Ameroglossum fulniorum E.M.Almeida, A.M.Wanderley & L.P.FelixAmeroglossum fulniorum, Almeida & Christenhusz & Wanderley & Cordeiro & Melo & Batista & Felix, 2021, Almeida & Christenhusz & Wanderley & Cordeiro & Melo & Batista & Felix, 2021Ameroglossum genaroanum E.M.Almeida, J.M.P.Cordeiro & L.P.FelixAmeroglossum genaroanum, Almeida & Christenhusz & Wanderley & Cordeiro & Melo & Batista & Felix, 2021Ameroglossum intermedium E.M.Almeida, A.M.Wanderley & L.P.Felix

Almeida, Erton M., Christenhusz, Maarten J. M., Wanderley, Artur Maia, Cordeiro, Joel Maciel P., Melo, José Iranildo Miranda De, Batista, Fabiane Rabelo Da Costa & Felix, Leonardo P., 2021, An overview of the Brazilian inselberg genus Ameroglossum (Linderniaceae, Lamiales), with the description of seven new species, European Journal of Taxonomy 746, pp. 1-25: 13-17

publication ID

https://doi.org/10.5852/ejt.2021.746.1313

DOI

http://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4697350

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/8C0A87AD-B161-FFA9-590E-99D0FC54FC35

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Ameroglossum fulniorum E.M.Almeida, A.M.Wanderley & L.P.Felix Ameroglossum fulniorum Ameroglossum genaroanum E.M.Almeida, J.M.P.Cordeiro & L.P.Felix Ameroglossum genaroanum Ameroglossum intermedium E.M.Almeida, A.M.Wanderley & L.P.Felix
status

sp. nov.

Ameroglossum fulniorum E.M.Almeida, A.M.Wanderley & L.P.Felix   sp. nov.

urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:77216328-1

Figs 2D View Fig , 4d–g View Fig

Diagnosis

This species is similar to A. manoelfelixii   in having lustrous, purple-tinged vegetative parts and scarlet flowers, but it differs in having inflorescences in simple dichasia (vs compound dichasia), peduncle winged (vs peduncle not winged) and white trichomes on the lower lip of the corolla (vs trichomes violet). It differs from the other species of Ameroglossum   by the deep vinaceous colour of its vegetative parts.

Etymology

The specific epithet is dedicated to the Fulni-ô Amerindians whose territories are located in the Serra do Comunaty where the type material was collected. Members of the Fulni-ô ethnic group have conserved many of their traditional cultural values, being one of the few indigenous groups in north-eastern Brazil that have conserved their original language, Yaathe or Ia-tê, from the Macro-Jê linguistic branch.

Material examined

Type BRAZIL – Pernambuco • Águas Belas, Quilombo ; 09°04ʹ11ʺ S, 37°00ʹ43ʺ W; 903 m a.s.l.; 21 Aug. 2012; E.M. Almeida & A.M. Wanderley 439; holotype: EAN!; isotype K GoogleMaps   !.

