Charinus africanus Hansen, 1921

Miranda, Gustavo Silva de, Giupponi, Alessandro P. L., Prendini, Lorenzo & Scharff, Nikolaj, 2021, Systematic revision of the pantropical whip spider family Charinidae Quintero, 1986 (Arachnida, Amblypygi), European Journal of Taxonomy 772, pp. 1-409 : 145-148

publication ID

https://doi.org/10.5852/ejt.2021.772.1505

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:9B82A32F-0A07-47E3-8684-FED7C8EBF1E9

DOI

https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.5536849

persistent identifier

https://treatment.plazi.org/id/8F431375-FF09-FF40-A55D-FEE7FE4DDD79

treatment provided by

Felipe

scientific name

Charinus africanus Hansen, 1921
status

 

Charinus africanus Hansen, 1921

Figs 83–88 View Fig View Fig View Fig View Fig View Fig View Fig ; Table 6 View Table 6

Charinus africanus Hansen, 1921: 7–9 , pl. 1 fig. 1a–c.

Charinus africanus – Hansen 1930: 374, pl. 14 fig. 6a. — Mello-Leitão 1931: 54. — Lawrence 1968: 2. — Weygoldt 1972b: 123; 1999c: 104; 2000b: 346; 2008: 224–226, figs 1–3. — Delle Cave 1986: 156, fig. II. — Harvey 2003: 4. — Vasconcelos et al. 2013: 488.

Charinus seychellarum Kraepelin, 1898 – Fage 1939: 154–155 (misidentification, in part, see Charinus fagei Weygoldt, 1972 ).

Diagnosis

This species may be separated from C. madagascariensis and other African species of Charinus by means of the following combination of characters: blackish colouration in life; female genital operculum with steep ventral flexure at about two-thirds of its length, covered with many long, prominent setae; posterior margin of genital operculum elongated medially; setae on dorsal spines of pedipalp patella situated on prominent setiferous tubercles.

This is the only species of Charinus in which the female gonopod is finger-like. Although the gonopod resembles that of Sarax , the species was placed sister to all other species of Charinus in the phylogeny ( Fig. 1 View Fig ). All other morphological characters, as well as its distribution, are consistent with its placement in the genus Charinus .

Etymology

Although unspecified, the species name is evidently an adjective referring to the African continent where the species occurs.

Type material

Syntypes [four of six specimens mentioned by Hansen (1921) examined, others not located] EQUATORIAL GUINEA 2 ♀♀; Annobón; [01°24′59.97″ S, 05°37′59.85″ E]; 400–500 m a.s.l.; May 1902; L. Fea leg.; ZMUC 24552 View Materials GoogleMaps 1 ♂, 1 ex. missing opisthosoma; same collection data as for preceding; MNHN GoogleMaps ] • [specimen mentioned by Hansen (1921) not located]; same locality as for preceding; Apr. 1902; 0–500 m a.s.l.; L. Fea leg. GoogleMaps

SÃO TOMÉ AND PRÍNCIPE • 1 ♂ [one of three specimens mentioned by Hansen (1921), others not located]; St Thome Agua Izé ; [00°13′05.76″ N, 06°43′37.79″ E]; 400–700 m a.s.l.; Dec. 1900; L. Fea leg.; MNHN [examined] GoogleMaps [ Hansen (1921) mentions two specimens, but vial contains 3 ♀♀]; St Thome, Visto Alegre [as Vista Alegre]; [00°18′42.96″ N, 06°41′04.60″ E]; 200–300 m a.s.l.; Sep.–Oct. 1900; ZMUC 24545 View Materials GoogleMaps 7 ex. [not located]; Príncipe, Roca Infante Don Henrique ; [01°33′57.52″ N, 07°24′17.31″ E]; Jan.–Mar. 1901; 100–300 m a.s.l. [not examined] GoogleMaps .

Additional material

SÃO TOMÉ • 2 ♀♀, 2 ♂♂; near São Nicolao Waterfall; [00°17′08.22″ N, 06°37′31.27″ E]; ca 800 m a.s.l.; 8–16 Oct. 2006; S. and P. Weygoldt leg.; under stones and wood; AMCC [ LP 6943 ] GoogleMaps .

Supplementary description

CARAPACE. Median eyes and median ocular tubercle well developed, with pair of setae; lateral eyes well developed, with seta posterior to lateral ocular triad; lateral ocular triad well separated from margin of carapace.

STERNUM. Tritosternum projected anteriorly with typical setation; other sternal platelets each forming single small rounded sclerites, with pair of setae anteriorly; pentasternum with four setae anteriorly and without seta in membranous region.

