Ameroglossum Eb.Fisch., S.Vogel & A.V.Lopes, Ameroglossum alatum E.M.Almeida, A.M.Wanderley & L.P.Felix, Ameroglossum asperifolium E.M.Almeida, J.M.P.Cordeiro & L.P.Felix, Ameroglossum bicolor E.M.Almeida, A.M.Wanderley & L.P.Felix,

Almeida, Erton M., Christenhusz, Maarten J. M., Wanderley, Artur Maia, Cordeiro, Joel Maciel P., Melo, José Iranildo Miranda De, Batista, Fabiane Rabelo Da Costa & Felix, Leonardo P., 2021, An overview of the Brazilian inselberg genus Ameroglossum (Linderniaceae, Lamiales), with the description of seven new species, European Journal of Taxonomy 746, pp. 1-25: 4-13

publication ID

https://doi.org/10.5852/ejt.2021.746.1313

DOI

http://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4697342

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/8C0A87AD-B16E-FFA1-5995-9879FAC3FA3B

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Ameroglossum Eb.Fisch., S.Vogel & A.V.Lopes Ameroglossum alatum E.M.Almeida, A.M.Wanderley & L.P.Felix Ameroglossum asperifolium E.M.Almeida, J.M.P.Cordeiro & L.P.Felix Ameroglossum bicolor E.M.Almeida, A.M.Wanderley & L.P.Felix
status

sp. nov.

Genus Ameroglossum Eb.Fisch., S.Vogel & A.V.Lopes 

Feddes Repertorium 110 (7–8): 529 ( Fischer et al. 1999), here amended.

Type species

Ameroglossum pernambucense Eb.Fisch., S.Vogel & A.Lopez. 

Description

Saxicolous, perennial chamaephytes, bases of stems slightly woody; plants up to 3 m; branching principally from the stem base, often secondarily branched irregularly along the stem. Young branches greenish to purplish, lustrous to dull, erect, quadrangular or cylindrical, thick, angular, often winged, glabrous, glabrescent, pubescent or villous, with trichomes aciculate, recurved, bifid or papillose; brownish to cinereous when mature, slightly inclined to incumbent, subquadrangular to cylindrical, not winged, glabrous, slightly lignified. Leaves sessile; opposite decussate or verticillate; leaf blade green to reddish or purplish, bifacial, rarely slightly cinereous, lustrous, rarely dull, lanceolate, narrowly elliptic, trullate, elliptic to ovate, smooth to strongly bullate; venation camptodromous; adaxial side with venation reticulate, impressed, glabrous to pubescent, with trichomes recurved or rarely papillose; abaxial side with venation reticulate, emergent, indumented principally on the venation, glabrescent, pubescent or villose, with trichomes aciculate, recurved, bifid ramified, glandular or papillose; base slightly decurrent in all species; apex acute, acuminate, slightly caudate to cirrhose, flat to recurved; margin serrate, flat to revolute, glabrous to ciliate, with trichomes recurved, rarely short aciculate. Inflorescence axillary, in simple or compound dichasia, rarely flowers single. Peduncles green to reddish, rarely bifacial, linear, cylindrical to subcylindrical, winged to wingless, glabrous, glabrescent, pubescent to villous, with trichomes aciculate, recurved, bifid or papillose. Pedicels green to reddish, frequently with base curved upwards, recurved after fertilization, subcylindrical, glabrous, glabrescent, pubescent to villous, with trichomes aciculate, recurved, bifid or papillose; dorsal side winged, ventral side varying from winged to wingless. Bracts green or tinged red, slightly cymbiform, inflexed; adaxial side glabrous to glabrescent, with trichomes papillose, rarely aciculate; abaxial side glabrous, glabrescent to pubescent, with trichomes aciculate, recurved, bipinnate or papillose; margin glabrous or ciliate, with recurved trichomes. Bracteoles present. Calyx green to purplish, rarely with apex reddish, pentamerous, gamosepalous, slightly asymmetrical; sepals lanceolate to broad-lanceolate, rarely ovate, dorsal sepal rarely overlapping lateral sepals, wingless or rarely winged by the prolongation of the wings of the pedicel; lateral abaxial side glabrous to pubescent with trichomes aciculate, recurved, bifid or papillose; adaxial side with trichomes papillose, rarely recurved; margin glabrous or ciliate, with recurved trichomes. Corolla scarlet to orange-yellow, sometimes with ventral or proximal third yellow, pentamerous, tubular, sometimes with wide base, zygomorphic, bilabiate, symmetrical; externally glabrous to pubescent, trichomes papillose, glandular, aciculate or recurved; internal side glabrous to glabrescent, trichomes papillose; upper lip bilobed to slightly bilobed, margin with violet border, revolute, principally at the apical portion; lower lip yellow, rarely with scarlet margins, slightly trilobed, with borders of the inner perianth densely pubescent, trichomes aciculate conical or filiform, white, yellowish white or violet; lobes revolute or involute, lateral lobes smaller; median lobe ovate to elongated. Stamens 4, didynamous, included or exserted, epipetalous, adnate to the distal median third of the corolla tube; filaments violet or white, glabrescent, covered by short glandular trichomes, principally on the distal third; anthers bithecous, thecae blackish, rounded; pollen blue, pulvinate; staminodium filiform, adnate from the proximal third to the middle of the corolla tube, glabrous to glabrescent, trichomes short glandular, rarely papillose. Ovary conical, laterally compressed, bilocular, pluri-ovulate, glabrous, rarely glabrescent, trichomes papillose and/or aciculate, base enveloped by an aneliform nectariferous disk; nectar transparent, abundant, sweet; style violet, terminal, exserted to enclosed, glabrous, rarely glabrescent, trichomes aciculate or papillose, principally on the proximal third; stigma capitate. Capsule green to purplish, conical, dehiscent; valves 2, pluriseminate, glabrous; calyx and style persistent. Seeds brownish, subreniform, longitudinal costae striate-undulate.

Ameroglossum  is restricted to north-eastern Brazil (so far reported in the states of Alagoas, Paraíba, Pernambuco and Rio Grande do Norte). It comprises nine species and is morphologically similar to Cubitanthus  , Catimbaua  , Isabelcristinia  and the African Stemodiopsis  . A key to the species of Ameroglossum  , Isabelcristinia  , Catimbaua  and Cubitanthus  is provided below.

Note

The inflorescence was described by Fischer et al. (1999) as a frondose thyrse, which was based on the little material that was available to them at the time. However, this description of the inflorescence is incorrect. We have observed in cultivated material that when inflorescences are initiated, the plant produces inflorescence buds in the axils of leaves in the upper part of the main stems, which grow into inflorescences. These leafy stems can continue to grow for more than one flowering season. Therefore, the inflorescence is not a thyrse, but the inflorescences are axillary simple or compound dichasia.

Key to the species of Ameroglossum  and related genera

1. Plants pendent or decumbent ............................................................................................................ 2

– Plants erect ........................................................................................................................................ 3

2. Leaves with arachnoid indumentum; flowers red, with tube larger than the lips ............................... ................................................................................... Catimbaua pendula L.P.Felix & E.M.Almeida 

– Leaves with pubescent indumentum; flowers white, with tube smaller than the lips ......................... .............................................................................. Cubitanthus alatus (Cham. & Schltdl.) Barringer 

3. Plants aromatic; leaves sticky, indumentum composed of glandular trichomes; corolla personate (masked) .......................................................... Isabelcristinia aromatica L.P.Felix & E.M.Almeida 

– Plants without aroma; leaves not sticky, indumentum without glandular trichomes; corolla tubular ............................................................................................................................ ( Ameroglossum  )...4

4. Leaves usually verticillate ................................................................................................................ 5

– Leaves opposite and decussate ......................................................................................................... 7

5. Lower lip of the corolla with inner perianth covered by filiform trichomes and with revolute lobes ............................ Ameroglossum intermedium E.M.Almeida, A.M.Wanderley & L.P.Felix  sp. nov.