Description

Saxicolous chamaephyte up to 80 cm, occasionally with secondary branching along the stem. Young branches purplish, lustrous, quadrangular, not winged, glabrescent, trichomes aciculate; brownish when mature, slightly inclined to incumbent, subquadrangular. Leaves opposite, decussate; leaf blade 6.0– 14.5 × 1.2–3.9 cm, purplish when young, later greenish, lustrous, narrowly elliptic to elliptic, rarely narrowly trullate, slightly bullate; adaxial side glabrous; abaxial side glabrescent with papillose trichomes, principally the youngest leaves, rarely with recurved trichomes; apex sharply acuminate, flat to reflexed; margin flat to revolute, ciliate. Inflorescences in simple dichasia. Peduncle purplish, subcylindrical, winged, glabrescent, with papillose trichomes; primary peduncle 0.70–1.80 × 0.10–0.14 cm, secondary peduncle 0.3–0.8 × 0.1 cm. Pedicel 0.50–1.20 × 0.10–0.15 cm, purplish, glabrescent, with papillose trichomes, ventral side without wings. Bracts 0.10–0.30 × 0.05–0.08 cm, purplish, glabrescent, with papillose trichomes, margin glabrous. Calyx purplish, abaxial side glabrescent, with trichomes recurved and papillose, adaxial side densely covered by papillose trichomes, margin glabrous; sepals lanceolate, dorsal sepal 1.2–1.7 × 0.3 cm, lateral ones 1.0–1.3 × 0.2 cm, ventral ones 1.0–1.2 × 0.2–0.3 cm. Corolla 5.0– 5.6 cm long, scarlet, externally glabrescent, with trichomes glandular and papillose, internally glabrous; tube 4.0– 4.2 cm long; upper lip 1.3–1.8 × 0.9–1.1 cm; lower lip 1.3–1.5 × 0.4–0.5 cm, inner perianth with trichomes filiform, white; lobes revolute, median lobe 0.2–0.3 × 0.1 cm. Stamens included, adnate to the median third of the corolla tube; filaments violet, dorsal ones 2.00–2.70 × 0.08 cm, ventral ones 2.20–2.60 × 0.08 cm; thecae 0.15 cm diam.; staminodium 0.2–0.5 cm, adnate to the proximal third of the corolla tube, glabrous. Ovary 0.60–0.80 × 0.24–0.30 cm; style 4.2–5.1 cm, occasionally exserted, glabrous. Capsule 1.5–2.1 × 0.7–1.0 cm, purplish. Seeds 0.10 × 0.04 cm.

Distribution

Only two populations of A. fulniorum   sp. nov. are known growing near Águas Belas, Serra do Comunaty, in the Agreste mesoregion of Pernambuco State, Brazil. Elevation ca 900 m.

Ecology

Like other species of Ameroglossum   , the occurrence of A. fulniorum   sp. nov. is restricted to granite outcrops. Flowering and fruiting in August.

Population and threats

Only two populations of A. fulniorum   sp. nov. are currently known, which together comprise approximately 40 widely spaced adult individuals. Due to the isolation of those populations and their restricted distributions, together with environmental pressure from trampling by domestic animals and the occasional passage of wildfires, this species is highly threatened.

Ameroglossum genaroanum E.M.Almeida, J.M.P.Cordeiro & L.P.Felix   sp. nov.

urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:77216329-1

Figa 2E, 5a–d

Diagnosis

This species is morphologically similar to A. manoelfelixii   in having young leaves with revolute margins, vegetative structures lustrous and violet trichomes on the lower lip of the corolla tube. It differs from that species in its green vegetative portions (vs tinged purple), leaf blade elliptic to ovate (vs elliptic to narrowly elliptic, sometimes trullate) and flowers orangish (vs scarlet).

Etymology

The specific name is in honour of Prof. Genaro Viana Dornelas, a senior professor at the Universidade Federal da Paraíba, who has a vast knowledge of the flora of Paraíba State.

Material examined

Type BRAZIL – Paraíba • Tacima, Sítio Pão de Açúcar ; 06°35′33″S, 35°27′38″W; 198 m a.s.l.; 28 Jul. 2012; E.M. Almeida, E.M. Almeida & S.L.M. Almeida 397; holotype: EAN!; isotypes: IPA!, K!, RB!, UFP GoogleMaps   !.

Paratypes BRAZIL – Paraíba • Serra da Raiz, Zona Urbana; 06°41ʹ07ʺ S, 35°26ʹ44ʺ W; 341 m a.s.l.; 23 May 2018; L.P. Felix, E.M. Almeida & J.M.P. Cordeiro 17,486; EAN[25,542] GoogleMaps   !. – Rio Grande do Norte • Santo Antônio, Serra da Micaela ; 06°18ʹ03ʺ S, 35°31ʹ49ʺ W; 295 m a.s.l.; 13 Apr. 2010; L.P. Felix 13041; EAN[16,772] GoogleMaps   ! • Distrito de Lages , Serrote das Lajes ; 06°20ʹ41ʺ S, 35°27ʹ11ʺ W; 74 m a.s.l.; 17 Aug. 2013; J.L. Costa-Lima 1011; UFP[80,126] GoogleMaps   ! • Estrada para Goianinha; 06°19ʹ15ʺ S, 35°27ʹ09ʺ W; 102 m a.s.l.; 13 Apr. 2010; L.P. Felix 13044; EAN[13,044]! Serra da Micaela ; 06°18ʹ03ʺ S, 35°31ʹ49ʺ W; 295 m a.s.l.; 2008; P. A. Porto s.n.; EAN [15972] GoogleMaps   ! • Serrinha ; 06°16ʹ42ʺ S, 35°29ʹ58ʺ W; 102 m a.s.l.; 16 Apr. 2003; S. Pitrez et al. 365; EAN[10281] GoogleMaps   !.

