Signiphora perpauca Girault, 1915

Woolley, J. B. & Dal Molin, A., 2017, Taxonomic revision of the flavopalliata species group of Signiphora (Hymenoptera: Signiphoridae), Zootaxa 4315 (1), pp. 1-150 : 83-86

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Signiphora perpauca Girault, 1915


Signiphora perpauca Girault, 1915

Figures 301–316 View FIGURES 301 – 304 View FIGURES 305 – 310 View FIGURES 311 – 316

Signiphora perpauca Girault, 1915: 71 . Female. DF894167 View Materials Signiphora woolleyi Hayat, in Hayat et al. 2003: 321 . Female. NEW SYNONYMY

Diagnosis. The light coloration of the female distinguishes this species from all others in the flavopalliata group with a discal seta in the fore wing. The following combination of features is also diagnostic: fore wing with discal seta; scutellum generally with 5 or 6 setae; female antennal clava distinctly dusky in apical 1/6–1/4; Mt8 with anterodorsal margin in female transverse, without a medial incision; Mt1 bilobed with medial portion rounded; Ms 8 in male with a pointed, anteromedial projection.

This species is most similar to S. fax , and is often reared in association with that species. Females can easily be distinguished from S. fax by the light coloration, but the separation of males is more difficult. Males of S. fax generally have 4 setae on the scutellum, whereas males of perpauca generally have 5 or 6 setae on the scutellum. The coloration of the metasoma of S. fax male is uniformly brown, whereas the metasoma of male of S. perpauca is often a mottled brown, or the terga are lighter in color laterally and at the apex of the metasoma.

Description. Female. Length, anterior margin of pronotum to epiproct apex, 0.39–0.77 mm (n=20). Vertex yellow or tan, occiput with brown band at occipital margin, interrupted medially, face and gena pale yellow, clypeus dark brown. Antennal clava dusky in distal 1/6–1/4, remainder of clava and pedicel and scape pale brown or tan. Pronotum yellow, tan or light brown except lateral corners yellow. Mesoscutum entirely yellow or brown in anterior 1/3–1/2 and yellow in posterior 1/2–2/3. Scutellum, metanotum and medial sclerite of propodeum pale yellow or white, distinctly lighter in color than mesoscutum and lateral sclerites of propodeum. Propodeum with lateral sclerites yellow or tan, occasionally embrowned at borders of medial sclerite. Metasoma usually entirely yellow but occasionally with varying amount of brown coloration as follows:Mt2 sometimes dusky brown in medial 1/3, or Mt1–Mt3 orange, brown, or with embrowned patches on yellow or orange background. In specimens with dark color on Mt1–Mt3, Mt 4 in medial 1/3 and Mt 5 may be embrowned in medial 1/5. Mt6 and Mt7 rarely with lateral embrowned areas. Mt8, epiproct and ovipositor sheaths generally yellow, rarely dusky dark brown which contrasts with preceding terga (see discussion). Fore wing infuscated from base to almost apex of stigma vein, with hyaline areas behind submarginal vein and in basal area, typical for flavopalliata group species.

Head. Mandible bidentate, mandibular ducts enlarged apically. Pedicel length:scape length 0.64–0.77; 3 anelli, the second 1.0–3.0× length of first, the third 2.0–4.0× length of first; clava length:scape length 1.41–1.88. Vertex and frons minutely and transversely striate, with scattered, minute punctations.

Mesosoma. Pronotum and mesoscutum transversely, weakly imbricate, medial sclerite of propodeum weakly imbricate. Scutellum with 5 or 6 setae (rarely fewer or up to 9) and 2 campaniform sensilla; medial propodeal sclerite rounded, process on medial sclerite rounded or pointed apically. Fore wing with discal seta, length:width 2.9–3.9; fore wing LMS:fore wing width 1.2–1.7; marginal vein length:stigmal vein length 1.7–3.4, marginal vein with 6 dorsal setae and 0 or 1 ventral setae; seta M3 length:marginal vein length 0.56–0.75; apical end of costal cell at seta M2–M3. Hind wing with subparallel margins, length:width 6.9–8.5; hind wing width:fore wing width 0.36– 0.50; hind wing LMS:hind wing width 2.50–3.40. Mesofemur with one long spine and one short spine in posteroapical margin; mesotibial spur length:basitarsus length 0.81–1.19; mesotibial spur with 4–7 teeth; basitarsus length:mesotibia length 0.54–0.83.