– Lower lip of the corolla with inner perianth covered by conical trichomes and with involute lobes ........................................................................................................................................................... 6

6. Branches puberulent; leaf blade with densely reticulated venation, puberulent on abaxial side ........ ..................................................... Ameroglossum pernambucense Eb.Fisch., S.Vogel & A.V.Lopes 

– Branches glabrescent; leaf blade with sparsely reticulated venation, glabrous to glabrescent on abaxial side ................ Ameroglossum xukuruorum E.M.Almeida, Christenh. & L.P.Felix  sp. nov.

7. Peduncles winged ............................................................................................................................. 8

– Peduncles without wings ................................................................................................................ 12

8. Young leaves rugose on the adaxial side, pubescent; calyx with two dorsal wings ........................... ............................. Ameroglossum asperifolium E.M.Almeida, J.M.P.Cordeiro & L.P.Felix  sp. nov.

– Young leaves smooth adaxially, glabrous to glabrescent; calyx not winged .................................... 9

9. Branches dull, peduncle and pedicel pubescent, not glandular .......................................................... ............................ Ameroglossum intermedium E.M.Almeida, A.M.Wanderley & L.P.Felix  sp. nov.

– Branches lustrous, peduncle and pedicel glabrous or sparsely pubescent with short, glandular trichomes ......................................................................................................................................... 10

10. Inflorescence a compound dichasium ................................................................................................. ..................................... Ameroglossum bicolor E.M.Almeida, A.M.Wanderley & L.P.Felix  sp. nov.

– Inflorescence a simple dichasium ....................................................................................................11

11. Branches, leaves and calyx purplish; flowers with scarlet corolla ..................................................... ................................ Ameroglossum fulniorum E.M.Almeida, A.M.Wanderley & L.P.Felix  sp. nov.

– Branches, leaves and calyx predominately green, flowers with orange corolla ................................. ..................................... Ameroglossum alatum E.M.Almeida, A.M.Wanderley & L.P.Felix  sp. nov.

12. Plants densely branched; stem, leaves, peduncle, pedicel and calyx green; leaves principally ovate; flowers orange ..... Ameroglossum genaroanum E.M.Almeida, J.M.P.Cordeiro & L.P.Felix  sp. nov.

– Plants sparsely branched; stem, leaves, peduncle, pedicel, and calyx purplish to slightly purplish; leaves narrowly elliptic; flowers scarlet .... Ameroglossum manoelfelixii L.P.Felix & E.M.Almeida 

Ameroglossum alatum E.M.Almeida, A.M.Wanderley & L.P.Felix  sp. nov.

urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:77216325-1

Figs 2AView Fig, 3a– eView Fig

Diagnosis

A species morphologically similar to A. manoelfelixii  because it has glabrous to glabrescent, lustrous vegetative parts and inflorescences. However, A. alatum  sp. nov. differs from this and other species of Ameroglossum  , by having conspicuous membranous wings on the stem extending to the peduncle of the inflorescence and the pedicel (vs not or sparsely winged). Because of its green stems and leaves, A. alatum  sp. nov. may also appear similar to A. bicolor  sp. nov., although it differs by having its inflorescence in a simple dichasium (vs compound dichasium), winged peduncles and pedicels (vs partially winged) and the sepals not overlapping (vs sepals overlapping).

Etymology

The name is derived from the Latin adjective ʻ alatus  ʼ, ʻwingedʼ, referring to the conspicuous wings on the branches, peduncles and pedicels.

Material examined

Type BRAZIL – Alagoas • Maravilha; 09°14ʹ39ʺ S, 37°19ʹ33ʺ W; 792 m a.s.l.; 21 Aug. 2012; E.M. Almeida & A.M. Wanderley 461; holotype: EAN!; isotype: KGoogleMaps  !.

Description

Saxicolous chamaephyte up to 80 cm, with secondary branching in the medial portion. Young branches greenish to slightly purplish, lustrous, quadrangular, conspicuously winged, glabrous; brownish when mature, slightly inclined, subquadrangular. Leaves opposite, decussate; leaf blade 3.5–6.0 × 1.5–2.5 cm, green with purplish margins, lustrous, elliptic to narrowly elliptic, slightly bullate; adaxial side glabrous; abaxial side with venation occasionally purplish, glabrescent with papillose trichomes, rarely aciculate; apex acute, rarely slightly caudate, reflexed; margin flat, occasionally revolute, ciliate. Inflorescence a simple dichasium. Peduncle purplish, frequently bifacial, subcylindrical, conspicuously winged, glabrescent, with papillose trichomes; primary peduncle 0.60–1.70 × 0.10–0.12 cm, secondary peduncle 0.20–0.80 × 0.06–0.07 cm. Pedicel 0.60–1.40 × 0.09–0.13 cm, greenish, frequently bifacial, glabrescent, with papillose trichomes; dorsal side conspicuously winged, ventral side with base slightly winged. Bracts 0.25–0.40 × 0.06 cm, slightly purplish, glabrescent, with papillose trichomes, margin glabrous. Calyx greenish, occasionally with reddish apex, abaxial side glabrous, adaxial side densely covered by papillose trichomes, margin glabrous; sepals lanceolate, dorsal ones 1.10–1.20 × 0.30–0.35 cm; lateral ones ca 1.0 × 0.2 cm; ventral ones ca 1.0 × 0.3 cm. Corolla 4.0– 4.5 cm long, orangish, externally pubescent, with papillose trichomes and/or glandular, internally glabrous; tube 2.8–3.3 cm long; upper lip 1.2–1.3 × 0.6 cm, slightly bilobate; lower lip 1.0–1.2 × 0.5 cm, inner perianth with filiform trichomes, white, lobes revolute, median lobe ca 0.10 × 0.13 cm. Stamens included, adnate to the middle of the corolla tube; filaments violet, ca 2.0 cm long; capsule ca 0.1 cm diam.; staminodium ca 0.6 cm long, adnate to the middle of the corolla tube, glabrous. Ovary 0.6–0.7 × 0.3 cm; style ca 4.6 cm long, exserted, glabrous. Capsule 1.5–1.7 × 0.7–0.9 cm, green. Seeds 0.10 × 0.05 cm.

Distribution

Currently known only from a single population on a granite outcrop near the city of Maravilha, in the Sertão Alagoano mesoregion, Alagoas State, Brazil. Elevation ca 790 m.

Ecology

As for the other taxa of Ameroglossum  , A. alatum  sp. nov. is restricted to granite outcrops, where it is probably pollinated by hummingbirds. Flowering and fruiting were recorded in August.

Population and threats

The population is composed of approximately 20 adult individuals, restricted to an area of approximately 3000 m ² on one of the tops of this granite outcrop. The small population demonstrates elevated homozygosity, suggesting a low genetic diversity, probably caused by a founder and/or a genetic bottleneck effect ( Wanderley et al. 2018).

Ameroglossum asperifolium E.M.Almeida, J.M.P.Cordeiro & L.P.Felix  sp. nov.

urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:77216326-1

Figs 2BView Fig, 3f– kView Fig

Diagnosis

This species is distinguished by the presence of two conspicuous wings on the dorsal sepal (vs calys without wings in all other species). It also has leaves that are rough to the touch with aciculate hairs (vs glabrous or softly hairy in all other species).

Etymology

The epithet derives from the Latin ʻ asper ʼ, ʻroughʼ, and ʻ folium ʼ, ʻleafʼ, reflecting the rough texture the leaves of this species.