Description

Saxicolous chamaephyte up to 100 cm tall, frequently with secondary branching near the tips. Young branches green, lustrous, occasionally bicolor with wide longitudinal purplish stripes, quadrangular, sometimes with a narrow wing, glabrous; brown cinereous when mature, slightly inclined, subquadrangular. Leaves opposite decussate; leaf blade 5.8–11.7× 2.2–4.3 cm, green, lustrous, elliptic to ovate, bullate when young, later smooth; adaxial side glabrous; abaxial side glabrescent, principally the younger leaves, with glandular trichomes; apex acute to acuminate, flat to reflexed; margin flat to revolute, ciliate. Inflorescences simple dichasia, sometimes compound. Peduncle green, cylindrical, without wings, glabrescent, with papillose trichomes; primary peduncle 0.8–2.8 × 0.15 cm, secondary peduncle 0.4–1.1 × 0.1 cm, tertiary peduncle 0.40–0.60 × 0.08 cm. Pedicel 0.4–0.9 × 0.1–0.2 cm, green, glabrescent, with papillose trichomes, ventral side without wings. Bracts 0.20–0.70 × 0.05–0.08 cm, green, abaxial side glabrescent, with aciculate trichomes, adaxial side glabrescent, with papillose and aciculate trichomes, margin glabrous. Calyx green, abaxial side glabrescent, with papillose trichomes, adaxial side densely covered by papillose trichomes, margin ciliate with recurved trichomes; sepals lanceolate, dorsal one 1.1–1.8 × 0.3–0.5 cm, lateral ones 0.8–1.4 × 0.2 cm, ventral ones 0.8–1.4 × 0.2–0.4 cm. Corolla 4.5–5.5 cm long, orangish with yellow base, externally pubescent with glandular trichomes, internally glabrous; tube 3.3–4.2 cm long; upper lip 1.4–1.6 × 0.8–0.9 cm, slightly bilobate; lower lip 0.9–1.3 × 0.4–0.5 cm, inner perianth with filiform trichomes, violet; lobes revolute, median lobe 0.12–0.15 × 0.08–0.10 cm. Stamens included, sometimes with ventral pair exserted, adnate to the middle third of the corolla tube; filaments violet, dorsal ones 1.7–2.3 × 0.7 cm, ventral ones 1.7–2.1 × 0.7 cm; thecae ca 0.2 cm diam.; staminodium 0.3–0.5 cm long, adnate near the proximal third of the corolla tube, glabrescent with short, glandular trichomes. Ovary 0.6–0.8 × 0.2–0.3 cm; style 3.3–4.6 cm long, exserted. Capsule 1.2–1.5 × 0.6–0.8 cm, green. Seeds 0.10 × 0.05 cm.

Distribution

This taxon has a more northerly distribution than the other species of Ameroglossum   and occurs the lowest for this genus. It occurs on rock outcrops in the Agreste Paraibano mesoregion, in Paraíba State (two populations), and in the Agreste Potiguar mesoregion in Rio Grande do Norte State (four populations), Brazil. Elevation between 70 and 300 m.

Ecology

Ameroglossum genaroanum   sp. nov. occurs on rock outcrops. Flowering and fruiting between April and June.

Population and threats

Ameroglossum genaroanum   sp. nov. is represented only by small isolated populations with up to 60 individuals distributed in small geographical areas susceptible to various anthropic impacts.

