Glenognatha australis ( Keyserling, 1883 ),

Jimmy Cabra-García & Antonio D. Brescovit, 2016, Revision and phylogenetic analysis of the orb-weaving spider genus Glenognatha Simon, 1887 (Araneae, Tetragnathidae), Zootaxa 4069 (1), pp. 1-183: 122-126

publication ID

http://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4069.1.1

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:52FC658C-78C7-49FC-9961-8AC43CA03101

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http://treatment.plazi.org/id/8E0E8F67-7D6B-FF08-ACBA-0F2DFB16D5A2

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scientific name

Glenognatha australis ( Keyserling, 1883 )
status

 

Glenognatha australis ( Keyserling, 1883) 

( Figs. 100–104View FIGURE 100View FIGURE 101View FIGURE 102View FIGURE 103View FIGURE 104, 135View FIGURE 135)

Pachygnatha australis Keyserling, 1883: 211  (syntypes from Pacasmayo , Peru, deposited in BMNH, examined through photographs of the habitus and male genitalia). 

Glenognatha australis: Simon, 1894: 716  ; Cabra-García et al. 2014: 1029, figs. 1D, 2D, 5E, 7D, 9 A –B; World Spider Catalog 2015.

Diagnosis. Males of G. australis  resemble those of G. gloriae  and G. spherella  by the prominent Ret2 ( Figs. 101B – CView FIGURE 101) and the absence of anterior tooth ( Fig. 101 AView FIGURE 101). It can be distinguished from the former by the shape of the clypeus in lateral view, which is not projected ( Fig. 100FView FIGURE 100) and from the latter by the bigger size and the uncoiled embolus tip ( Figs. 104E –FView FIGURE 104). Females resemble those of G. vivianae  by the bean-shaped spermathecae, but are distinguished from the latter by the enlarged Prt2 ( Fig. 101DView FIGURE 101).

Description. Male and female described by Keyserling (1883). Additional data.

Male ( CAS 9039650). Habitus as in Figures 100 A –BView FIGURE 100. Carapace brown, darker along furrows. Sternum pale brown, darker on edges. Abdomen tan, dorsally with two diffused longitudinal black bands that join medially forming thin transverse bands in the posterior region. Venter with a median diffused black band that ramifies to the lateral surfaces from the tracheal spiracle. Silver guanine spots absent. Legs pale tan with distal parts of segments darker. Total length 2.47. Cephalothorax 1.17 long, 0.97 wide, 0.57 high. Abdomen 1.47 long, 1.20 wide, 1.12 high. Sternum 0.57 long, 0.65 wide. Eye diameters and interdistances: AME 0.10. ALE 0.09. PME 0.09. PLE 0.10.

AME-AME 0.06, AME-ALE 0.06, PME-PME 0.08, PME-PLE 0.10, ALE-PLE 0.01. Clypeus height 1.80. Three promarginal and four retromarginal teeth ( Figs. 101 A –CView FIGURE 101). Ret2 enlarged ( Fig. 101B –CView FIGURE 101). Leg measurements: I: femur 1.65, patella 0.42, tibia 1.72, metatarsus 1.35, tarsus 0.80, total 5.95; II: 1.52, 0.42, 1.5, 1.15, 0.52, 5.12; III: 1.02, 0.30, 0.75, 0.80, 0.45, 3.32; IV: 1.35, 0.32, 1.27, 1.10, 0.57, 4.62. DTS 0.15. DTE 0.50. Epiandrous fusules as in Figure 104HView FIGURE 104. Spinnerets as in Figures 104I –LView FIGURE 104. Palp as in Figures 102E –HView FIGURE 102. Conductor lamina with thin distal end in ventral view ( Figs. 102BView FIGURE 102, 104E –GView FIGURE 104). Embolus tip curved ( Figs. 102DView FIGURE 102, 104E –GView FIGURE 104).