Material examined

Type BRAZIL – Alagoas • Ibateguara, Sitio Bananeiras ; 08°58ʹ35ʹʹ S, 35°53ʹ33ʹʹ W; 512 m a.s.l.; 28 Oct. 2014; L.P. Felix, E.M. Almeida, J.P. Araújo, J.M.P. Cordeiro 15160; holotype: EAN!; isotypes: IMA!, IPA!, K!, RBGoogleMaps  !.

Paratype BRAZIL – Alagoas • Ibateguara ; 08°58ʹ35ʹʹ S, 35°53ʹ33ʹʹ W; 512 m a.s.l.; 10 Jun. 2015; E.M. Almeida & A.M. Wanderley 1572; EAN[23212]GoogleMaps  !.

Description

Saxicolous chamaephyte up to ca 1 m, rarely with secondary branching. Young branches purplish, lustrous, quadrangular, not winged, pubescent, with aciculate trichomes; branches brownish when mature, slightly inclined, subquadrangular. Leaves opposite, decussate; leaf blade 4.0–16.0 × 1.7– 5.5 cm, purplish when young, later green with purplish margin, lustrous, elliptic to ovate, strongly bullate; adaxial side pubescent, with aciculate trichomes; abaxial side glabrescent, with recurved trichomes; apex acute to acuminate, flat; margin flat, ciliate. Inflorescence a simple dichasium. Peduncle purplish, subcylindrical, winged, pubescent, with trichomes recurved and papillose; primary peduncle 0.65–2.10 × 0.08–0.17 cm, secondary peduncle 0.40–0.75 × 0.08–0.17 cm. Pedicel 0.60–1.50 × 0.14– 0.20 cm, purplish, pubescent, with trichomes recurved and papillose; ventral side with wings on the proximal third to totally winged. Bracts 0.20–0.50 × 0.06–0.08 cm, purplish; abaxial side glabrescent, trichomes recurved, adaxial side glabrescent, trichomes papillose, margin ciliate with recurved trichomes. Calyx purplish, abaxial side glabrescent, with aciculate trichomes, recurved and papillose, adaxial side densely covered by papillose trichomes, rarely recurved, margin glabrous; dorsal sepal 1.9–2.4 × 0.5–0.7 cm, widely lanceolate, winged; lateral sepals 1.6–2.1 × 0.3–0.5 cm, lanceolate; ventral sepals 1.5–2.0 × 0.3–0.4 cm, lanceolate. Corolla 5.5–7.0 cm long, scarlet, externally pubescent, with glandular trichomes; internal side glabrescent, with papillose trichomes; tube 4.3–5.9 cm long; upper lip 1.2–1.7 × 0.8–1.1 cm, slightly bilobate; lower lip 1.1–1.6 × 0.5–0.6 cm, inner perianth with trichomes filiform, violet; lobes revolute; median lobe 0.20–0.27 × 0.08–0.10 cm. Stamens included, adnate to the median third of the corolla tube; filaments violaceous, dorsal ones 1.8–2.6 × 0.08 cm; ventral ones 2.0–2.9 × 0.08 cm; anthers 0.15 cm diam.; staminodium 0.17–0.20 cm, adnate until the middle third of the corolla tube, glabrous. Ovary ca 0.7 × 0.3 cm, glabrescent, with trichomes papillose and/or aciculate; style 5.0–6.0 cm, occasionally exserted, glabrous. Capsule 1.5–2.0 × 0.6–0.8 cm, slightly purplish. Seeds 0.10 × 0.05 cm.

Distribution

Ameroglossum asperifolium  sp. nov. is known only from a small population growing on a granite outcrop where it covers an area of approximately 0.5 ha in the Leste Alagoano mesoregion, Alagoas State, Brazil. Elevation ca 510 m.

Ecology

Flowering and fruiting was observed in June and October. The rocky outcrop where the species was collected is located at the edge of a secondary road near the Usina Serra Grande sugarcane plantation, Alagoas State, and was probably originally surrounded by Atlantic Forest vegetation.

Population and threats

There is only a single known isolated population of this species, occupying an area of less than 10 km 2. In addition to the degradation of the surrounding habitat due to agricultural expansion, we observed invasion of the outcrop by Furcraea foetida  (L.) Haw. ( Asparagaceae  ), resulting in competition for space and consequent reduction of the population of this newly described taxon.

Ameroglossum bicolor E.M.Almeida, A.M.Wanderley & L.P.Felix  sp. nov.

urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:77216327-1

Figs 2CView Fig, 4a– cView Fig

Diagnosis

This species is morphologically similar to A. alatum  sp. nov. in having lustrous branches and leaves, winged pedicels, and white trichomes on the lower lip of the corolla tube. It differs in having green or slightly purplish vegetative portions (vs completely green), wings not evident (vs strongly winged), inflorescence usually a compound dichasium (vs simple dichasium) and the dorsal sepal partially covering the lateral sepals (vs the sepals not overlapping).

Etymology

The specific epithet is the Latin adjective ʻ bicolor  ʼ, ʻtwo-coloredʼ, referring to the vegetative variation observed in its populations. Among the four populations described here, it was possible to encounter green or purplish, almost wine-coloured, plants in the same population, a characteristic only observed in this species.

Material examined

Type BRAZIL – Pernambuco • Agrestina, Lajedo do Boi ; 08°28ʹ08ʺ S, 35°55ʹ06ʺ W; 428 m a.s.l.; 21 Aug. 2014; E.M. Almeida, E.M. Almeida & M. Fernandes 1229; holotype: EAN!; isotypes: IPA!, K!, RB!, UFP!.GoogleMaps 

Paratypes BRAZIL – Pernambuco • Caruaru, Pedra do Guariba ; 29 Jul. 2005; Y. Melo, M. Alves, P. Santos, A. Araújo, J. Rodrigues, J. Gomes, S. Martins & B. Maciel 43; UFP[41,995]  ! • Pedra do Guariba ; 08°22ʹ55ʺ S, 35°50ʹ38ʺ W; 685 m a.s.l.; 22 Jul. 2007; M. Sobral-Leite, B. Maciel & P. Gomes 359; UFP[46,440]GoogleMaps  ! • Pedra do Guariba ”; 08°22ʹ55ʺ S, 35°50ʹ38ʺ W; 685 m a.s.l.; 22 Jul. 2007; M. Sobral- Leite, B. Maciel & P. Gomes 382; IPA[80,821]GoogleMaps  ! • Divisa entre os municípios de Caruaru e Agrestina, Serra da Quitéria , Sítio flexeira , “ Pedra do Urubu ”; 08°23ʹ43ʺ S, 35°59ʹ33ʺ W; 540 m a.s.l.; 24 Jul. 2009; M. Sobral-Leite, B. Maciel & P. Gomes 916; UFP[57,163]GoogleMaps  ! • Pedra do Urubu ”; 08°23ʹ43ʺ S, 35°59ʹ33ʺ W; 540 m a.s.l.; 24 Jul. 2009; M. Sobral-Leite, B. Maciel & P. Gomes 916; IPA[83,689]GoogleMaps  ! • Agrestina , Distrito de Terra Vermelha, Pedra do Urubu ; ca 700 m a.s.l.; 2 Aug. 2009; A.M.Wanderley 1; UFP[58,598]  !• Bonito ; 08°29ʹ10ʺ S, 35°43ʹ42ʺ W; 446 m a.s.l.; 3 Jul. 2015; L.P. Felix, E.M. Almeida & J.P. Araújo 15758; EAN[22,895]GoogleMaps  ! • Quipapá; 12 Mar. 1958; Dárdano de Andrade-Lima 50-600; IPA  !.

