Passiflora itzensis (J. M. MacDougal) K. Porter-Utley.

Porter-Utley, Kristen, 2014, A revision of Passiflora L. subgenus Decaloba (DC.) Rchb. supersection Cieca (Medik.) J. M. MacDougal & Feuillet (Passifloraceae), PhytoKeys 43, pp. 1-224: 120-124

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Passiflora itzensis (J. M. MacDougal) K. Porter-Utley.

comb. nov.

18. Passiflora itzensis (J. M. MacDougal) K. Porter-Utley.   comb. nov. Figs 54, 55

Passiflora xiikzodz J.M. MacDougal subsp. itzensis   J.M. MacDougal, Novon 2: 363. figs 2-4. 1992. Type: Mexico. Yucatán: Chichén Itzá, C. L. Lundell & A. A. Lundell 7470 (holotype: LL! [LL00031117]; isotypes: LL, photograph seen [LL00372050], MEXU, MICH, photograph seen [MICH1125812], US! [US00479062]).


Based on Passiflora xiikzodz J.M. MacDougal subsp. itzensis   J.M. MacDougal


Slender, low-climbing or trailing, perennial vine 1-3 m or more, minutely antrorsely appressed-puberulent throughout with unicellular, curved trichomes, 0.06-0.11 mm long, 0.02 mm wide. Flowering stems 1.4-2.3 mm in diameter, terete or somewhat compressed, greenish yellow (5GY 8/4) to very dark reddish purple (5RP 2.5/2). Stipules 2.5-5.6 mm long, 0.4-0.6 mm wide, narrowly ovate, acute to slightly attenuate, longitudinally striate-nerved; petioles 0.9-1.8(-3.0) cm long, inserted 2.4-6.1(-7.0) mm from the basal margins of the peltate blades, with 2, round or elliptic, opposite, sessile, discoid nectaries with flat rims, 1.3-1.9 mm wide (on the widest axis), 0.5-0.9 mm high, borne in the distal third of the petiole (0.62-0.83 of the distance from the base toward the apex of the petiole). Laminas 2.3-4.6 cm long, 5.0-12.4(-13.1) cm wide, coriaceous, often variegated along primary veins and major secondary veins, ratio of leaf width to central vein length measured from point of petiole insertion 1.9-5.1, depressed obovate to transversely elliptic (widely divaricately bilobed), lateral lobes (3.5-)4.3-7.4 cm long, 1.7-4.1 cm wide, elliptic, acute to slightly attenuate, central lobe commonly obsolete or present as an obtuse tip, central vein 1.8-3.1(-4.1) cm long (measured from point of petiole insertion), angle between the lateral lobes (85-)103-140°, ratio of lateral lobe to central vein length 1.4-2.8, margins entire, hyaline, primary veins 3, diverging and branching above base, laminar nectaries present, 6-19, submarginal, associated with the minor veins of the abaxial surface, 0.6-1.8 mm in diameter, widely elliptic to circular, sessile; tendril 0.4-0.9 mm wide, present at flowering node, absent in inflorescence. Flowers borne in leaf axils or inflorescences; inflorescences 5.3-9.6 cm long, associated reduced laminas 1.9-2.5 mm long, 1.3-2.7 mm wide. Pedicels 1.3-3.4(-5.8) mm long, 0.6-1.1 mm wide, (1-)2 per node; bract(s) absent; spur(s) absent. Flowers 20.3-25.5 mm in diameter with stipe 9.1-14.3 mm long, 0.6-1.0 mm wide; hypanthium 4.0-6.2 mm in diameter; sepals 7.5-9.8 mm long, 2.6-4.3 mm wide, ovate-triangular, acute, abaxially and adaxially greenish yellow or sometimes greenish yellow with very dark reddish purple streaks abaxially; coronal filaments in 7 series, the outer 22-31, 6.3-8.1 mm long, 0.2-0.3 mm wide, linear, spreading flat, the tips often slightly incurved, very dark reddish purple (5RP 2.5/2-3/2) with yellow (5Y 8/4-8/6) at tips, ratio of outer coronal row to sepal length 0.67-0.97, the second 20-30, 2.5-5.0 mm long, 0.1-0.2 mm wide, linear, spreading flat, very dark reddish purple with yellow tips, ratio of second coronal row to outer coronal row length 0.33-0.64(-0.75), the third ca. 50, 0.7-2.1 mm long, 0.05-0.13 mm wide, linear, spreading flat, very dark reddish purple with yellow tips, ratio of third coronal row to second coronal row length 0.22-0.59, the fourth through seventh ca. 100 per series, 0.7-1.1 mm long, 0.05-0.11 mm wide, linear, capitate, erect, very dark reddish purple, ratio of coronal rows 4-7 to third coronal row length 0.51-0.62(-0.90); operculum 0.3-0.4 mm long, denticulate, very dark reddish purple, nectary absent; limen absent, limen floor 2.8-4.1(-5.7) mm in diameter, very dark reddish purple; androgynophore appearing absent, or 0.3-1.7 mm long, 0.9-1.8 mm wide; free portions of the staminal filaments 1.9-3.4 mm long, 0.5-0.8 mm wide, linear, very dark reddish purple; anthers 1.3-2.0 mm long, 0.7-1.4 mm wide, introrse at anthesis with their axes maintained more or less parallel to the filament, anthers dehiscing distally; styles 1.8-3.1 mm long including stigmas, 0.3-0.5 mm wide, very dark reddish purple or greenish yellow with very dark reddish purple tinge toward base; stigmas 0.9-1.4 mm in diameter; ovary 1.7-2.4 mm long, 1.2-1.3 mm wide, widely ellipsoid to globose, greenish yellow. Berry 26.0 mm long, 14.0 mm in diameter, ovoid to obovoid, greenish yellow with white spots, becoming soft at the base at maturity. Seeds 30-40, 5.0-5.5 mm long, 2.0-2.2 mm wide, 1.3-1.8 mm thick, elliptic to slightly obovate in outline, acute at both ends, reticulate-foveate with each face marked with 20-22 foveae. Germination type epigeal.