Female ( CAS 9039650). Coloration and general habitus as in male ( Figs. 100C –DView FIGURE 100). Cephalothorax, abdomen and legs clearer than the male. Abdomen without clearly defined black bands. Silver guanine spots absent. Total length 2.65. Cephalothorax 1.30 long, 0.95 wide, 0.75 high. Abdomen 1.55 long, 1.25 wide, 1.25 high. Sternum 0.57 long, 0.67 wide. Eye diameters and interdistances: AME 0.09. ALE 0.08. PME 0.08. PLE 0.08. AME-AME 0.07, AME-ALE 0.08, PME-PME 0.09, PME-PLE 0.11, ALE-PLE 0.01. Clypeus height 1.80. Three promarginal and four retromarginal teeth ( Figs. 101D –FView FIGURE 101). Leg measurements: I: femur 1.62, patella 0.42, tibia 1.50, metatarsus 1.25, tarsus 0.75, total 5.55. II: 1.62, 0.37, 1.50, 1.22, 0.57, 5.30; III: 1.07, 0.35, 0.75, 0.77, 0.50, 3.45; IV: 1.55, 0.35, 1.27, 1.22, 0.57, 4.97. DTS 0.17. DTE 0.40. Tracheal system as in Figures 103F –HView FIGURE 103. Spinnerets as in Figures 103I –KView FIGURE 103. Genitalia with well-developed spermathecae, bean-shaped ( Fig. 103 A –EView FIGURE 103). Uterus externus divided into two distinct portions ( Fig. 103 AView FIGURE 103).

Variation. Male total length 1.8–2.6 (N = 10; average 2.2), cephalothorax length 1.0–1.1 (N = 10; average 1.0), femur I length 1.0–1.6 (N = 10; average 1.3). Female total length 2.2–3.0 (N = 10; average 2.6), cephalothorax length 1.0–1.3 (N = 10; average 1.1), femur I length 1.1–1.6 (N = 10; average 1.2). Specimens from southern Brazil and Argentina exhibit a different coloration pattern ( Figs. 100E –LView FIGURE 100).

Distribution. Known from Ecuador to northern Argentina ( Fig. 135View FIGURE 135).

