Leodice australis ( Quatrefages, 1866 ) Zanol & Hutchings & Fauchald, 2020

Zanol, Joana, Hutchings, Pat A. & Fauchald, Kristian, 2020, Eunice sensu latu (Annelida: Eunicidae) from Australia: description of seven new species and comments on previously reported species of the genera Eunice, Leodice and Nicidion, Zootaxa 4748 (1), pp. 1-43 : 24-26

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Leodice australis ( Quatrefages, 1866 )

n. comb.

Leodice australis ( Quatrefages, 1866) n. comb.

Eunice australis Quatrefages, 1866: 321 .— Day & Hutchings 1979: 115.— Fauchald 1986: 244; 1992: 74.

Eunice vittata auctores, not Eunice vittata (delle Chiaje, 1828)

Material examined identified as Eunice australis : Queensland. Lizard Island, 14°40’S, 145°28’E, coll. P. Hutchings, Jan 1975, AM W.197146 (l). NW Islet Capricorn Group, coll. G.P. Whitley, May 1931, Warrumbungle Range, Nov 1931, AM W.l97776 (1), AM W.197777 (1, Gift to Shanghai Museum, 18 Sep 1984). One Tree Island, 23°30’S, 152°05’E, Calcareous sponge, Pericharase heteroraphis, coll. C. Wilkinson, 09 Sep 1974, AM GoogleMaps W.7502 (l). New South Wales. Broughton Island , 32°37’S, 152°19’E, Posidonia , diving cores, coll. L. Collett et al., 01 Sep 1976, AM GoogleMaps W.13095 (86). Salts Bay , Lake Macquarie, 32°59’S, 151°38’E, st 361, coll. L. Collett, NSW State Fisheries, AM GoogleMaps W.9391 (52). Lake Macquarie , 32°59’S, 151°38’E, 0.5 m depth, sand. Zostera coll. NSW State Fisheries, 18 Nov 1976, id. Phil Gibbs, AM GoogleMaps W.19243 (3). Careel Bay , Posidonia , coll. P. Hutchings, 06 Sep 1973, id. Hutchings & Rainer 1976, AM W.10075 (5), AM W.10074 (4+), AM W.10077 (6), AM W.10078 (2), AM W.10073 (4+), AM W.10071 (9), AM W.10076 (10), AM W.10072 (4). Long Reef , 33°45’S, 151°19’E, 39 m depth, Shelf Benthic Survey, 14 Apr 1972, AM GoogleMaps W.6918 (2). Towra Point, Botany Bay , Posidonia cores, coll. NSW State Fisheries, 12 Apr 1973, id. P. Hutchings 1976, AM W.9627 (15), AM W.9903 (6), AM W.9946 (l), AM W.9931 (5), AM W.9976 (l), AM W.10019 (9), AM W.10009 (l), AM W.10049 (12), AM W.10971 (3), AM W.10928 (2), AM W.10984 (4), AM W.10032 (3). Towra Beach, Botany Bay , Posidonia , cores, coll. NSW State Fisheries, 12 Apr 1973, id. P. Hutchings 1976, AM W.9684 (10), AM W.9694 (13), AM W.9711 (7), AM W.9727 (l), AM W.9756 (5), AM W.9773 (6), AM W.9794 (13), AM W.9803 (l), AM W.9817 (20), AM W.9835 (16), AM W.9860 (4), AM W.9874 (4), AM W.9882 (4), AM W.10000 (13), AM W.10939 (2). Silver Beach, Kurnell, intertidal, coll. Rosalie Watkins, Sep 1979, id. P. Hutchings, AM W.17687 (1). Botany Bay , coll. NSW State Fisheries, 22 Jan 1975, off Bonna Point, Posidonia , AM W.18844 (3), AM W.18866 (5), AM W.18962 (2). Off Towra Point, AM W.18862 (6). Cronulla, Sydney, 100 m offshore, plankton net touched bottom, coll. I. Maclntyre, Oct 1964, AM W.197063 (l). Jervis Bay , coll. NSW State Fisheries, 17 Oct 1972, id. P. Hutchings, Murray’s Beach, Apr 1972, AM W.17489 (12), AM W.17490 (l). Murray’s Basin , 35°03’S, 150°44’E, sand, 19 Oct 1972, AM GoogleMaps W.17492 (2). Off Cararma Creek, Hare Bay, Posidonia , muddy sand, 18 Oct 1972, AM W.17483 (1). Murray’s Beach, St. 176, AM W.l7484 (57). Spencer Park transect, Merimbula, on Zostera , muddy sand, coll. Day Party, 05 Oct 1975, AM W.15779 (l). Victoria. Port Phillip Bay , 38°04.7’S, 144°42.9’E, 15 m depth, silt and sand, coll. Marine Pollution Studies Group, 10 Feb 1970, AM GoogleMaps W.16279 (2). South Australia. Upper Spencer Gulf , western side, 9 m depth, coll. S. Shepherd, 11 Sep 1973, AM W.5947 (3). Upper Spencer Gulf , eastern side, coll. S. Shepherd, Sep 1973, AM W.5948 (4). Near inlet of West Lakes, 26°08’S, 138°55’E, 3–4 m depth, coll. M. Keough, 07 Sep 1977, AM GoogleMaps W.197585 (l). South Reef , Point Noarlunga, 35 o 11’S, 138°30’E, coll. H. Duyverman, S.A. Fisheries, 10 Jan 1976, AM GoogleMaps W.13609 (several), AM W.13611 (2). Reef to the north of Sellicks Beach, 35°20’S, 138°27’E, coll. P. Hutchings, 16 Mar 1979, no substrate notes, AM GoogleMaps W.197583 (4); under boulders, AM W.197580 (5); Cymodoce sievings, AM W.197579 (l). Aldinga Bay , 35°21’S, 138°25’E, under rocks near low water level, coll. S.J. Edmonds, 12 Oct 1977, AM GoogleMaps W.14057 (l). Emu Bay , Kangaroo Island, 35°35’S, 137º31’E, under rocks, midlower littoral, coll. S.J. Edmonds, 24 Mar 1977, AM GoogleMaps W.14051 (2); under rocks beside jetty, coll. Loch, Yoo & Handley, 07 Mar 1978, AM W.197581 (l). Stokes Bay , Kangaroo Island, 35°37’S, 137°12’E, low tide under rocks, much algae, coll. Handley, 04 Mar 1978, AM GoogleMaps W.197586 (3). West Island , 35°37’S, 138°36’E, 25 m depth, in algae, coll. S. Shepherd, 12 May 1973, AM GoogleMaps W.5949 (3). American River , Kangaroo Island, 35°48’S, 137°46’E, under rocks, coll. S. J. Edmonds, Jan 1958, AM GoogleMaps W.14119 (2). Old wharf at Maston , American River, Kangaroo Island, 35°48’S, 137°46’E, 5 m depth, coll. P. Hutchings, 02 Mar 1979, sand/sponge conglomerate, AM GoogleMaps W.197584 (13); Zostera sievings, AM W.197587 (l); Posidonia sievings, AM W.197589 (2). Maston Point , American River, Kangaroo Island, 35°48’S, 137°46’E, 5 m depth, clumps of sponge in fast flowing channel, coll. P. Hutchings, 02 Mar 1979, AM GoogleMaps W.197588 (many). AM W.197582 (1). Tasmania. Entrance to Oyster Bay , coll. FIS Endeavour , AM W.15 (l). Pirates Bay , Eagle Hawk Neck, coll. G.P. Whitley, 25 Jan 1928, AM W.2579 (l). 4 km north east of Beaching Bay , Maria Island, 42°35.40’S, 148°11.20’E, 82.5– 91 m depth, coll. W. Ponder, 25 Mar 1970, AM GoogleMaps W.4499 (2). Western Australia. Albany , 35°00’S, 117°52’E, coll. P. Hutchings, Posidonia sinuosa , AM GoogleMaps W.202851 (5), AM W.202852 (6); Amphibolis antarctica , AM W.202853 (6); Posidonia australis , AM W.202854 (7), AM W.202855 (4). Busselton, coll. A. Snell, 26 Feb 1965, AM W.5642 (l). Point Peron, Rottnest Island, rock & sand washings, coll. P. Kott, 25 Nov 1946, AM W.197062 (l).