Flowering and fruiting September to June.


Mexico, in the states of Campeche, Quintana Roo, and Yucatán. Tropical semideciduous forests (selva mediana subcaducifolia and selva mediana subperennifolia); growing in shrubs or trailing along the ground on soil of little depth, lying directly on top of limestone; 0-23 m.


In 1992, MacDougal described Passiflora xiikzodz   from herbarium specimens circulated as Passiflora coriacea   from Belize, Guatemala, and the Yucatán Peninsula. He found the floral corona of this new species to be fundamentally different from Passiflora coriacea   and the other members of supersection Cieca   , as it is 5-7-seriate as opposed to 2-seriate. He noted the absence of the floral nectary and the very reduced, denticulate operculum of this species. The seeds are also longer than all of the other species in the supersection. The petiolar nectaries are positioned on the distal third of the petiole in Passiflora xiikzodz   and the floral stipe is diagnostically long. MacDougal further separated Passiflora xiikzodz   into two subspecies, Passiflora xiikzodz subsp. xiikzodz   and Passiflora xiikzodz subsp. itzensis   . Though he found numerous differences in the flowers of the two subspecies and artificial cross-pollinations between them proved unsuccessful, he felt that more information was needed to support the recognition of two separate species. I recognize the two species, Passiflora xiikzodz   and Passiflora itzensis   , which is supported by my morphological and molecular analyses of the taxa (see chapters 4 and 6).

Passiflora itzensis   and Passiflora xiikzodz   are identical vegetatively, but the flowers are quite different. The flowers of Passiflora itzensis   lack or have a greatly reduced dark reddish purple androgynophore, are smaller, possess fewer filaments in the outer and second coronal rows, an androecium and gynoecium with reddish purple pigmentation, very short styles, stigmas with their receptive surfaces presented distally, and anthers that do not flip over to an extrorse position after the flower buds open but move only slightly from the original introrse position to present their pollen distally. In the herbarium, it is not necessary to have perfectly preserved flowers to differentiate between Passiflora itzensis   and Passiflora xiikzodz   , as the floral stipe of Passiflora itzensis   is commonly shorter than that of Passiflora xiikzodz   . Incidentally, in the dried flowers of both Passiflora itzensis   and Passiflora xiikzodz   , the coronal filaments appear nearly black.

The occasional appearance of one or two small but well-formed petals in cultivated material of Passiflora itzensis   has been noted (MacDougal 4633) ( MacDougal 1992). I also noticed this in the same clone (MacDougal 4633) and in another clone given to me by T. Skimina (Porter-Utley P-69). Tim Skimina (pers. comm.) successfully crossed MacDougal 4633 and Porter-Utley P-69. The fruits from this cross were greenish yellow with white spots at maturity and possessed 30-40 light brown seeds. After approximately 35-40 days, the mature fruits began to soften at the apex and, at that time, became very attractive to animals in and around his garden. It is thanks to Tim Skimina’s efforts that we now have such detailed information about the fruits of this species.

Specimens examined.

MEXICO. Quintana Roo: Puerto Morelos, Jardín Botánico Benito Juárez, 3-8 m, Escalante 127 (CICY); along MEXICO 307 between Chetumal and Cancún, 18°56.71N, 88°11.34W, 20 m, Porter-Utley & Mondragón 395 (CICY). Yucatán: Chichén Itzá, near Pisté, Lundell & Lundell 7375 (MICH); Mpio. Tinum, A 3 km de Tinum rumbo a San Francisco, 23 m, Ucan 2303 (CICY).

CULTIVATED MATERIAL. cultivated at Missouri Botanical Garden 1989-1992 from a cutting collected in 1989 by Sr. Dzib and E. Leiter at Chichén Itzá, MacDougal 4633 (MO); cultivated at the University of Florida from a plant collected by Tim Skimina15 September 1990 at Chichen Itza in Yucatan, Mexico, Porter-Utley P-69 (FLAS).