Additional material examined (N = 295). New records. ECUADOR: Guayas: Nobol (5.5km S), [1º54´S, 80º0´W], elev. [6m], 18.i.1978, P. J. Spangler & J. Anderson leg., 1♀ ( USNM); Boliche (14.5Km S), [2º12´S, 79º35´W], elev. [20m], 14.i.1978, P. J. Spangler & J. Anderson leg., 1♂ ( USNM). Los Ríos: Babahoyo, [1º48´S, 79º32´W], elev. [11m], 21.vi.1975, Lohen, Langley & Monnig leg., 1♂ ( USNM). PERU: [Piura]: Quebrada Mogollón, [4º32´S, 81º4´W], elev. [700m], 24.ix.1939, HEF & DLF leg., 1♀ 1♂ ( CAS 9039650). BOLIVIA: Beni: Estación Biológica Beni, [14º38´S, 66º17´W], elev. [187m], 9.ix.1987, S. Larcher leg., 1♀ ( USNM). BRAZIL: Ceará: Fortaleza, Campus de Itaperi, UFCE, [3º47´S, 38º33´W], elev. [26m], 10.vi.2011, R. Azevedo leg., 1♂ ( IBSP 166731). Goiás: Goiana, [16º40´S, 59º16´W], elev. [750m], 12.vii.1957, B. Malkin leg., 1♂ ( AMNH). São Paulo: Paranapiacaba, [23º46´S, 46º18´W], elev. [837m], 7.vii.1957, B. Malkin leg., 2♀ 3♂ ( AMNH); Jundiaí, Serra do Japi, [23º14´S, 46º55´W], elev. [966m], 8–10.xii.1997, A. J. Santos leg., 1♀ ( IBSP 36559); São Paulo, Jaraguá, [23º27´S, 46º45´W], elev. [891m], 8.vii.1994, R. Baptista leg., 11♀ 7♂ 2 immature ( MNRJ 3495). Paraná: Guaraqueçaba, Serra do Itaqui, Tagaçaba, [25º16´S, 48º24´W], elev. [51m], 15–22.ix.2007, G. P. Perroni leg., 1♂ ( IBSP 86529). Santa Catarina: Garopaba, [28º1´S, 48º38´W], elev. [18m], 22.x.1993, M. P. de Barros leg., 1♂ ( MCTP 4304). Rio Grande do Sul: Bagé, Rodeio Bonito, [31º19´S, 54º4´W], elev. [213m], 10.ii.1967, C. Oliveira leg., 1♂ ( MCN 489); Cachoeira do Sul, [30º0´S, 52º58´W], elev. [29m], 2.iv.1977, M. E. L. Souza leg., 1♂ ( MCN 5240); 13.ix.1996, 1♂ ( MCTP 9309); Canoas, Banhado Paquetá, Parque Estadual Delta do Jacuí, [29º59´S, 51º29´W], elev. [15m], 8.vii.1999, A. B. Bonaldo leg., 3♀ ( MCN 31331View Materials); El dorado do Sul, [30º5´S, 51º36´W], elev. [36m], 14.i.2009, L. Fritz leg., 1 ♂ ( MCN 45914View Materials); 9.i.2008, L. Fritz leg., 1♂ ( MCN 43965View Materials); Estrela Velha, [29º10´S, 53º14´W], elev. [211m], 18.i.2000, M. P. Barros leg., 1♂ ( MCN 33409View Materials); Ibarama, [29º25´S, 53º7´W], elev. [419m], 27.xi.1999, C. B. Kotzian leg., 1♀ 1♂ ( MCTP 11248); Monte Negro, [29º41´S, 51º28´W], elev. [206m], 7.vii.1977, E. H. Buckup leg., 1♂ ( MCN 6145); Nova Santa Rita, Banhado Paquetá, Parque Estadual Delta do Jacuí, [29º59´S, 51º29´W], elev. [15m], 8.vii.1999, I. Heidrisch leg., 1♂ ( MCN 31372View Materials); Novo Cabrais, Parque Witeck, [29º44´S, 52º57´W], elev. [77m], 1.xi.2008, R. G. Buss leg., 1♂ ( MCTP 27990); Pirapó, [28º2´S, 55º11´W], elev. [106m], 21–30.vi.1989, Garabi leg., 1♀ 1♂ ( MCTP 841); Porto Alegre, [29º27´S, 50º33´W], elev. [649m], 5.xi.1998, M. P. Barros leg., 1♂ ( MCN 30318View Materials); Rio Pardo, 29º58´S, 52º21´W, elev. [134m], 6.vii.1966, A. Lise leg., 59♀ 35♂ ( MCN 267); 20.ii.1967, A. Lise leg., 2♂ ( MCN 562); 6.vii.1966, A. Lise leg., 24 ♀ 18 ♂ 2 immature ( MCZ 125524); Salvador Sul, [29º26´S, 51º30´W], elev. [485m], 1964, Padre Celio leg., 1 ♀ 2 ♂ ( MZSP 4051); São Francisco de Paula, [29º26´S, 50º39´W], elev. [772m], 5.i.1985, A. Lise leg., 1♂ ( MCN 13235View Materials); Triunfo, [29º56´S, 51º41´W], elev. [6m], 4.vi.1987, C. Marros leg., 1♀ ( MCN 16935View Materials); 21.ix.1989, E. H. Buckup leg., 1♂ ( MCN 18695View Materials), Estaçao Braskem de Proteçao Ambiental, [29º56´S, 51º41´W], elev. [6m], 15.ix.2009, P. E. S. Rodrigues leg., 1♀ 1♂ ( MCN 46671View Materials); 31.viii.2007, M. C. Pairet Jr. leg., 1♂ ( MCN 46804View Materials); 15.ix.2009, E. N. L. Rodrigues leg., 2♂ ( MCN 46622View Materials); 19.xi.2002, R. Ott leg., 1♀ ( MCN 48508View Materials); 14.vi.2006, R. Ott leg., 1♀ 1♂ ( MCN 42102View Materials), Fazenda Pontal, Parque Estadual Delta do Jacuí, [29º59´S, 51º29´W], elev. [6m], 22.vi.1999, A. B. Bonaldo leg., 1♂ ( MCN 31244View Materials); Uruguaiana, [29º44´S, 57º6´W], elev. [51m], 16.ix.2008, R. Alves leg., 1♂ ( MCTP 25962); Viamão, [30º6´S, 51º0´W], elev. [49m], 