Metasoma. Mt1 weakly bilobed or bilobed with medial portion rounded; Mt1 length:Mt2 length 1.0–2.0; ovipositor with anterior-most margin lying under Mt4–Mt6; ovipositor length:metasoma length 0.40–0.65; ovipositor sheath length:ovipositor length 0.20–0.36; Ms3–Ms6 with anterior projections short to long; Ms 6 in posterior 1/4 of metasoma and with 4–6 setae; Mt8 with anterodorsal margin transverse, without a medial incision, although the lateral portions may be widely rounded and produced slightly anterior to medial portion.

Male. Length, anterior margin of pronotum to epiproct apex, 0.39–0.63 mm (n=7). Coloration as for female except vertex and frons yellow–orange or tan, occiput with brown band at occipital margin not interrupted medially, antenna uniformly brown or pale brown, clava not distinctly dusky in apical portion, pronotum light brown in anterior 1/3 or in medial 1/2, remainder of pronotum pale tan, mesoscutum brown in anterior 1/3–1/2, posterior 1/2–2/3 mesoscutum, scutellum, metanotum and medial sclerite of propodeum yellow, pale tan, or white; lateral sclerites of propodeum light brown, contrasting with lighter medial sclerite; Mt1 light brown, remainder of metasoma brown or light brown, often lighter in color laterally or a mottled brown which is lighter laterally and at apex. Sculpture as described for female. Genitalia normal for flavopalliata group, digitus with one apical denticle and one seta at its midpoint, digitus length approximately 2× its width, Ms8 a transverse strip with a pointed anteromedial projection, extending to cerci laterally.

Discussion. We have examined the holotype female of S. woolleyi Hayat , and (unfortunately) it falls well within the limits of S. perpauca as defined here. The marked sexual dimorphism in coloration characteristic of this species is unusual in Signiphoridae . The apex of the metasoma in female (Mt8, epiproct and the ovipositor sheaths) are generally yellow or pale yellow as the preceding terga. In one series from Pitangueiras, Sao Paulo State, Brazil ( UCR ENT 299496 and 299503); Mt8, the epiproct and ovipositor sheaths are a dark, dusky brown and contrast with the preceding terga.

Type material. Signiphora perpauca Girault—HOLOTYPE ♀ [examined]: in balsam, QMB Type HY/ 2967, AUSTRALIA, Queensland, Seymour (Ingham); forest, [coll. probably A.A. Girault], 20-II. The holotype is in reasonably good condition. All appendages are present although the body has been crushed somewhat. Signiphora woolleyi Hayat—HOLOTYPE ♀ [examined]: in balsam, IARA 13/6/29 /38, Delhi, India, INDIA, Karnataka, Bangalore, 7.ii.2001, Ceroplastes actiniformis Green on sandalwood.