Description

Saxicolous chamaephyte up to 80 cm, with frequent secondary branching along the stem.Young branches purplish or greenish, lustrous, quadrangular, not winged, glabrescent, trichomes aciculate and papillose, principally near the insertion of the young leaves; branches brownish when mature, slightly inclined to incumbent, subquadrangular. Leaves opposite, decussate; leaf blade 3.4–9.1 × 1.0– 3.8 cm, green and tinged with purple when young, bullate, later green to greenish, smooth, lustrous, elliptic, rarely narrowly elliptic; adaxial side glabrous; abaxial side glabrescent, trichomes recurved and/or papillose; apex acute, rarely acuminate, flat; margin flat, occasionally revolute, ciliate. Inflorescence a compound dichasium, occasionally simple. Peduncle green or slightly purplish, subcylindrical, winged to the median third, glabrescent, with papillose trichomes; primary peduncle 0.9–3.0 × 0.1–0.2 cm, secondary peduncle 0.45–1.40 × 0.06–0.15 cm, tertiary peduncle 0.36–0.80 × 0.06–0.09 cm. Pedicel 0.6–1.3 × 0.06–0.10 cm, green or tinged purple, ventral portion not winged, glabrous. Bracts 0.20–0.60 × 0.05– 0.10 cm, green or tinged purple, glabrescent, with papillose trichomes, margin glabrous. Calyx greenish to slightly purplish, abaxial side glabrescent, with trichomes papillose, rarely aciculate, adaxial side densely covered by papillose trichomes, margin glabrous; dorsal sepal 1.5–2.1 × 0.5–0.7 cm, broadly lanceolate to ovate, partially covering the lateral sepals; lateral sepals 1.2–1.6 × 0.2–0.3 cm, lanceolate; ventral ones 1.5–1.3 × 0.3–0.4 cm, lanceolate. Corolla 4.4–5.2 cm long, yellow-orange or scarlet, externally pubescent, with trichomes glandular and/or papillose, internally glabrous; tube 3.2–4.0 cm long; upper lip 1.2–1.4 × 0.8–0.9 cm, slightly bilobate; lower lip 0.9–1.3 × 0.4–0.5 cm, inner perianth with trichomes filiform, white; lobes revolute, median lobe 0.13–0.15 × 0.06–0.07 cm. Ventral pair of stamens sometimes exserted, adnate until the median third of the corolla tube; filaments violet, dorsal ones 1.70–2.40 × 0.08 cm, ventral ones 2.00–2.50 × 0.08 cm; thecae 0.15 cm diam.; staminodium 0.5– 1.1 cm, adnate until the middle third of the corolla tube, glabrous. Ovary 0.5 × 0.2 cm; style 4.0– 5.5 cm, sometimes exserted, glabrous. Capsule 1.5–1.7 × 0.7–1.0 cm, green or tinged purple. Seeds 0.10 × 0.04 cm.

Distribution

Three populations of Ameroglossum bicolor  sp. nov. are known from granite outcrops in the municipalities of Agrestina, Bonito and Caruaru in the Agreste mesoregion of Pernambuco State, Brazil. It grows at elevations between 425 and 700 m.

Ecology

Ameroglossum bicolor  sp. nov. has been collected in flower from May to October, with high inter- and intrapopulational synchrony ( Wanderley et al. 2014a).

Population and threats

A population of 70 adult individuals is known from a granite outcrop known as Lajedo do Boi in the municipality of Agrestina; at least 40 individuals are known from the Pedra do Guariba granite outcrop in the municipality of Caruaru ( Wanderley et al. 2014a); four other individuals were also located in Caruaru at Serra da Quitéria; 50 adult individuals are estimated to compose the population in the municipality of Bonito, all in Pernambuco State, Brazil. Main threats to these populations are habitat destruction through trampling by domestic animals, burning and other agricultural activity.

Ameroglossum alatum E.M.Almeida, A.M.Wanderley & L.P.Felix  sp. nov.

urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:77216325-1

Figs 2AView Fig, 3a– eView Fig

Diagnosis

A species morphologically similar to A. manoelfelixii  because it has glabrous to glabrescent, lustrous vegetative parts and inflorescences. However, A. alatum  sp. nov. differs from this and other species of Ameroglossum  , by having conspicuous membranous wings on the stem extending to the peduncle of the inflorescence and the pedicel (vs not or sparsely winged). Because of its green stems and leaves, A. alatum  sp. nov. may also appear similar to A. bicolor  sp. nov., although it differs by having its inflorescence in a simple dichasium (vs compound dichasium), winged peduncles and pedicels (vs partially winged) and the sepals not overlapping (vs sepals overlapping).

Etymology

The name is derived from the Latin adjective ʻ alatus  ʼ, ʻwingedʼ, referring to the conspicuous wings on the branches, peduncles and pedicels.

Material examined

Type BRAZIL – Alagoas • Maravilha; 09°14ʹ39ʺ S, 37°19ʹ33ʺ W; 792 m a.s.l.; 21 Aug. 2012; E.M. Almeida & A.M. Wanderley 461; holotype: EAN!; isotype: KGoogleMaps  !.

Description

Saxicolous chamaephyte up to 80 cm, with secondary branching in the medial portion. Young branches greenish to slightly purplish, lustrous, quadrangular, conspicuously winged, glabrous; brownish when mature, slightly inclined, subquadrangular. Leaves opposite, decussate; leaf blade 3.5–6.0 × 1.5–2.5 cm, green with purplish margins, lustrous, elliptic to narrowly elliptic, slightly bullate; adaxial side glabrous; abaxial side with venation occasionally purplish, glabrescent with papillose trichomes, rarely aciculate; apex acute, rarely slightly caudate, reflexed; margin flat, occasionally revolute, ciliate. Inflorescence a simple dichasium. Peduncle purplish, frequently bifacial, subcylindrical, conspicuously winged, glabrescent, with papillose trichomes; primary peduncle 0.60–1.70 × 0.10–0.12 cm, secondary peduncle 0.20–0.80 × 0.06–0.07 cm. Pedicel 0.60–1.40 × 0.09–0.13 cm, greenish, frequently bifacial, glabrescent, with papillose trichomes; dorsal side conspicuously winged, ventral side with base slightly winged. Bracts 0.25–0.40 × 0.06 cm, slightly purplish, glabrescent, with papillose trichomes, margin glabrous. Calyx greenish, occasionally with reddish apex, abaxial side glabrous, adaxial side densely covered by papillose trichomes, margin glabrous; sepals lanceolate, dorsal ones 1.10–1.20 × 0.30–0.35 cm; lateral ones ca 1.0 × 0.2 cm; ventral ones ca 1.0 × 0.3 cm. Corolla 4.0– 4.5 cm long, orangish, externally pubescent, with papillose trichomes and/or glandular, internally glabrous; tube 2.8–3.3 cm long; upper lip 1.2–1.3 × 0.6 cm, slightly bilobate; lower lip 1.0–1.2 × 0.5 cm, inner perianth with filiform trichomes, white, lobes revolute, median lobe ca 0.10 × 0.13 cm. Stamens included, adnate to the middle of the corolla tube; filaments violet, ca 2.0 cm long; capsule ca 0.1 cm diam.; staminodium ca 0.6 cm long, adnate to the middle of the corolla tube, glabrous. Ovary 0.6–0.7 × 0.3 cm; style ca 4.6 cm long, exserted, glabrous. Capsule 1.5–1.7 × 0.7–0.9 cm, green. Seeds 0.10 × 0.05 cm.

Distribution

Currently known only from a single population on a granite outcrop near the city of Maravilha, in the Sertão Alagoano mesoregion, Alagoas State, Brazil. Elevation ca 790 m.

Ecology

As for the other taxa of Ameroglossum  , A. alatum  sp. nov. is restricted to granite outcrops, where it is probably pollinated by hummingbirds. Flowering and fruiting were recorded in August.

Population and threats

The population is composed of approximately 20 adult individuals, restricted to an area of approximately 3000 m ² on one of the tops of this granite outcrop. The small population demonstrates elevated homozygosity, suggesting a low genetic diversity, probably caused by a founder and/or a genetic bottleneck effect ( Wanderley et al. 2018).

