Oncopagurus elevatus, Lemaitre, 2014

Lemaitre, Rafael, 2014, A worldwide taxonomic and distributional synthesis of the genus Oncopagurus Lemaitre, 1996 (Crustacea: Decapoda: Anomura: Parapaguridae), with descriptions of nine new species, Raffles Bulletin of Zoology 62, pp. 210-301: 237-244

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Oncopagurus elevatus

new species

Oncopagurus elevatus   , new species

Figs. 16–19 View Fig View Fig View Fig View Fig , 51 View Fig

Oncopagurus   n. sp. – McLaughlin et al., 2007: 310, 311 (in part), not unnumbered colour fig. (= Paragiopagurus hirsutus ( de Saint Laurent, 1972)   ], unnumbered fig (See Remarks).

Oncopagurus   n. sp. 1 – McLaughlin et al., 2010: 39.

Type material. Holotype, New Caledonia, SMIB 3, sta DW1, 24°55.00 S, 168°21.70 E, 513 m, 20 May 1987: M 3.8 mm (MNHN-IU-2013-5515). GoogleMaps  

Paratypes, Taiwan: TAIWAN 2000: sta DW 44, 22°47.2'N, 121°27.3'E, 439– 350 m, 2 August 2000 (2 lots): 1 M 1.9 mm (MNHN-IU-2013-6867), 1 F 2.1 mm ( NTOU A00285 View Materials ); sta CP 56, 24°29.8'N, 122°12.6'E, 438–539 m, 4 August 2000 (3 lots): 1 F 2.9 mm (MNHN-IU-2013-6868), 1 F 2.6 mm ( NTOU A 00589 View Materials ), 1 F 2.7 mm ( NTOU A00286 View Materials ). — TAIWAN 2002: sta DW 151, 22°18.34'N, 121°30.04"E, 301–356 m, 20 May 2002: 1 M 2.0 mm ( NTOU). — TAIWAN 2004: sta CP 264, 24°28.07'N, 121°53.55'E, 330– 297 m, 1 September 2004: 1 F 2.8 mm ( NTOU); sta CP 269, 24°30.55'N, 122°5.78'E, 399– 397 m, 2 September 2004: 2 F 2.3, 2.8 mm ( MNHN Pg.). Solomon Islands: SALOMON 2: sta CP 2193, 08°23.9'S, 159°26.6'E, 362–432 m, 24 October 2004 (2 lots): 1 M 2.7 mm ( MNHN Pg.), 7 M 3.0– 4.3 mm, 1 ov F 2.3 mm ( MNHN Pg.); sta CP 2194, 08°24.8'S, 159°26.7'E, 440–521 m, 24 October 2004: 2 M 3.7, 4.1 mm ( MNHN Pg.); sta CP 2199, 07°43.1'S, 158°29.6'E, 296–304 m, 25 October 2004: 1 M 3.1 mm ( MNHN Pg.); sta CP 2211, 07°35.9'S, 157°42.4'E, 313–387 m, 26 October 2004: 4 M 2.7–4.1 mm, 1 F 3.1 mm, 2 ov F 3.6, 4.2 mm ( MNHN Pg.); sta CP 2212, 07°36.2'S, 157°42.45'E, 400– 210 m, 26 October 2004: 2 M 3.3, 4.3 mm, 1 F 3.8 mm ( MNHN Pg.); sta CP 2226, 06°39.0'S, 156°14.3'E, 490–520 m, 28 October 2004: 1 M 3.3 mm ( MNHN Pg.); sta CP 2243, 07°42.9'S, 156°27.3'E, 518–527 m, 1 November 2004: 3 M 3.3–3.4 mm ( MNHN Pg.); sta CP 2288, 