variation. Intraspecific variation is given in Table 1. There is variation in the numbers of cephalic veil cirri and of pairs of paleae and scaphal hooks, and this variation is apparently size-related ( Table 1).

Remarks. This species was informally described in an unpublished thesis ( Nonato 1981), as Pectinaria (Pectinaria) laelia , based on material from off the northern coast and São Paulo and southern coast of Rio de Janeiro. Although a formal description has never been provided, the occurrence of these animals was later reported from off southern (state of Paraná) to northeastern Brazil (state of Sergipe), mainly in ecological studies, making P. (P.) laelia a nomen nudum ( Amaral et al. 2013). Therefore, it is important to provide a formal description for these animals, not only for a better knowledge of these animals, but also to give other researchers a valid name to attribute to their specimens.

Zhang & Qiu (2017) provided a comparative table for the morphological characters of specimens belonging to each species of Pectinaria. The most important diagnostic morphological characters are the numbers of cirri on cephalic veil, pairs of paleae and scaphal hooks, the morphology of the uncini and the scaphal hooks, and the presences of a postero-dorsal lobe on segment 2 and a mid-dorsal cirrus inbetween the pair of anal flaps.

Members of P. nonatoi n. sp. have 17–31 cephalic veil cirri, 9–12 pairs of paleae, 9–21 pairs of distally sharp and slightly curved scaphal hooks ( Table 1), uncini with 3–4 rows of teeth, a short mid-dorsal cirrus in-between the pair of anal flaps, but a postero-dorsal lobe on segment 2 is absent. Such a combination of characters is not shared by members of any other species of Pectinaria. Particularly, the number of pairs of scaphal hooks of members of P. nonatoi n. sp. is far greater than found in individuals of any other species of this genus, except for P. gouldii ( Verrill, 1874) , which have distally straight or very slightly curved lanceolate scaphal hooks ( Long 1973; Zhang & Qiu 2017).

The most important diagnostic characters of specimens of P. nonatoi n. sp., however, are not included in Zhang & Qiu’s table. These are the presence of a pair convoluted lobes next to the cephalic veil, one lobe at each side, and the foliaceous processes at the bases of the blades of serrated notochaetae.

The only other species which members have similar auricular lobes near the cephalic veil is P. neapolitana Claparède, 1869 , as mentioned in the original description of P. (Lagis) pseudokoreni Day, 1955 ( Day 1955: 434, Fig. 5a View FIGURE 5 ), species subsequently synonymized with P. neapolitana ( Day 1961) . Day (1955) considered those lobes as an “intermediate condition” between those of members of Pectinaria, having the cephalic veil completely free from the operculum, and Lagis , having the cephalic veil fused to the operculum. Probably because of this assumption of “intermediate condition”, Day (1955) described his species under the subgenus Lagis , instead of Pectinaria. We disagree because, even if those lobes are considered as part of the cephalic veil, which they are not, they still terminate well before the beginning of the operculum (see our Fig. 3F View FIGURE 3 ), and therefore the cephalic veil is completely free from the operculum, characterizing species of Pectinaria in P. neapolitana and P. nonatoi n. sp.

Members of P. neapolitana differ from individuals of P. nonatoi n. sp. because their serrated chaetae do not have the foliaceous process at the base of the blade, their uncini have 2–3 longitudinal rows of 6–8 teeth each, while members of P. nonatoi n. sp. have 3–4 rows of 4–5 teeth each, and these animals have 2 achaetous segments at the base of the scaphe and only 5 pairs of scaphal hooks, as opposed to individuals of P. nonatoi n. sp., which have a single achaetous segment at the base of the scaphe and 10–21 pairs of hooks on scaphe.

The foliaceous processes at the base of the blades of serrated chaetae of members of P. nonatoi n. sp. are very distinctive. Similar processes are also present in individuals of P. gouldii ( Verrill, 1874) , according to the redescriptions by Long (1973) and Liñero Arana & Díaz Díaz (2005), although this latter comes from the Caribbean, a doubtful record of that species. Animals belonging to P. gouldii , however, differ from specimens of P. nonatoi n. sp. in the morphology of the scaphal hooks, as discussed above.

Type locality. The holotype is from Canal de São Sebastião, São Sebastião, state of São Paulo, southeastern Brazil. The type series includes specimens collected in several localities between the northern coast of São Paulo and the southern coast of Rio de Janeiro.

Etymology. This species is dedicated to late Professor Edmundo Ferraz Nonato, father of Brazilian polychaetology ( Lana et al. 2017), who was the first to describe the members of this species, albeit informally.


Museu de Zoologia da Universidade Estadual de Campinas














Pectinaria nonatoi

Nogueira, João Miguel De Matos, Ribeiro, William M. G., Carrerette, Orlemir & Hutchings, Pat 2019

Pectinaria (Pectinaria) laelia

Nonato, E. F. 1981: 197