Ameroglossum asperifolium E.M.Almeida, J.M.P.Cordeiro & L.P.Felix  sp. nov.

urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:77216326-1

Figs 2BView Fig, 3f– kView Fig

Diagnosis

This species is distinguished by the presence of two conspicuous wings on the dorsal sepal (vs calys without wings in all other species). It also has leaves that are rough to the touch with aciculate hairs (vs glabrous or softly hairy in all other species).

Etymology

The epithet derives from the Latin ʻ asper ʼ, ʻroughʼ, and ʻ folium ʼ, ʻleafʼ, reflecting the rough texture the leaves of this species.

Material examined

Type BRAZIL – Alagoas • Ibateguara, Sitio Bananeiras ; 08°58ʹ35ʹʹ S, 35°53ʹ33ʹʹ W; 512 m a.s.l.; 28 Oct. 2014; L.P. Felix, E.M. Almeida, J.P. Araújo, J.M.P. Cordeiro 15160; holotype: EAN!; isotypes: IMA!, IPA!, K!, RBGoogleMaps  !.

Paratype BRAZIL – Alagoas • Ibateguara ; 08°58ʹ35ʹʹ S, 35°53ʹ33ʹʹ W; 512 m a.s.l.; 10 Jun. 2015; E.M. Almeida & A.M. Wanderley 1572; EAN[23212]GoogleMaps  !.

Description

Saxicolous chamaephyte up to ca 1 m, rarely with secondary branching. Young branches purplish, lustrous, quadrangular, not winged, pubescent, with aciculate trichomes; branches brownish when mature, slightly inclined, subquadrangular. Leaves opposite, decussate; leaf blade 4.0–16.0 × 1.7– 5.5 cm, purplish when young, later green with purplish margin, lustrous, elliptic to ovate, strongly bullate; adaxial side pubescent, with aciculate trichomes; abaxial side glabrescent, with recurved trichomes; apex acute to acuminate, flat; margin flat, ciliate. Inflorescence a simple dichasium. Peduncle purplish, subcylindrical, winged, pubescent, with trichomes recurved and papillose; primary peduncle 0.65–2.10 × 0.08–0.17 cm, secondary peduncle 0.40–0.75 × 0.08–0.17 cm. Pedicel 0.60–1.50 × 0.14– 0.20 cm, purplish, pubescent, with trichomes recurved and papillose; ventral side with wings on the proximal third to totally winged. Bracts 0.20–0.50 × 0.06–0.08 cm, purplish; abaxial side glabrescent, trichomes recurved, adaxial side glabrescent, trichomes papillose, margin ciliate with recurved trichomes. Calyx purplish, abaxial side glabrescent, with aciculate trichomes, recurved and papillose, adaxial side densely covered by papillose trichomes, rarely recurved, margin glabrous; dorsal sepal 1.9–2.4 × 0.5–0.7 cm, widely lanceolate, winged; lateral sepals 1.6–2.1 × 0.3–0.5 cm, lanceolate; ventral sepals 1.5–2.0 × 0.3–0.4 cm, lanceolate. Corolla 5.5–7.0 cm long, scarlet, externally pubescent, with glandular trichomes; internal side glabrescent, with papillose trichomes; tube 4.3–5.9 cm long; upper lip 1.2–1.7 × 0.8–1.1 cm, slightly bilobate; lower lip 1.1–1.6 × 0.5–0.6 cm, inner perianth with trichomes filiform, violet; lobes revolute; median lobe 0.20–0.27 × 0.08–0.10 cm. Stamens included, adnate to the median third of the corolla tube; filaments violaceous, dorsal ones 1.8–2.6 × 0.08 cm; ventral ones 2.0–2.9 × 0.08 cm; anthers 0.15 cm diam.; staminodium 0.17–0.20 cm, adnate until the middle third of the corolla tube, glabrous. Ovary ca 0.7 × 0.3 cm, glabrescent, with trichomes papillose and/or aciculate; style 5.0–6.0 cm, occasionally exserted, glabrous. Capsule 1.5–2.0 × 0.6–0.8 cm, slightly purplish. Seeds 0.10 × 0.05 cm.

Distribution

Ameroglossum asperifolium  sp. nov. is known only from a small population growing on a granite outcrop where it covers an area of approximately 0.5 ha in the Leste Alagoano mesoregion, Alagoas State, Brazil. Elevation ca 510 m.

Ecology

Flowering and fruiting was observed in June and October. The rocky outcrop where the species was collected is located at the edge of a secondary road near the Usina Serra Grande sugarcane plantation, Alagoas State, and was probably originally surrounded by Atlantic Forest vegetation.

Population and threats

There is only a single known isolated population of this species, occupying an area of less than 10 km 2. In addition to the degradation of the surrounding habitat due to agricultural expansion, we observed invasion of the outcrop by Furcraea foetida  (L.) Haw. ( Asparagaceae  ), resulting in competition for space and consequent reduction of the population of this newly described taxon.

Ameroglossum bicolor E.M.Almeida, A.M.Wanderley & L.P.Felix  sp. nov.

urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:77216327-1

Figs 2CView Fig, 4a– cView Fig

Diagnosis

This species is morphologically similar to A. alatum  sp. nov. in having lustrous branches and leaves, winged pedicels, and white trichomes on the lower lip of the corolla tube. It differs in having green or slightly purplish vegetative portions (vs completely green), wings not evident (vs strongly winged), inflorescence usually a compound dichasium (vs simple dichasium) and the dorsal sepal partially covering the lateral sepals (vs the sepals not overlapping).

Etymology

The specific epithet is the Latin adjective ʻ bicolor  ʼ, ʻtwo-coloredʼ, referring to the vegetative variation observed in its populations. Among the four populations described here, it was possible to encounter green or purplish, almost wine-coloured, plants in the same population, a characteristic only observed in this species.

Material examined

Type BRAZIL – Pernambuco • Agrestina, Lajedo do Boi ; 08°28ʹ08ʺ S, 35°55ʹ06ʺ W; 428 m a.s.l.; 21 Aug. 2014; E.M. Almeida, E.M. Almeida & M. Fernandes 1229; holotype: EAN!; isotypes: IPA!, K!, RB!, UFP!.GoogleMaps 

Paratypes BRAZIL – Pernambuco • Caruaru, Pedra do Guariba ; 29 Jul. 2005; Y. Melo, M. Alves, P. Santos, A. Araújo, J. Rodrigues, J. Gomes, S. Martins & B. Maciel 43; UFP[41,995]  ! • Pedra do Guariba ; 08°22ʹ55ʺ S, 35°50ʹ38ʺ W; 685 m a.s.l.; 22 Jul. 2007; M. Sobral-Leite, B. Maciel & P. Gomes 359; UFP[46,440]GoogleMaps  ! • Pedra do Guariba ”; 08°22ʹ55ʺ S, 35°50ʹ38ʺ W; 685 m a.s.l.; 22 Jul. 2007; M. Sobral- Leite, B. Maciel & P. Gomes 382; IPA[80,821]GoogleMaps  ! • Divisa entre os municípios de Caruaru e Agrestina, Serra da Quitéria , Sítio flexeira , “ Pedra do Urubu ”; 08°23ʹ43ʺ S, 35°59ʹ33ʺ W; 540 m a.s.l.; 24 Jul. 2009; M. Sobral-Leite, B. Maciel & P. Gomes 916; UFP[57,163]GoogleMaps  ! • Pedra do Urubu ”; 08°23ʹ43ʺ S, 35°59ʹ33ʺ W; 540 m a.s.l.; 24 Jul. 2009; M. Sobral-Leite, B. Maciel & P. Gomes 916; IPA[83,689]GoogleMaps  ! • Agrestina , Distrito de Terra Vermelha, Pedra do Urubu ; ca 700 m a.s.l.; 2 Aug. 2009; A.M.Wanderley 1; UFP[58,598]  !• Bonito ; 08°29ʹ10ʺ S, 35°43ʹ42ʺ W; 446 m a.s.l.; 3 Jul. 2015; L.P. Felix, E.M. Almeida & J.P. Araújo 15758; EAN[22,895]GoogleMaps  ! • Quipapá; 12 Mar. 1958; Dárdano de Andrade-Lima 50-600; IPA  !.