Ameroglossum intermedium E.M.Almeida, A.M.Wanderley & L.P.Felix   sp. nov.

urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:77216330-1

Figs 2F View Fig , 5e–h View Fig

Diagnosis

Ameroglossum intermedium   sp. nov. combines characters of both A. manoelfelixii   and A. pernambucense   . It can be distinguished from A. manoelfelixii   by its puberulent branches and leaves (vs glabrousglabrescent leaves), with acicular trichomes recurved at the apex (vs papillose trichomes), and from A. pernambucense   by its compound dichasial inflorescence (vs a simple dichasium) and the revolute lower lip (vs involute).

Etymology

The specific epithet is derived from the Latin adjectives ʻ inter ʼ, ʻbetweenʼ, and ʻ medius ʼ, ʻmiddleʼ, referring to the morphological characteristics of the new species that are intermediate between A. manoelfelixii   and A. pernambucense   .

Material examined

Type BRAZIL – Alagoas • Quebrangulo ; 09°18′17″ S, 36°31′13″W; 502 m a.s.l.; 23Aug. 2012; E.M.Almeida & A.M. Wanderley 478; holotype: EAN!; isotypes: IMA!, IPA!, K!, RB GoogleMaps   !.

Other material

BRAZIL – Alagoas • Quebrangulo, estrada para Bom Retiro; 09°17ʹ56ʺ S, 36°30ʹ33ʺ W; 25 Aug. 2013; L.P. Felix & E.M. Almeida 14,339; EAN[19,860] GoogleMaps   !.

Description

Saxicolous chamaephyte up to 150 cm, frequently with secondary branching along the stem. Young branches green to slightly purplish, bifacial, dull, quadrangular or hexangular, often narrowly winged, pubescent, with recurved trichomes; brown cinereous when mature, slightly inclined to decumbent, subquadrangular. Leaves opposite, decussate, occasionally verticillate and then up to three leaves per node; leaf blade 5.1–14.0 × 1.4–3.9 cm, green, lustrous, elliptic to narrowly elliptic, rarely trullate, bullate when young, later smooth; adaxial side glabrous, abaxial side pubescent, with recurved trichomes; apex acute, rarely acuminate, flat to reflexed; margin revolute when young, later flat, ciliate. Inflorescence a compound dichasium, occasionally simple. Peduncle green or tinged purple, subcylindrical, winged, pubescent, with recurved trichomes; primary peduncle 0.7–4.0 × 0.1–0.2 cm, secondary peduncle 0.30– 1.80 × 0.13–0.15 cm, tertiary peduncle 0.30–1.20 × 0.07–0.10 cm. Pedicel 0.6–2.5 × 0.1–0.2 cm, green to slightly purplish, pubescent, with recurved trichomes; ventral side winged up to the proximal third. Bracts 0.20–0.60 × 0.03–0.08 cm, green, abaxial side glabrous, adaxial side glabrescent with papillose trichomes, margin ciliate with recurved trichomes. Calyx green, abaxial side glabrescent, with recurved and/or papillose trichomes, adaxial side covered by papillose trichomes, margin ciliate with recurved trichomes; sepals lanceolate, dorsal one 1.2–1.5 × 0.3–0.5 cm, lateral ones 1.0–1.2 × 0.2 cm, ventral ones 0.8–1.1 × 0.2–0.3 cm. Corolla 4.5–5.6 cm long, orangish, with proximal third yellowish, external side pubescent, trichomes glandular, rarely recurved and/or papillose; tube 3.5–4.4 cm long; upper lip 1.2–1.8 × 0.6–0.8 cm, slightly bilobate; lower lip 1.1–1.4 × 0.35–0.50 cm, inner perianth with white filiform trichomes; lobes revolute, median lobe 0.1 × 0.2 cm. Stamens occasionally with the ventral pair exserted, adnate to the median third of the corolla tube; filaments violet, dorsal ones 1.6–2.6 × 0.8 cm, ventral ones 1.9–2.9 × 0.8 cm; thecae ca 0.2 cm diam.; staminodium 0.3–0.4 cm, adnate to the median third of the corolla tube, glabrous. Ovary 0.4–0.7 × 0.2–0.3 cm; style 3.6–5.6 cm, occasionally exserted. Capsule 1.2–1.6 × 0.6–0.8 cm, greenish. Seeds 0.10 × 0.05 cm.