08°36.3'S, 157°26.5'E, 509–520 m, 7 November 2004: 1 M 3.5 mm, 1 F 3.5 mm, 3 ov F 4.0– 4.7 mm ( MNHN Pg.); sta CP 2289, 08°35.7'S, 157°28.5'E, 623–627 m, 7 November 2004: 1 M 4.3 mm ( MNHN Pg.); sta CP 2291, 08°39.2'S, 157°26.6'E, 408–470 m, 7 November 2004: 4 M 3.1–3.3 mm, 2 ov F 2.7, 3.4 mm ( MNHN Pg.). Wallis and Futuna Islands: MUSORSTOM 7: sta DW 525, 13°10,6'S, 176°14,7'W, 500–600 m, 13 May 1992: 1 M 2.0 mm (MNH-IU-2013-5519); sta DW 535, 12°29,6'S, 176°41,3'W, 330–470 m, 16 May 1992: 1 M 2.7 mm ( MNHN Pg.), sta DW 556, 11°48,7'S, 178°18,0'W, 440 m, 19 May 1992: 1 F 1.7 mm (MNHN-IU-5517); sta DW 576, 12°31.0'S, 176°52.9'W, 680–685 m, 21 May 1992: 1 M 2.6 (MNHN-IU-2013-5518); sta DW 589, 12°16.2'S, 174°41.4'W, 400 m, 23 May 1992: 1 M 1.7 mm (MNHN- IU-2013-5520); sta DW 597, 12°31.4'S, 174°18.6'W, 469–475 m, 24 May 92: 1 M 2.4 mm, 1 F 2.7 mm ( USNM 1207987). Fiji: MUSORSTOM 10: sta CP 1389, 18°18.58'S, 178°04.73'E, 241–417 m, 19 August 1998: 1 F 2.6 mm, 1 ov F 2.0 mm ( MNHN Pg. 6878). Vanuatu: VOLSMAR, sta DW 51, 20°58.5'S, 170°03.4'E, 450 m, 4 July 1989: 2 M 2.7, 2. 9 mm, 2 F 2.0, 2.1 mm (MNHN- IU-2013-5524). Tonga Islands: BORDAU 2: sta CP 1510, 21°05'S, 175°23'W, 461–497 m, 31 May 2000: 4 M 2.4–2.6 mm ( MNHN Pg. 6708); sta DW 1606, 22°16'S, 175°20'W, 313–316 m, 16 June 2000: 1 M 2.2 mm ( MNHN Pg. 6709). New Caledonia: BIOCAL: sta DW 66, 24°55.43 S, 168°21.67 E, 505–515 m, 3September 1985: 1 M 2.2 mm (MNHN-IU-2013-5523). — MUSORSTOM 5: sta DW 301, 22°06.90'S, 159°24.60'E, 487–610 m, 12 October 1986: 1 ov. F 1.6 mm (MNHN-IU-2013-5525). — CHALCAL 2: sta CC1, 24°54.96'S, 168°21.91'E, 500–580 m, 28 October 1986: 1 M 2.8 mm (MNHN-IU-2013-5521); sta CC2, 24°55.48'S, 168°21.29'E, 500–610 m, 28 October 1986: 1 M 2.4 mm, 1 F 3.1 mm ( USNM 1207988); sta DW 72, 24°54.50'S, 168°22.30'E, 527 m, 28 October 1986 (2 lots): 4 M 2.2–2.7 mm, 2 F 2.0, 2.4 mm ( USNM 1207989), 5 M 2.7–3.2 mm, 4 F 3.0– 3.2 mm (MNHN- IU-2013-5516); sta DW 75, 24°39.31'S, 168°39.67'E, 600 m, 29 October 1986: 1 M 2.8 mm (MNHN-IU-2013-5522). — SMIB 3: sta DW 1, 24°55.70'S, 168°21.80'E, 520 m, 20 May 1987: 2 M 2.7, 3.7 mm, 2 F 2,2, 2.3 mm, 2 ov F 3.0, 3.1 mm (MNHN- IU-2013-5514); sta DW 2, 24°53.40'S, 168°21.70'E, 530 m, 20 May 1987: 2 M 2.9, 3.3 mm, 1 ov F 2.8 mm (MNHN-IU-2013-5527); sta DW 3, 24°55.00'S, 