Description

Saxicolous chamaephyte up to 80 cm, with frequent secondary branching along the stem.Young branches purplish or greenish, lustrous, quadrangular, not winged, glabrescent, trichomes aciculate and papillose, principally near the insertion of the young leaves; branches brownish when mature, slightly inclined to incumbent, subquadrangular. Leaves opposite, decussate; leaf blade 3.4–9.1 × 1.0– 3.8 cm, green and tinged with purple when young, bullate, later green to greenish, smooth, lustrous, elliptic, rarely narrowly elliptic; adaxial side glabrous; abaxial side glabrescent, trichomes recurved and/or papillose; apex acute, rarely acuminate, flat; margin flat, occasionally revolute, ciliate. Inflorescence a compound dichasium, occasionally simple. Peduncle green or slightly purplish, subcylindrical, winged to the median third, glabrescent, with papillose trichomes; primary peduncle 0.9–3.0 × 0.1–0.2 cm, secondary peduncle 0.45–1.40 × 0.06–0.15 cm, tertiary peduncle 0.36–0.80 × 0.06–0.09 cm. Pedicel 0.6–1.3 × 0.06–0.10 cm, green or tinged purple, ventral portion not winged, glabrous. Bracts 0.20–0.60 × 0.05– 0.10 cm, green or tinged purple, glabrescent, with papillose trichomes, margin glabrous. Calyx greenish to slightly purplish, abaxial side glabrescent, with trichomes papillose, rarely aciculate, adaxial side densely covered by papillose trichomes, margin glabrous; dorsal sepal 1.5–2.1 × 0.5–0.7 cm, broadly lanceolate to ovate, partially covering the lateral sepals; lateral sepals 1.2–1.6 × 0.2–0.3 cm, lanceolate; ventral ones 1.5–1.3 × 0.3–0.4 cm, lanceolate. Corolla 4.4–5.2 cm long, yellow-orange or scarlet, externally pubescent, with trichomes glandular and/or papillose, internally glabrous; tube 3.2–4.0 cm long; upper lip 1.2–1.4 × 0.8–0.9 cm, slightly bilobate; lower lip 0.9–1.3 × 0.4–0.5 cm, inner perianth with trichomes filiform, white; lobes revolute, median lobe 0.13–0.15 × 0.06–0.07 cm. Ventral pair of stamens sometimes exserted, adnate until the median third of the corolla tube; filaments violet, dorsal ones 1.70–2.40 × 0.08 cm, ventral ones 2.00–2.50 × 0.08 cm; thecae 0.15 cm diam.; staminodium 0.5– 1.1 cm, adnate until the middle third of the corolla tube, glabrous. Ovary 0.5 × 0.2 cm; style 4.0– 5.5 cm, sometimes exserted, glabrous. Capsule 1.5–1.7 × 0.7–1.0 cm, green or tinged purple. Seeds 0.10 × 0.04 cm.

Distribution

Three populations of Ameroglossum bicolor  sp. nov. are known from granite outcrops in the municipalities of Agrestina, Bonito and Caruaru in the Agreste mesoregion of Pernambuco State, Brazil. It grows at elevations between 425 and 700 m.

Ecology

Ameroglossum bicolor  sp. nov. has been collected in flower from May to October, with high inter- and intrapopulational synchrony ( Wanderley et al. 2014a).

Population and threats

A population of 70 adult individuals is known from a granite outcrop known as Lajedo do Boi in the municipality of Agrestina; at least 40 individuals are known from the Pedra do Guariba granite outcrop in the municipality of Caruaru ( Wanderley et al. 2014a); four other individuals were also located in Caruaru at Serra da Quitéria; 50 adult individuals are estimated to compose the population in the municipality of Bonito, all in Pernambuco State, Brazil. Main threats to these populations are habitat destruction through trampling by domestic animals, burning and other agricultural activity.

Ameroglossum asperifolium E.M.Almeida, J.M.P.Cordeiro & L.P.Felix  sp. nov.

urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:77216326-1

Figs 2BView Fig, 3f– kView Fig

Diagnosis

This species is distinguished by the presence of two conspicuous wings on the dorsal sepal (vs calys without wings in all other species). It also has leaves that are rough to the touch with aciculate hairs (vs glabrous or softly hairy in all other species).

Etymology

The epithet derives from the Latin ʻ asper ʼ, ʻroughʼ, and ʻ folium ʼ, ʻleafʼ, reflecting the rough texture the leaves of this species.

Material examined

Type BRAZIL – Alagoas • Ibateguara, Sitio Bananeiras ; 08°58ʹ35ʹʹ S, 35°53ʹ33ʹʹ W; 512 m a.s.l.; 28 Oct. 2014; L.P. Felix, E.M. Almeida, J.P. Araújo, J.M.P. Cordeiro 15160; holotype: EAN!; isotypes: IMA!, IPA!, K!, RBGoogleMaps  !.

Paratype BRAZIL – Alagoas • Ibateguara ; 08°58ʹ35ʹʹ S, 35°53ʹ33ʹʹ W; 512 m a.s.l.; 10 Jun. 2015; E.M. Almeida & A.M. Wanderley 1572; EAN[23212]GoogleMaps  !.

Description

Saxicolous chamaephyte up to ca 1 m, rarely with secondary branching. Young branches purplish, lustrous, quadrangular, not winged, pubescent, with aciculate trichomes; branches brownish when mature, slightly inclined, subquadrangular. Leaves opposite, decussate; leaf blade 4.0–16.0 × 1.7– 5.5 cm, purplish when young, later green with purplish margin, lustrous, elliptic to ovate, strongly bullate; adaxial side pubescent, with aciculate trichomes; abaxial side glabrescent, with recurved trichomes; apex acute to acuminate, flat; margin flat, ciliate. Inflorescence a simple dichasium. Peduncle purplish, subcylindrical, winged, pubescent, with trichomes recurved and papillose; primary peduncle 0.65–2.10 × 0.08–0.17 cm, secondary peduncle 0.40–0.75 × 0.08–0.17 cm. Pedicel 0.60–1.50 × 0.14– 0.20 cm, purplish, pubescent, with trichomes recurved and papillose; ventral side with wings on the proximal third to totally winged. Bracts 0.20–0.50 × 0.06–0.08 cm, purplish; abaxial side glabrescent, trichomes recurved, adaxial side glabrescent, trichomes papillose, margin ciliate with recurved trichomes. Calyx purplish, abaxial side glabrescent, with aciculate trichomes, recurved and papillose, adaxial side densely covered by papillose trichomes, rarely recurved, margin glabrous; dorsal sepal 1.9–2.4 × 0.5–0.7 cm, widely lanceolate, winged; lateral sepals 1.6–2.1 × 0.3–0.5 cm, lanceolate; ventral sepals 1.5–2.0 × 0.3–0.4 cm, lanceolate. Corolla 5.5–7.0 cm long, scarlet, externally pubescent, with glandular trichomes; internal side glabrescent, with papillose trichomes; tube 4.3–5.9 cm long; upper lip 1.2–1.7 × 0.8–1.1 cm, slightly bilobate; lower lip 1.1–1.6 × 0.5–0.6 cm, inner perianth with trichomes filiform, violet; lobes revolute; median lobe 0.20–0.27 × 0.08–0.10 cm. Stamens included, adnate to the median third of the corolla tube; filaments violaceous, dorsal ones 1.8–2.6 × 0.08 cm; ventral ones 2.0–2.9 × 0.08 cm; anthers 0.15 cm diam.; staminodium 0.17–0.20 cm, adnate until the middle third of the corolla tube, glabrous. Ovary ca 0.7 × 0.3 cm, glabrescent, with trichomes papillose and/or aciculate; style 5.0–6.0 cm, occasionally exserted, glabrous. Capsule 1.5–2.0 × 0.6–0.8 cm, slightly purplish. Seeds 0.10 × 0.05 cm.