CHELICERAE. Small flattened tooth on retrolateral surface of basal segment, opposite to bifid tooth ( Fig. 84A–B View Fig ); retrolateral surface of claw with small row of setae subdorsally ( Fig. 84C View Fig ); claw setae with mop-like apex ( Fig. 84I View Fig ); claw with six teeth ( Fig. 84D View Fig ); row of thirteen setae on prolateral surface of basal segment; setae on the basal segment serrate from proximal third to apex ( Fig. 84G–H View Fig ); dorsal setae on basal segment acuminate ( Fig. 84 J View Fig ); bifid tooth on basal segment with dorsal cusp larger than ventral cusp; hinge between basal segment and claw with slit sensilla ( Fig. 84E–F View Fig ).

OPISTHOSOMA. Ventral sacs and ventral sac cover absent.

GENITALIA. Female genital operculum with marked transverse ventral flexure and median elongation with prominent setae ( Weygoldt 2008: 226, figs 2c, 3a); gonopods with two small cones, each terminating in small, narrow, finger-like process ( Weygoldt 2008: 227, figs 2c, 3b–d); gonopod sclerotized basally, between projections extending to frontal region. Male gonopod with broad sclerotized area on margin of fistula and lateral lobes; gonopod rectangular in dorsal view ( Fig. 85C View Fig ), with curved median lobes ( Figs 85A–B View Fig ); LoD and LoL1 forming shell-like structure with spiny apex ( Fig. 85A–B, F–G View Fig ); LoL with fimbriate apex ( Fig. 85E View Fig ); processus internus slightly curved, with spiny apex ( Fig. 85E View Fig ). Spermatophore minute, scarcely more than 1 mm high; comprising stalk, small foot, and spermatophore head, with two parts: base, bent forward, where structure holding sperm sac is suspended, and apex, bent down; sperm package large, unpaired and held by two thick arm-like processes.

PEDIPALPS. Coxal dorsal carina with two or three setae encircled by round carina and four setae on margin. Femur with three or four dorsal spines and four ventral spines; two prominent setae and small setiferous tubercle between dorsal spine 1 and proximal margin. Patella with three dorsal spines and two prominent setiferous tubercles proximal to spine 3; prominent setiferous tubercle distal to spine I, one-third length of spine I; setae on dorsal spines of patella situated on prominent setiferous tubercle; patella with two ventral spines; setiferous tubercle between spine I and distal margin. Tibia with ventral spine distally and three setae between spine and distal margin. Tarsus with two dorsal spines, distal spine curved, long, half length of tarsus, proximal spine half length of distal spine; slit sensillae distally ( Fig. 86A–B View Fig ); tarsus covered with gland openings ( Fig. 86C–D View Fig ), and two types of setae, one smooth ( Fig. 86E View Fig ), other rugose ( Fig. 86F View Fig ); cleaning organ with 31–34 setae in ventral row; dorsal row of modified setae on cleaning organ clavate with serrate margins ( Fig. 87E View Fig ); ventral row of modified setae on cleaning organ acuminate with smooth margins ( Fig. 87F View Fig ); surface between dorsal and ventral rows of setae of cleaning organ with multiple projections ( Fig. 87G–H View Fig ).

LEGS. Tibia of leg I with 23 articles (up to 30 on regenerated legs); tarsus I with 41 articles (up to 45 on regenerated legs); first tarsal article 1.7 times as long as second article. Leg IV basitibia with four pseudo-articles; trichobothrium bt situated submedially on pseudo-article; distitibia trichobothrium bc variable in position, closer to bf, equidistant between bf and sbf, or closer to sbf, sc and sf series each with five trichobothria ( Fig. 88B–C View Fig ). Arolium ( Fig. 87A View Fig ) with truncus presenting linearly organized microstructures ( Fig. 87B View Fig ), whereas labium with randomly patterned microstructure ( Fig. 87C View Fig ).

Measurements

See Table 6 View Table 6 .

Distribution

Known from Equatorial Guinea and São Tomé and Príncipe.

Natural history

Found under stones and fallen tree trunks. The courtship behavior of C. africanus was described by Weygoldt (2008).

Table 6. Measurements of all West African species of Charinus Simon, 1892.