168°21.70'E, 513 m, 20 May 1987: 1 M 2.7 mm, 1 ov F 2.6 mm ( USNM 1207990); sta DW 5, 24°54.90'S, 168°21.60'E, 502 m, 21 May 1987 (2 lots): 2 ov F 1.5, 2.6 mm (MNHN-IU-2013-5526), 1 ov. F 2.8 mm ( USNM 1207991); sta DW 6, 24°56.40'S, 168°21.20'E, 505 m, 21 May 1987: 2 M 3.1, 3.2 mm, 1 ov F 2.5 mm ( USNM 1207992). — SMIB 4: sta DW 36, 24°55.60'S, 168°21.70'E, 530 m, 7 March 1989: 1 F 2.7 mm (MNHN-IU-2013-5529); sta DW 38, 24°54.50'S, 168°22.00'E, 510 m, 7 March 1989: 1 F 2.4 mm ( USNM 1207993); sta DW 55, 23°21.40'S, 168°04.50'E, 260 m, 9 March 1989: 1 M 2.5 mm (MNHN-IU-2013-5528). — BERYX 11: sta DW 10, 24°53.15'S, 168°21.60'E, 560–600 m, 1992: 1 ov F 3.0 mm ( MNHN Pg. 6700); sta DW 11, 24°44.75'S, 168°09.90'E, 350–615 m, 1992: 1 M 3.6 mm ( MNHN Pg. 6701). — SMIB 8: sta DW 147, 168°21.85'S, 24°54.90'E, 508–532 m, 27 January 1993: 2 M 2.7, 3.0 mm, 1 F 2.2 mm ( MNHN Pg.); sta DW 149, 24°54.94'S, 168°21.82'E, 508–510 m, 27 January 1993: 1 F 2.0 mm ( MNHN Pg.); sta DW 152, 24°54.35'S, 168°22.23'E, 514–530 m, 27 January 1993 (3 lots): 2 M 2.8, 2.9 mm, 3 F 2.2–2.8 ( MNHN Pg. 6702), 2 F 2.7, 2.8 mm ( MNHN Pg. 6703), 1 F 2.4 mm ( MNHN Pg. 6704); sta DW 153, 24°53.55'S, 168°21.33'E, 547–560 m, 27 January 1993: 2 F 2.5, 3.2 mm ( MNHN Pg. 6705). — SMIB 10: sta DW 203, 24°56'S, 168°22'E, 508– 502 m, 10 January 1995: 2 M 2.3, 2.7 mm, 1 F 2.8 mm ( MNHN Pg. 6706); sta DW 204, 24°57'S, 168°21'E, 513–553 m, 10 January 1995: 1 F 2.4 mm ( MNHN Pg. 6707). — LITHIST: sta CP 8, 24°54.24'S, 168°21.35'W, 540 m, 11 August 1999: 7 M 2.6–2.9 mm ( MNHN Pg. 6710). — NORFOLK 1: sta DW 1688, 24°55.621'S, 168°22.038 E, 533–545 m, 23 June 2001: 2 ov F 2.4, 3.1 mm ( MNHN Pg. 6712); sta DW 1692, sta DW 1692, 24°56'S, 168°21'E, 507–967 m, 23 June 2001: 1 M 2.8 mm ( MNHN Pg. 6713); sta DW 1698, 24°40.186'S, 168°39.545′E, 562–576 m, 23 June 2001: 1 ov F 3.4 mm ( MNHN Pg. 6711). — NORFOLK 2: sta DW 2081, 25°54.40'S, 168°21.64'E, 500–505 m, 28 October 2003: 1 F 1.8 mm, 1 ov F 2.2 mm ( MNHN Pg.). — EBISCO: sta CP 2540, 22°16'S, 159°26'E, 323–331 m, 10 October 2005: 1 ov F 2.2 mm ( MNHN Pg.); sta DW 2629, 21°06'S, 160°46'E, 569–583 m, 21 October 2005: 1 F 1.6 mm ( MNHN Pg.). French Polynesia: BENTHAUS: sta DW 1897, 27°34.27'S, 144°26.68'W, 480–700 m, 8 November 2002: 1 ov F 3.2 mm ( MNHN Pg. 6714).