Other material examined. ARGENTINA: Corrientes: 1 ♀, ( MLPA) . ARGENTINA: Córdoba: 1 ♀, USNM ENT 763106 View Materials ( USNM) . ARGENTINA: Tucumán: 2 ♀, UCRC ENT 299506 –299507 (UCR). AUSTRALIA: Queensland: 1 ♀, BMNH (E) 990220 ( BMNH) . BRAZIL: 1 ♀, UCRC ENT 299505 View Materials ( UCR) . BRAZIL: Minas Gerais: 2 ♀, UCRC ENT 299499 –299500 (UCR). BRAZIL: Pernambuco: 3 ♀, 4 ♂, UCRC ENT 299487–299488, 299490–299491 , 299498, 299501–299502 ( UCR) . BRAZIL: Rio de Janeiro: 8 ♀, UCRC ENT 299470–299472, 299483–299486 , 299497 ( UCR) . BRAZIL: Santa Catarina : 15 ♀, 6 sex unknown. BMNH (E) 990205–990219; NHMUK 010370264 –010370265 (BMNH). BRAZIL: Sao Paulo: 1 mixed series, 8 ♀, 1 ♂, UCRC ENT 299481–299482, 299494–299496 , 299503–299504, 300237 – 300239 ( UCR) . CHILE: 2 ♀, UCRC ENT 299467 –299468 (UCR). CUBA: 2 ♀, USNM ENT 763103 –763104 (USNM). EGYPT: 1 ♀, TAMU – ENTO X0852771 (TAMU). FRENCH POLYNESIA: 1 ♀, UCRC 299480 View Materials ( UCR) . HAITI: 10 ♀, USNM ENT 763107 –763116 (USNM). INDIA: 1 ♀, USNM ENT 763026 View Materials ( USNM) . MEXICO: Michoacán: 1 ♀, TAMU- ENTO X0828006 ( TAMU) . MEXICO: Sinaloa: 2 ♀, UCRC ENT 299593 –299594 (UCR). PANAMA: Bocas del Toro: 1 mixed series. UCRC ENT 299469 View Materials ( UCR) . PAPUA NEW GUINEA: 4 ♀, BMNH (E) 990306 ( BMNH) . PERU: 2 ♀, 1 sex unknown. UCRC ENT 299492 –299493 (UCR), (MLPA). SOUTH AFRICA: KwaZulu-Natal: 3 ♀ TAMU-ENTO X0616173–X0616175 ( SANC) . TAIWAN: 1 ♀, UCRC ENT 299479 View Materials ( UCR) . THAILAND: 1 ♀, TAMU-ENTO X0852811 ( FSCA) . TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO: 1 ♀, CNCHYMEN 122468 ( CNC) . USA: Florida: 2 ♀, 3 sex unknown. TAMU-ENTO X0852766, X0852812, X0852813, X0852814, X0852815 ( FSCA) . USA: Hawaii: 6 ♀, UCRC ENT 299474 –299478 (UCR); TAMU-ENTO X0856695 (CTAM). USA: Pennsylvania: 1 ♀, USNM ENT 763102 View Materials ( USNM) . USA: Texas: 4 ♀, TAMU-ENTO X0828064, X0828065, X0828066, X0828067 ( TAMU) . USA: Virginia: 1 ♀, USNM ENT 763101 View Materials ( USNM) . USA: District of Columbia: 1 ♀, USNM 763105 View Materials ( USNM) .

Biology. This species is biparental and has been reared from a wide variety of Diaspididae . It is often reared in association with S. fax . DeBach's notes on several slides of specimens from Brazil indicate that this species is a primary ectoparasitoid of armored scales. Flanders' notes in the Division of Biological Control, UCR (record for S&R 1804-II, unpublished) refer to this species as the dominant parasitoid on Florida red scale, Chrysomphalus aonidum (Linnaeus) ; in Brazil. This species has not previously been reported from the New World; in fact, until now it was known only from the holotype, collected at Ingham, Queensland. See discussion of S. flavella regarding apparent rearing of this species from a soft scale on Grewia sp. in apparent sympatry with that species.


University of Newcastle


Carolina Biological Supply Company


University of California


Ministry of Natural Resources


Queensland Museum, Brisbane


Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History


University of California, Riverside


Natural History Museum, London


Texas A&M University


Universit� di Perugia


Agricultural Research Council-Plant Protection Research Institute


Florida State Collection of Arthropods, The Museum of Entomology


Canadian National Collection of Insects, Arachnids, and Nematodes














Signiphora perpauca Girault, 1915

Woolley, J. B. & Dal Molin, A. 2017

Signiphora perpauca

Girault 1915: 71