                Pedipalp             Leg IV      
Species Additional information Source Sex Carapace length Carapace width Femur length Patella length Tibia length Tarsus length Claw length Femur I length Femur Basitibia article I Basitibia article II Basitibia article III Basitibia article IV Distitibia IV Basitarsus IV Other tarsal articles IV
C. africanus AMCC [LP 6943] This work 2.74 3.88 2.07 2.02 1.10 0.74 0.59 5.74 3.95 1.60 0.53 0.60 0.70 1.88 0.98 0.67
C. africanus AMCC [LP 6943] This work 2.85 4.10 2.40 2.30 1.20 0.90 0.78 6.50 3.95 1.80 0.55 0.75 0.55 1.98 1.00 0.72
C. africanus AMCC [LP 6943] This work 2.50 3.75 1.63 1.70 1.03 0.70 0.62 4.96 3.32 1.52 0.40 0.52 0.68 1.64 0.88 0.64
C. africanus AMCC [LP 6943] This work 2.80 4.00 1.95 2.03 1.16 0.84 0.79 5.76 3.92 1.84 0.60 0.68 0.80 2.00 1.10 0.96
C. africanus ZMUC 24545, syntype This work 3.00 4.25 2.25 2.34 1.25 0.94 0.90 6.40 4.05 1.98 0.58 0.62 0.84 2.08 1.16 0.75
C. africanus ZMUC 24545, syntype This work 2.76 4.15 2.00 1.98 1.20 0.88 0.71 5.94 3.85 1.75 0.55 0.58 0.70 1.83 1.10 0.70
C. africanus ZMUC 24545, syntype This work 2.60 3.64 1.70 1.70 1.00 0.74 0.68 5.19 3.40 1.50 0.50 0.60 0.75 1.72 0.90 0.68
C. africanus ZMUC 24552, syntype This work 2.92 4.25 2.64 2.68 1.44 0.96 0.85 6.88 4.85 1.97 0.72 0.94 1.09 2.22 1.30 0.78
C. fagei MHNH, syntype This work 4.56 6.64 7.36 7.52 2.31 1.43 1.10 14.10 8.00 4.75 1.75 1.85 2.00 3.60 1.70 1.30
C. fagei MHNH, syntype This work 4.80 6.72 9.50 9.50 2.60 1.63 1.13 14.74 9.00 4.88 1.80 1.92 1.72 3.80 1.81 1.50
C. kakum   Harms 2018   2.6 1.9 1.35 1.6 0.57 0.58 0.43
C. loko sp. nov. SMNS, holotype This work 3.88 5.63 2.41 2.41 1.41 1.16 0.92 10.77 6.19 3.24 1.08 1.16 1.48 2.72 1.28 1.00
C. loko sp. nov. SMNS, paratype This work This work This work This work 3.90 5.88 2.66 2.56 1.47 1.10 0.86 10.90 6.72 3.28 1.08 1.20 1.60 2.60 1.38 1.23
C. loko sp. nov. SMNS, paratype This work 4.00 6.24 3.24 3.12 1.66 1.38 0.96 15.64 7.68 3.88 1.48 1.52 1.80 2.88 1.50 1.10
C. milloti MNHN, syntype This work 3.92 6.32 10.26 10.64 2.25 1.85 1.30 17.05 10.64 6.13 1.88 1.88 1.94 5.50 2.13 1.58
C. milloti MNHN, syntype   prob.♀, no abdomen 4.16 5.84 4.56 4.38 2.12 1.56 1.10 15.38 9.20
C. milloti MNHN, syntype   ♂, bright specimen 4.56 6.06 8.50 8.40 2.50 1.94 1.20 16.03 9.50 5.25 1.72 2.03 2.19 5.00 2.19 1.63
MNHN

France, Paris, Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle

MNHN

Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle

AMCC

Ambrose Monell Cryo Collection, American Museum of Natural History

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Arachnida

Order

Amblypygi

Family

Charinidae

Genus

Charinus

Loc

Charinus africanus Hansen, 1921

Miranda, Gustavo Silva de, Giupponi, Alessandro P. L., Prendini, Lorenzo & Scharff, Nikolaj 2021
2021
Loc

Charinus seychellarum

Fage L. 1939: 154
1939
Loc

Charinus africanus

Vasconcelos A. C. & Giupponi A. P. L. & Ferreira R. L. 2013: 488
Weygoldt P. 2008: 224
Harvey M. S. 2003: 4
Weygoldt P. 2000: 346
Weygoldt P. 1999: 104
Delle Cave L. 1986: 156
Weygoldt P. 1972: 123
Lawrence R. F. 1968: 2
Mello-Leitao C. 1931: 54
Hansen H. J. 1930: 374
1930
Loc

Charinus africanus

Hansen H. J. 1921: 9
1921