Description. Gills biserial. Shield ( Fig. 16A View Fig ) about as long as broad; dorsal surface weakly calcified medially (weak calcification often reaching to anterior margin), with scattered short setae; rostrum broadly rounded, weakly produced, with short mid-dorsal ridge; anterior margins weakly concave; lateral projections subtriangular, terminating in small spine; anterolateral margins sloping; posterior margin broadly rounded; ventrolateral margins of shield usually with slender spine on one or both sides. Anterodistal margin of branchiostegite rounded, unarmed, setose.

Ocular peduncles ( Fig. 16A View Fig ) more than half length of shield; with longitudinal row of long setae dorsally; lateral and ventral faces usually weakly calcified. Cornea weakly dilated. Ocular acicles ( Fig. 16B View Fig ) subtriangular, each terminating in strong spine; separated basally by about basal width of 1 acicle.

Antennular peduncle ( Fig. 16A View Fig ) long, slender, exceeding distal margin of cornea by nearly full length or ultimate segment. Ultimate segment nearly twice as long as penultimate segment, with row of setae dorsally. Basal segment with strong ventromesial spine; lateral face with distal subrectangular lobe armed with small spine, and strong spine proximally. Ventral flagellum with 5 or 6 articles.

Antennal peduncle ( Fig. 16A, C View Fig ) at most reaching distal margin of cornea. Fifth segment unarmed except for scattered setae and laterodistal tuft of setae. Fourth segment armed with strong dorsodistal spine. Third segment with strong ventromesial distal spine. Second segment with dorsolateral distal angle produced, terminating in strong, simple spine and additional 1–3 small spines dorsally and ventrally; mesial margin with 1 or 2 spines on dorsodistal angle. First segment with lateral face armed with 1–3 small spines; ventromesial angle produced, with 2 or 3 small blunt spines laterally. Antennal acicle nearly straight (in dorsal view), not reaching distal margin of cornea, terminating in strong spine; mesial margin armed with 8–13 small spines, sparsely setose. Flagellum long, slightly exceeding extended right cheliped, articles with setae <1–3 flagellar articles in length.

Mandible ( Fig. 17A View Fig ) with 3-segmented palp; cutting edge calcified, with small tooth medially; molar process with small corneous tooth medially. Maxillule ( Fig. 17B View Fig ) with external lobe of endopod slender, moderately developed, not recurved, internal lobe with long, terminal seta. Maxilla ( Fig. 17C View Fig ) with endopod exceeding distal margin of scaphognathite. First maxilliped ( Fig. 17D View Fig ) with endopod slightly exceeding exopod in distal extension. Second maxilliped ( Fig. 17E View Fig ) without distinguishing characters. Third maxilliped ( Fig. 17F, G View Fig ) with merus to dactyl each distinctly longer than broad, ischium about twice as long as broad; crista dentata with about 6 sharp teeth diminishing in strength distally and row of minute teeth distally; basis with mesial spine; coxa lacking spine. Sternite of third maxillipeds unarmed or with small spine on each side of midline.