Distribution

Ameroglossum asperifolium  sp. nov. is known only from a small population growing on a granite outcrop where it covers an area of approximately 0.5 ha in the Leste Alagoano mesoregion, Alagoas State, Brazil. Elevation ca 510 m.

Ecology

Flowering and fruiting was observed in June and October. The rocky outcrop where the species was collected is located at the edge of a secondary road near the Usina Serra Grande sugarcane plantation, Alagoas State, and was probably originally surrounded by Atlantic Forest vegetation.

Population and threats

There is only a single known isolated population of this species, occupying an area of less than 10 km 2. In addition to the degradation of the surrounding habitat due to agricultural expansion, we observed invasion of the outcrop by Furcraea foetida  (L.) Haw. ( Asparagaceae  ), resulting in competition for space and consequent reduction of the population of this newly described taxon.

Ameroglossum bicolor E.M.Almeida, A.M.Wanderley & L.P.Felix  sp. nov.

urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:77216327-1

Figs 2CView Fig, 4a– cView Fig

Diagnosis

This species is morphologically similar to A. alatum  sp. nov. in having lustrous branches and leaves, winged pedicels, and white trichomes on the lower lip of the corolla tube. It differs in having green or slightly purplish vegetative portions (vs completely green), wings not evident (vs strongly winged), inflorescence usually a compound dichasium (vs simple dichasium) and the dorsal sepal partially covering the lateral sepals (vs the sepals not overlapping).

Etymology

The specific epithet is the Latin adjective ʻ bicolor  ʼ, ʻtwo-coloredʼ, referring to the vegetative variation observed in its populations. Among the four populations described here, it was possible to encounter green or purplish, almost wine-coloured, plants in the same population, a characteristic only observed in this species.

Material examined

Type BRAZIL – Pernambuco • Agrestina, Lajedo do Boi ; 08°28ʹ08ʺ S, 35°55ʹ06ʺ W; 428 m a.s.l.; 21 Aug. 2014; E.M. Almeida, E.M. Almeida & M. Fernandes 1229; holotype: EAN!; isotypes: IPA!, K!, RB!, UFP!.GoogleMaps 

Paratypes BRAZIL – Pernambuco • Caruaru, Pedra do Guariba ; 29 Jul. 2005; Y. Melo, M. Alves, P. Santos, A. Araújo, J. Rodrigues, J. Gomes, S. Martins & B. Maciel 43; UFP[41,995]  ! • Pedra do Guariba ; 08°22ʹ55ʺ S, 35°50ʹ38ʺ W; 685 m a.s.l.; 22 Jul. 2007; M. Sobral-Leite, B. Maciel & P. Gomes 359; UFP[46,440]GoogleMaps  ! • Pedra do Guariba ”; 08°22ʹ55ʺ S, 35°50ʹ38ʺ W; 685 m a.s.l.; 22 Jul. 2007; M. Sobral- Leite, B. Maciel & P. Gomes 382; IPA[80,821]GoogleMaps  ! • Divisa entre os municípios de Caruaru e Agrestina, Serra da Quitéria , Sítio flexeira , “ Pedra do Urubu ”; 08°23ʹ43ʺ S, 35°59ʹ33ʺ W; 540 m a.s.l.; 24 Jul. 2009; M. Sobral-Leite, B. Maciel & P. Gomes 916; UFP[57,163]GoogleMaps  ! • Pedra do Urubu ”; 08°23ʹ43ʺ S, 35°59ʹ33ʺ W; 540 m a.s.l.; 24 Jul. 2009; M. Sobral-Leite, B. Maciel & P. Gomes 916; IPA[83,689]GoogleMaps  ! • Agrestina , Distrito de Terra Vermelha, Pedra do Urubu ; ca 700 m a.s.l.; 2 Aug. 2009; A.M.Wanderley 1; UFP[58,598]  !• Bonito ; 08°29ʹ10ʺ S, 35°43ʹ42ʺ W; 446 m a.s.l.; 3 Jul. 2015; L.P. Felix, E.M. Almeida & J.P. Araújo 15758; EAN[22,895]GoogleMaps  ! • Quipapá; 12 Mar. 1958; Dárdano de Andrade-Lima 50-600; IPA  !.

Description

Saxicolous chamaephyte up to 80 cm, with frequent secondary branching along the stem.Young branches purplish or greenish, lustrous, quadrangular, not winged, glabrescent, trichomes aciculate and papillose, principally near the insertion of the young leaves; branches brownish when mature, slightly inclined to incumbent, subquadrangular. Leaves opposite, decussate; leaf blade 3.4–9.1 × 1.0– 3.8 cm, green and tinged with purple when young, bullate, later green to greenish, smooth, lustrous, elliptic, rarely narrowly elliptic; adaxial side glabrous; abaxial side glabrescent, trichomes recurved and/or papillose; apex acute, rarely acuminate, flat; margin flat, occasionally revolute, ciliate. Inflorescence a compound dichasium, occasionally simple. Peduncle green or slightly purplish, subcylindrical, winged to the median third, glabrescent, with papillose trichomes; primary peduncle 0.9–3.0 × 0.1–0.2 cm, secondary peduncle 0.45–1.40 × 0.06–0.15 cm, tertiary peduncle 0.36–0.80 × 0.06–0.09 cm. Pedicel 0.6–1.3 × 0.06–0.10 cm, green or tinged purple, ventral portion not winged, glabrous. Bracts 0.20–0.60 × 0.05– 0.10 cm, green or tinged purple, glabrescent, with papillose trichomes, margin glabrous. Calyx greenish to slightly purplish, abaxial side glabrescent, with trichomes papillose, rarely aciculate, adaxial side densely covered by papillose trichomes, margin glabrous; dorsal sepal 1.5–2.1 × 0.5–0.7 cm, broadly lanceolate to ovate, partially covering the lateral sepals; lateral sepals 1.2–1.6 × 0.2–0.3 cm, lanceolate; ventral ones 1.5–1.3 × 0.3–0.4 cm, lanceolate. Corolla 4.4–5.2 cm long, yellow-orange or scarlet, externally pubescent, with trichomes glandular and/or papillose, internally glabrous; tube 3.2–4.0 cm long; upper lip 1.2–1.4 × 0.8–0.9 cm, slightly bilobate; lower lip 0.9–1.3 × 0.4–0.5 cm, inner perianth with trichomes filiform, white; lobes revolute, median lobe 0.13–0.15 × 0.06–0.07 cm. Ventral pair of stamens sometimes exserted, adnate until the median third of the corolla tube; filaments violet, dorsal ones 1.70–2.40 × 0.08 cm, ventral ones 2.00–2.50 × 0.08 cm; thecae 0.15 cm diam.; staminodium 0.5– 1.1 cm, adnate until the middle third of the corolla tube, glabrous. Ovary 0.5 × 0.2 cm; style 4.0– 5.5 cm, sometimes exserted, glabrous. Capsule 1.5–1.7 × 0.7–1.0 cm, green or tinged purple. Seeds 0.10 × 0.04 cm.

Distribution

Three populations of Ameroglossum bicolor  sp. nov. are known from granite outcrops in the municipalities of Agrestina, Bonito and Caruaru in the Agreste mesoregion of Pernambuco State, Brazil. It grows at elevations between 425 and 700 m.