Distribution

Only two populations of Ameroglossum intermedium   sp. nov. are currently known, both in the municipality of Quebrangulo, Agreste mesoregion of Alagoas State. Elevation ca 500 m.

Ecology

This species occurs exclusively on granite outcrops. Flowering and fruiting recorded in August and like all other Ameroglossum species   it is pollinated by hummingbirds. The surrounding vegetation was probably originally composed of deciduous forest, but this has now been replaced by natural pasture.

Population and threats

Only two rock outcrops separated by pasture in a single municipality in Alagoas State are known to harbour this species. Approximately 200 adult individuals can be found in the first population, whereas the other comprises approximately 30 individuals. The main threat to these populations are farming and grazing of the site by stray animals.

Taxonomic notes

Among the species of Ameroglossum   with quadrangular stems, A. intermedium   sp. nov. stands out by having reproductive and vegetative structures covered in trichomes, a characteristic otherwise typically observed in A. pernambucense   . However, A. intermedium   sp. nov. differs by having leaves that are principally opposite and decussate, inflorescences of compound dichasia and the revolute lower lip.

Ameroglossum genaroanum E.M.Almeida, J.M.P.Cordeiro & L.P.Felix   sp. nov.

urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:77216329-1

Figa 2E, 5a–d

Diagnosis

This species is morphologically similar to A. manoelfelixii   in having young leaves with revolute margins, vegetative structures lustrous and violet trichomes on the lower lip of the corolla tube. It differs from that species in its green vegetative portions (vs tinged purple), leaf blade elliptic to ovate (vs elliptic to narrowly elliptic, sometimes trullate) and flowers orangish (vs scarlet).

Etymology

The specific name is in honour of Prof. Genaro Viana Dornelas, a senior professor at the Universidade Federal da Paraíba, who has a vast knowledge of the flora of Paraíba State.

Material examined

Type BRAZIL – Paraíba • Tacima, Sítio Pão de Açúcar ; 06°35′33″S, 35°27′38″W; 198 m a.s.l.; 28 Jul. 2012; E.M. Almeida, E.M. Almeida & S.L.M. Almeida 397; holotype: EAN!; isotypes: IPA!, K!, RB!, UFP GoogleMaps   !.

Paratypes BRAZIL – Paraíba • Serra da Raiz, Zona Urbana; 06°41ʹ07ʺ S, 35°26ʹ44ʺ W; 341 m a.s.l.; 23 May 2018; L.P. Felix, E.M. Almeida & J.M.P. Cordeiro 17,486; EAN[25,542] GoogleMaps   !. – Rio Grande do Norte • Santo Antônio, Serra da Micaela ; 06°18ʹ03ʺ S, 35°31ʹ49ʺ W; 295 m a.s.l.; 13 Apr. 2010; L.P. Felix 13041; EAN[16,772] GoogleMaps   ! • Distrito de Lages , Serrote das Lajes ; 06°20ʹ41ʺ S, 35°27ʹ11ʺ W; 74 m a.s.l.; 17 Aug. 2013; J.L. Costa-Lima 1011; UFP[80,126] GoogleMaps   ! • Estrada para Goianinha; 06°19ʹ15ʺ S, 35°27ʹ09ʺ W; 102 m a.s.l.; 13 Apr. 2010; L.P. Felix 13044; EAN[13,044]! Serra da Micaela ; 06°18ʹ03ʺ S, 35°31ʹ49ʺ W; 295 m a.s.l.; 2008; P. A. Porto s.n.; EAN [15972] GoogleMaps   ! • Serrinha ; 06°16ʹ42ʺ S, 35°29ʹ58ʺ W; 102 m a.s.l.; 16 Apr. 2003; S. Pitrez et al. 365; EAN[10281] GoogleMaps   !.