Chelipeds markedly dissimilar; dorsal surfaces of meri, carpi and propodi with some iridescence. Right cheliped ( Fig. 18A–E View Fig ) massive; carpus and chela with moderately dense setae on all surfaces except for dense plumose setae on dorsal surfaces of fingers. Fingers curved ventromesially, terminating in small, usually blunt corneous claw; cutting edges with 2 or 3 large and several small calcareous teeth. Dactyl in males longer than mesial margin of palm or in females about as long as mesial margin of palm, set at strongly oblique angle to longitudinal axis of palm; mesial margin broadly curved, well delimited by row of strong spines diminishing in size distally; dorsal face with scattered small spines or tubercles proximally; ventral face with distinct median longitudinal ridge with or without small blunt spines or tubercles; ventromesial face concave. Fixed finger broad at base, dorsal face at most with scattered small tubercles, lateral margin well delimited by row of spines; ventral face with distinct median longitudinal ridge having scattered minute tubercles, ventrolateral face concave. Palm varying in shape with size and sex, longer than broad in males ( Fig. 18A, D View Fig ) or broader than long in females ( Fig. 18E View Fig ); dorsal surface with well-spaced, small tubercles medially; dorsolateral margin sharply delimited by row of strong, distally upturned spines, dorsomesial margin delimited by row of small spines or tubercles; dorsomesial face sloping inwardly; ventromesial face elevated as broad, rounded ridge with few small tubercles, and projecting distally near base of dactyl; ventral surface ( Fig. 18D, E View Fig ) naked and smooth except for prominent median elevation armed with cluster of small blunt spines or small tubercles; ventrolateral surface concave. Carpus with dorsolateral margin usually well delimited by row of small spines; dorsodistal margin with row of small spines; dorsal face with numerous small spines or tubercles; ventromesial and ventrolateral margins prominently elevated, each with row of spines; ventral face between ventromesial and ventrolateral margins concave, with scattered small tubercles or spines. Merus with moderately dense setae; with scattered small tubercles on dorsal face; ventromesial margin with row of spines; ventrolateral margin with row of small spines or tubercles. Ischium with ventromesial row of small, blunt spines. Coxa with ventromesial row of setae; ventral face with few small tubercles and ventrodistal row of small spines.

Left cheliped ( Fig. 18F View Fig ) usually weakly calcified on dorsolateral face of carpus. Fingers each terminating in small corneous claw; dorsal and ventral surfaces unarmed except for scattered tufts of setae; cutting edge of dactyl with row of minute, fused corneous teeth; cutting edge of fixed finger with row of well-spaced small calcareous teeth. Dactyl about same length of mesial margin of palm. Palm unarmed except for dorsomesial and dorsolateral setae and row of 2 or 3 dorsomesial tubercles; ventral face smooth. Carpus with dorsodistal and small ventrodistal spines; dorsal margin with long setae; ventral face smooth. Merus with long setae on dorsal margin; with ventrolateral row of small spines; ventral face smooth. Ischium and coxa unarmed, but with ventromesial row of setae.

Ambulatory legs ( Fig. 19A–D View Fig ), similar right from left except for longer meri on right, extending to about tip of dactyls of right cheliped or slightly exceeding them. Dactyls broadly curved, about 1.6 times as long as propodi, and terminating in sharp corneous claws; each with dorsal and dorsomesial distal rows of long setae, and 8–11 minute spinules on ventromesial margin. Propodi each with row of setae on dorsal margin; ventral margin with few setae and 0–3 minute distal spinules. Carpi each with small dorsodistal spine, and few setae dorsally and ventrally. Meri with dorsal margins unarmed (left side) or with 1 or 2 small spines on proximal half (right side); with 1 or 2 small ventrodistal spines on second pereopod. Ischia with small dorsodistal spine, and ventrodistal tufts of setae. Coxae with 1 or 2 small spines ventrodistally, and ventromesial row of setae. Anterior lobe of sternite XII (between second ambulatory legs, Fig. 16E View Fig ), setose, with subdistal distinct spine.

Fourth pereopod ( Fig. 19E View Fig ) semichelate. Dactyl terminating in sharp corneous claw; with ventrolateral row of small corneous spinules. Propodus longer than broad, rasp with 1 row of rounded scales at least distally. Carpus with long setae on dorsal margin. Merus with rows of long setae on dorsal and ventral margins. Coxa with anteroventral row of setae. Anterior lobe of sternite XIII (between fourth pereopods) with row of setae.

Fifth pereopod ( Fig. 19F View Fig ) semichelate. Propodal rasp extending to mid-length of segment. Coxa with row of long setae on anteroventral and ventrodistal margins.

Uropods and telson ( Fig. 16F, G View Fig ) markedly asymmetrical. Telson lacking transverse suture; dorsal surface with scattered setae; left lateral margin with long setae; posterior lobes separated by shallow unarmed, U-shaped cleft; terminal margin of left lobe armed with about 10 mostly long, often strongly curved corneous spines, terminal margin of right lobe armed with small spines.