Ecology

Ameroglossum bicolor  sp. nov. has been collected in flower from May to October, with high inter- and intrapopulational synchrony ( Wanderley et al. 2014a).

Population and threats

A population of 70 adult individuals is known from a granite outcrop known as Lajedo do Boi in the municipality of Agrestina; at least 40 individuals are known from the Pedra do Guariba granite outcrop in the municipality of Caruaru ( Wanderley et al. 2014a); four other individuals were also located in Caruaru at Serra da Quitéria; 50 adult individuals are estimated to compose the population in the municipality of Bonito, all in Pernambuco State, Brazil. Main threats to these populations are habitat destruction through trampling by domestic animals, burning and other agricultural activity.

Ameroglossum bicolor E.M.Almeida, A.M.Wanderley & L.P.Felix  sp. nov.

urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:77216327-1

Figs 2CView Fig, 4a– cView Fig

Diagnosis

This species is morphologically similar to A. alatum  sp. nov. in having lustrous branches and leaves, winged pedicels, and white trichomes on the lower lip of the corolla tube. It differs in having green or slightly purplish vegetative portions (vs completely green), wings not evident (vs strongly winged), inflorescence usually a compound dichasium (vs simple dichasium) and the dorsal sepal partially covering the lateral sepals (vs the sepals not overlapping).

Etymology

The specific epithet is the Latin adjective ʻ bicolor  ʼ, ʻtwo-coloredʼ, referring to the vegetative variation observed in its populations. Among the four populations described here, it was possible to encounter green or purplish, almost wine-coloured, plants in the same population, a characteristic only observed in this species.

Material examined

Type BRAZIL – Pernambuco • Agrestina, Lajedo do Boi ; 08°28ʹ08ʺ S, 35°55ʹ06ʺ W; 428 m a.s.l.; 21 Aug. 2014; E.M. Almeida, E.M. Almeida & M. Fernandes 1229; holotype: EAN!; isotypes: IPA!, K!, RB!, UFP!.GoogleMaps 

Paratypes BRAZIL – Pernambuco • Caruaru, Pedra do Guariba ; 29 Jul. 2005; Y. Melo, M. Alves, P. Santos, A. Araújo, J. Rodrigues, J. Gomes, S. Martins & B. Maciel 43; UFP[41,995]  ! • Pedra do Guariba ; 08°22ʹ55ʺ S, 35°50ʹ38ʺ W; 685 m a.s.l.; 22 Jul. 2007; M. Sobral-Leite, B. Maciel & P. Gomes 359; UFP[46,440]GoogleMaps  ! • Pedra do Guariba ”; 08°22ʹ55ʺ S, 35°50ʹ38ʺ W; 685 m a.s.l.; 22 Jul. 2007; M. Sobral- Leite, B. Maciel & P. Gomes 382; IPA[80,821]GoogleMaps  ! • Divisa entre os municípios de Caruaru e Agrestina, Serra da Quitéria , Sítio flexeira , “ Pedra do Urubu ”; 08°23ʹ43ʺ S, 35°59ʹ33ʺ W; 540 m a.s.l.; 24 Jul. 2009; M. Sobral-Leite, B. Maciel & P. Gomes 916; UFP[57,163]GoogleMaps  ! • Pedra do Urubu ”; 08°23ʹ43ʺ S, 35°59ʹ33ʺ W; 540 m a.s.l.; 24 Jul. 2009; M. Sobral-Leite, B. Maciel & P. Gomes 916; IPA[83,689]GoogleMaps  ! • Agrestina , Distrito de Terra Vermelha, Pedra do Urubu ; ca 700 m a.s.l.; 2 Aug. 2009; A.M.Wanderley 1; UFP[58,598]  !• Bonito ; 08°29ʹ10ʺ S, 35°43ʹ42ʺ W; 446 m a.s.l.; 3 Jul. 2015; L.P. Felix, E.M. Almeida & J.P. Araújo 15758; EAN[22,895]GoogleMaps  ! • Quipapá; 12 Mar. 1958; Dárdano de Andrade-Lima 50-600; IPA  !.

Description

Saxicolous chamaephyte up to 80 cm, with frequent secondary branching along the stem.Young branches purplish or greenish, lustrous, quadrangular, not winged, glabrescent, trichomes aciculate and papillose, principally near the insertion of the young leaves; branches brownish when mature, slightly inclined to incumbent, subquadrangular. Leaves opposite, decussate; leaf blade 3.4–9.1 × 1.0– 3.8 cm, green and tinged with purple when young, bullate, later green to greenish, smooth, lustrous, elliptic, rarely narrowly elliptic; adaxial side glabrous; abaxial side glabrescent, trichomes recurved and/or papillose; apex acute, rarely acuminate, flat; margin flat, occasionally revolute, ciliate. Inflorescence a compound dichasium, occasionally simple. Peduncle green or slightly purplish, subcylindrical, winged to the median third, glabrescent, with papillose trichomes; primary peduncle 0.9–3.0 × 0.1–0.2 cm, secondary peduncle 0.45–1.40 × 0.06–0.15 cm, tertiary peduncle 0.36–0.80 × 0.06–0.09 cm. Pedicel 0.6–1.3 × 0.06–0.10 cm, green or tinged purple, ventral portion not winged, glabrous. Bracts 0.20–0.60 × 0.05– 0.10 cm, green or tinged purple, glabrescent, with papillose trichomes, margin glabrous. Calyx greenish to slightly purplish, abaxial side glabrescent, with trichomes papillose, rarely aciculate, adaxial side densely covered by papillose trichomes, margin glabrous; dorsal sepal 1.5–2.1 × 0.5–0.7 cm, broadly lanceolate to ovate, partially covering the lateral sepals; lateral sepals 1.2–1.6 × 0.2–0.3 cm, lanceolate; ventral ones 1.5–1.3 × 0.3–0.4 cm, lanceolate. Corolla 4.4–5.2 cm long, yellow-orange or scarlet, externally pubescent, with trichomes glandular and/or papillose, internally glabrous; tube 3.2–4.0 cm long; upper lip 1.2–1.4 × 0.8–0.9 cm, slightly bilobate; lower lip 0.9–1.3 × 0.4–0.5 cm, inner perianth with trichomes filiform, white; lobes revolute, median lobe 0.13–0.15 × 0.06–0.07 cm. Ventral pair of stamens sometimes exserted, adnate until the median third of the corolla tube; filaments violet, dorsal ones 1.70–2.40 × 0.08 cm, ventral ones 2.00–2.50 × 0.08 cm; thecae 0.15 cm diam.; staminodium 0.5– 1.1 cm, adnate until the middle third of the corolla tube, glabrous. Ovary 0.5 × 0.2 cm; style 4.0– 5.5 cm, sometimes exserted, glabrous. Capsule 1.5–1.7 × 0.7–1.0 cm, green or tinged purple. Seeds 0.10 × 0.04 cm.

Distribution

Three populations of Ameroglossum bicolor  sp. nov. are known from granite outcrops in the municipalities of Agrestina, Bonito and Caruaru in the Agreste mesoregion of Pernambuco State, Brazil. It grows at elevations between 425 and 700 m.

Ecology

Ameroglossum bicolor  sp. nov. has been collected in flower from May to October, with high inter- and intrapopulational synchrony ( Wanderley et al. 2014a).

Population and threats

A population of 70 adult individuals is known from a granite outcrop known as Lajedo do Boi in the municipality of Agrestina; at least 40 individuals are known from the Pedra do Guariba granite outcrop in the municipality of Caruaru ( Wanderley et al. 2014a); four other individuals were also located in Caruaru at Serra da Quitéria; 50 adult individuals are estimated to compose the population in the municipality of Bonito, all in Pernambuco State, Brazil. Main threats to these populations are habitat destruction through trampling by domestic animals, burning and other agricultural activity.

IPA

Empresa Pernambucana de Pesquisa Agropecuária, IPA