29.vii.2001, S. Torres leg., 1♂ ( MCTP 15329); 25.x.1994, A. Lise leg., 1♂ ( MCTP 5787). PARAGUAY: [Central]: Itá, [25º30´S, 57º21´W], elev. [141m], 12.iv.1980, P. J. Spangler leg., 1♀ ( USNM); Areguá, [25º17´S, 57º24´W], elev. [143m], 31.viii.1986, 2♀ ( USNM); 6.ix.1980, R. Cave leg., 3♀ ( USNM); 15Km NE Asunción, [25º15´S, 57º41´W], elev. [61m], 21.vi.1969, P. & P. Spangler leg., 1 ♂ ( USNM). Cordillera: San Bernardino, [25º16´S, 57º19´W], elev. [70m], 22.vi.1969, P. & P. Spangler leg., 1♂ ( USNM). ARGENTINA: Buenos Aires: Campana, Estación Río Luján, [34º9´S, 58º56´W], elev. [4m], C.J. Grismado, L. Damer, N. López, S. Trivero, I. Crudele & N. Olejnik leg., 1♂ 1♀ ( MACN 12382); Campana, C. J. Grismado, I. Crudele, N. Olejnik & S. Trivero leg., 1♀ ( MACN 12557); Campana, C. J. Grismado, L. Damer, N. López, S. Trivero, I. Crudele & N. Olejnik leg., 1♀ ( MACN 12480); Delta del Paraná, Arroyo Sarmiento, [34º2´S, 58º31´W], elev. [10m], A. Bachmann leg., 2♀ 1♂ ( MACN 24638); Delta Arroyo Caraguatá, [34º22´S, 58º38´W], elev. [4m], A. Bachmann leg., 2♀ ( MACN 24633a); Paraná de las Palmas, [34º17´S, 58º34´W], elev. [2m], M. E. Galiano leg., 1♀ 1 immature ( MACN 24631a); Paraná de las Palmas y Canal 6, [34º17´S, 58º34´W], elev. [2m], M. E. Galiano leg., 1♂ ( MACN 24628a); Delta, Estación Experimental INTA, [34º22´S, 58º38´W], elev. [4m], A. Bachmann leg., 1♀ 1♂ ( MACN 24621); Campana, Reserva Natural Otamendi, Estación río Luján, 34.277352S, 58.888054W, elev. 5m, M. Ramírez, C. Grismado, L. Piacentini, E. Soto, M. E. González-Márquez, M. Guala, J. M. Andia Navarro, N. López, I. Ortega Insaurralde y P. Zermoglio leg. 7♀ 13♂ ( MACN); Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires: Laguna de los Macáes, 34º36´21.7´´S, 58º20´55´´W, elev. [5m], 1.ix.2008, M. Turienzo leg., (Trampa de caída) 1♂ ( MACN); 15.ix.2008, 1♂ ( MACN); Entre Ríos: Río Gualeguaychú, [33º4´S, 58º26´W], elev. [6m], M. J. Ramírez & P. A. Goloboff leg., 1♀ ( MACN 24624); Jujuy: P. N Calilegua, área de entrada al parque, [23º55´S, 64º50´W], elev. [800m], C. Szumik leg., 4♀ 1♂ 1 immature ( MACN 24629); M. J. Ramírez, P. A. Goloboff & C. Szumik leg., 3♀ 3♂ 1 immature ( MACN 24625); P. N. Calilegua, Aguas Negras, [23º55´S, 64º50´W], elev. [800m], M.J. Ramírez & L. Compagnuccileg., 1♂ ( MACN 24627); Misiones: P. N. Iguazú [25º42´S, 54º26´W], elev. [204m], M. Ramírez leg., 3♀ 3♂ 4 immature ( MACN 24627); Misiones y Corrientes: [27º30´S, 56º1´W], elev. [100m], 11–21.iv.1989, 1 ♀ 1 ♂ ( MCTP 838); 21– 31.vi.1989, 1♂ ( MCTP 842); Salta: El Rey Nat. Park, Rio la Sala, [24º42´S, 64º38´W], elev. 900m, 5–15.xii.1987, S. & J. Peck leg., (Humid mossy chaco forest, Malaise FIT 87–137), 1♂ ( AMNH); Santa Fe: Las Gamas, 20 km W de Vera  , [29º25´S, 60º20´W], elev. [60m], M. J. Ramírez & J. Faivovich leg., 1♀ 1♂ ( MACN 24623); Tucumán: Horco Molle, [26º46´S, 65º19´W], elev. [775m], M. E. Galiano leg., 3♀ 4♂ ( MACN 24622).

CAS

California Academy of Sciences

DTE

Centro de Investigaciones Cient�ficas y Transferencia de Tecnolog�a a la Producci�n (CICyTTP-CONICET)

USNM

Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History

PERU

Universit� di Perugia

DLF

Stetson University

IBSP

Instituto Biologico de Sao Paulo

AMNH

American Museum of Natural History

MNRJ

Museu Nacional/Universidade Federal de Rio de Janeiro

MCTP

Museu de Ciencias

MCN

McNeese State University

MCZ

Museum of Comparative Zoology

MZSP

Sao Paulo, Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de Sao Paulo

MACN

Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales Bernardino Rivadavia

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Arachnida

Order

Araneae

Family

Tetragnathidae

Genus

Glenognatha

Loc

Glenognatha australis ( Keyserling, 1883 )

Jimmy Cabra-García & Antonio D. Brescovit 2016
2016
Loc

Glenognatha australis: Simon, 1894 : 716

Cabra-Garcia 2014: 1029
Simon 1894: 716
1894
Loc

Pachygnatha australis

Keyserling 1883: 211
1883