Males usually without paired first gonopods, and with paired second gonopods. First gonopod ( Fig. 16H View Fig ), when present, with distal portion subtriangular and with row of short bristles on distal margin. Second gonopod ( Fig. 16I View Fig ) with distal segment more or less flat and distally subtriangular, with short setae medially on lateral margin, and long setae distally and distomesially; proximal segment with long setae distomesially. Females with vestigial second right pleopod. Variations. The presence of second gonopods in males is variable, and their presence seems unrelated to size or maturity of the individuals. Approximately 25% of the specimens examined lack second gonopods.

Colouration. Unknown in life. Many of the preserved specimens examined still had colour patterns visible on the chelipeds and ambulatory legs. On the right cheliped, the merus with a pair of orange patches distally on the dorsal surface; the carpus with the dorsal surface having a pair of similarly coloured patches proximally, and a similar colouration on the distal half. On the left cheliped, the carpus and palm with an orange colouration proximally on the dorsal surface. On the ambulatory legs, the meri, carpi and propodi also have an orange colouration proximally.

Habitat. Gastropod shells.

Distribution. Known from the western and south Pacific, in Taiwan, and from the Solomon to the Tonga Islands, including French Polynesia. Depth: 210– 967 m.

Remarks. In their catalog of the hermit crabs from Taiwan, McLaughlin et al. (2007) included under “ Oncopagurus   n. sp. ” two specimens from stations CP 56 and DW 151. The specimen on the colour photograph (unnumbered figure, p. 310) and the one illustrated (unnumbered figure, p. 311) are not the same or from the same station. The specimen shown in the colour photograph on p. 310 is actually Paragiopagurus hirsutus ( de Saint Laurent, 1972)   , from station CP56 as indicated therein. The specimen illustrated in the unnumbered figure on page 311 does represent O. elevatus   , new species, and is actually from station DW 151.

As pointed out by McLaughlin et al. (2007) who reported this new species as “ Oncopagurus   n. sp. ”, it is most similar to O. glebosus   . The two species can be separated primarily using characters derived from the ocular acicles, right chela, and ambulatory legs. The spine on the ocular acicle in O. elevatus   , new species, is marginal ( Fig. 16B View Fig ), although McLaughlin et al. (2007: 311) considered the spine to be “indistinctly submarginal”. In O. glebosus   the acicular spine is clearly submarginal ( Fig. 24B View Fig ), although in some small specimens it appears that the acicle is not fully developed and thus the spine can be considered indistinctly submarginal. The morphology of the ventral faces of the fingers and palm of the right cheliped in these two species is similar in having a distinct longitudinal ridge on each finger, and a prominent median elevation on the palm. In the new species, the ridges on the fingers are unarmed, whereas in O. glebosus   the ridges are armed with low tubercles; in this new species, the median elevation of the palm ( Fig. 18E, F View Fig ) is armed with small spines or tubercles, whereas in O. glebosus   it is armed with low, larger tubercles ( Fig. 24D View Fig ). Although the degree of development of the distal angle of the ventromesial face of the right palm is variable in this new species, the angle is usually prominent and projects distally over the base of the dactyl, whereas in O. glebosus   the distal angle does not project distally. In O. elevatus   , new species, the armature of the ventral margin of the dactyl of the ambulatory legs consists of 8–11 spinules, whereas in O. glebosus   the margin has 1–5 spinules. Also, in O. elevatus   , new species, the anterior lobe of sternite XII ( Fig. 16E View Fig ) has a strong subdistal spine, whereas in O. glebosus   the lobe is unarmed or at most has a weak spine.

Etymology. The specific name is derived from the Latin elevatus   , meaning elevation, and makes reference to the tuberculate elevations on the ventral surface of the right palm in this new species.


Institute of Marine Biology, National Taiwan Ocean University


Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle


Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History














Oncopagurus elevatus

Lemaitre, Rafael 2014


McLaughlin PA & Komai T & Lemaitre R & Rahayu DL 2010: 39