Material examined previously identified as Eunice vittata . New South Wales. Jervis Bay, ACT, coll. NSW State Fisheries, 25 Apr 1972, id. C. Glasby, AM W.194085 (14). South Australia. Off Middle Point near Cape Northumberland, 38°4’S, 140°38’E, 13 m depth, in algae, coll. S.A. Shepherd, 19 Mar 1974, AM W.17208 (l). Upper Spencer Gulf, coll. S. Shepherd, 16 Sep 1973, AM W.5950 (1), AM W.5953 (l). Upper Spencer Gulf, coll. S. Shepherd, 1973, AM W.5951 (l). Eastern side, Upper Spencer Gulf, 9 m depth, coll. S. Shepherd, 11 Sep 1973, AM W.197367 (l). Eastern side, Upper Spencer Gulf, Stn. B, coll. S. Shepherd, Sep 1973, AM W.197368 (l). Stokes Bay, N side of Kangaroo Island, algae sample at low tide, coll. K. Handley, 04 Mar 1978, id. C. Glasby, AM W.197381 (2). Stokes Bay, Kangaroo Island, 35°37’S, 137°12’E, algal washings, coll. P. Hutchings & A. Butler, 05 Mar 1979, AM W.197376 (3). Penneshaw Jetty, Kangaroo Island, 35°43’S, 137º56’E, 5 m depth, in sponge on boom piles under rocks, coll. K. Handley, 09 Mar 1978, AM W.197371 (7). Maston Point, American River, Kangaroo Island, 35°48’S, 137°46’E, 4 m depth, clumps of sponge on old wharf in fast flowing channel, coll. P. Hutchings, 02 Mar 1979, AM W.197374 (3). Maston Point, America River, Kangaroo Island, 35°48’S, 137°46’E, 4.5 m depth, sand, sponge conglomerate in fast current, coll. P. Hutchings, 04 Mar 1979, AM W.197378 (l). Old Wharf, Maston, Kangaroo Island, 35°50’S, 137°15’E, 4.5 m depth, sand, sponge conglomerate, fast current, coll. P. Hutchings, 02 Mar 1979, AM W.197370(7). Hansom Bay, Kangaroo Island, 35°50’S, 137°15’E, algal holdfasts on reef flat, coll. P. Hutchings, 04 Mar 1979, AM W.197377 (l). Cape du Couedic, Kangaroo Island, 36°04’S, 136°42’E, exposed reef, algal holdfasts, coll. P. Hutchings & A. Butler, 04 Mar 1979, AM W.197373 (many). Little Island, Streaky Bay, 34°57’S, 136°02’E, coll. P. Hutchings, 13 Mar 1979, sand sievings, Posidonia and Zostera , AM W.197379 (l); Posidonia , sand sievings, AM W.197369 (1). Streaky Bay, 32°35’S, 134°03’E, coll. P. Hutchings, 13 Mar 1979, mud flats and Posidonia , AM W.197372 (3); Posidonia sievings, mud flats in front of caravan park, AM W.197375 (l); fauna of mussel clumps on mud flats, AM W.197380 (15).

Variation. Branchiae are first present from chaetiger 3, 4 and 5 in 173, 28, and 8 specimens of the 214 specimens in which this was measured. One specimen has branchiae from chaetiger 6 and two each from chaetigers 7 and 8. The first occurrence of the branchiae is not size related; however, the posterior termination of the branchiae is size-related, as is the distribution of the tridentate subacicular hooks. Large specimens are rare in this material, probably because the bulk of the material comes from quantitative samples in which all specimens are kept; it probably represents the size distribution in nature more closely than do the usually dredge-derived material, in which only the larger specimens tend to be retained.

Remarks. This species is extremely common in shallow water in Australia; the large number of specimens made it possible to characterize the species somewhat more carefully than has been done in the past. The material in the second section was originally identified as E. vittata , but the samples were reclassified as E. australis based on the single subacicular hooks in the examined material, whereas E. vittata has multiple subacicular hooks per parapodium. In most of these specimens, the antennae have cylindrical, distally drop-shaped articulation and branchiae are present from chaetiger 3; in other specimens, that otherwise appear very similar, branchiae are first present from chaetiger 4–6. A single subacicular hooks is present, in some chaetigers a replacement hook may also be present. They appear not to differ substantially from L. australis as currently accepted, but have appeared sufficiently different to others that have been identified as a different species.

It is likely that more than one species currently is included under L. australis . But despite the presence of large numbers of specimens, it has been difficult to analyze the problem in any detail due to the large number of incomplete specimen and missing anterior appendages. Also, L. australis and L. vittata are candidate species for molecular studies, which can improve our understanding of the observed variation and species boundaries.

Type locality. New Zealand .


Australian Museum














Leodice australis ( Quatrefages, 1866 )

Zanol, Joana, Hutchings, Pat A. & Fauchald, Kristian 2020

Eunice australis

Fauchald, K. 1992: 74
Fauchald, K. 1986: 244
Day, J. H. & Hutchings, P. A. 1979: 115
Quatrefages, A. de 1866: 321