Description

Saxicolous chamaephyte up to 100 cm tall, frequently with secondary branching near the tips. Young branches green, lustrous, occasionally bicolor with wide longitudinal purplish stripes, quadrangular, sometimes with a narrow wing, glabrous; brown cinereous when mature, slightly inclined, subquadrangular. Leaves opposite decussate; leaf blade 5.8–11.7× 2.2–4.3 cm, green, lustrous, elliptic to ovate, bullate when young, later smooth; adaxial side glabrous; abaxial side glabrescent, principally the younger leaves, with glandular trichomes; apex acute to acuminate, flat to reflexed; margin flat to revolute, ciliate. Inflorescences simple dichasia, sometimes compound. Peduncle green, cylindrical, without wings, glabrescent, with papillose trichomes; primary peduncle 0.8–2.8 × 0.15 cm, secondary peduncle 0.4–1.1 × 0.1 cm, tertiary peduncle 0.40–0.60 × 0.08 cm. Pedicel 0.4–0.9 × 0.1–0.2 cm, green, glabrescent, with papillose trichomes, ventral side without wings. Bracts 0.20–0.70 × 0.05–0.08 cm, green, abaxial side glabrescent, with aciculate trichomes, adaxial side glabrescent, with papillose and aciculate trichomes, margin glabrous. Calyx green, abaxial side glabrescent, with papillose trichomes, adaxial side densely covered by papillose trichomes, margin ciliate with recurved trichomes; sepals lanceolate, dorsal one 1.1–1.8 × 0.3–0.5 cm, lateral ones 0.8–1.4 × 0.2 cm, ventral ones 0.8–1.4 × 0.2–0.4 cm. Corolla 4.5–5.5 cm long, orangish with yellow base, externally pubescent with glandular trichomes, internally glabrous; tube 3.3–4.2 cm long; upper lip 1.4–1.6 × 0.8–0.9 cm, slightly bilobate; lower lip 0.9–1.3 × 0.4–0.5 cm, inner perianth with filiform trichomes, violet; lobes revolute, median lobe 0.12–0.15 × 0.08–0.10 cm. Stamens included, sometimes with ventral pair exserted, adnate to the middle third of the corolla tube; filaments violet, dorsal ones 1.7–2.3 × 0.7 cm, ventral ones 1.7–2.1 × 0.7 cm; thecae ca 0.2 cm diam.; staminodium 0.3–0.5 cm long, adnate near the proximal third of the corolla tube, glabrescent with short, glandular trichomes. Ovary 0.6–0.8 × 0.2–0.3 cm; style 3.3–4.6 cm long, exserted. Capsule 1.2–1.5 × 0.6–0.8 cm, green. Seeds 0.10 × 0.05 cm.

Distribution

This taxon has a more northerly distribution than the other species of Ameroglossum   and occurs the lowest for this genus. It occurs on rock outcrops in the Agreste Paraibano mesoregion, in Paraíba State (two populations), and in the Agreste Potiguar mesoregion in Rio Grande do Norte State (four populations), Brazil. Elevation between 70 and 300 m.

Ecology

Ameroglossum genaroanum   sp. nov. occurs on rock outcrops. Flowering and fruiting between April and June.

Population and threats

Ameroglossum genaroanum   sp. nov. is represented only by small isolated populations with up to 60 individuals distributed in small geographical areas susceptible to various anthropic impacts.

Ameroglossum intermedium E.M.Almeida, A.M.Wanderley & L.P.Felix   sp. nov.

urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:77216330-1

Figs 2F View Fig , 5e–h View Fig

Diagnosis

Ameroglossum intermedium   sp. nov. combines characters of both A. manoelfelixii   and A. pernambucense   . It can be distinguished from A. manoelfelixii   by its puberulent branches and leaves (vs glabrousglabrescent leaves), with acicular trichomes recurved at the apex (vs papillose trichomes), and from A. pernambucense   by its compound dichasial inflorescence (vs a simple dichasium) and the revolute lower lip (vs involute).

Etymology

The specific epithet is derived from the Latin adjectives ʻ inter ʼ, ʻbetweenʼ, and ʻ medius ʼ, ʻmiddleʼ, referring to the morphological characteristics of the new species that are intermediate between A. manoelfelixii   and A. pernambucense   .

Material examined

Type BRAZIL – Alagoas • Quebrangulo ; 09°18′17″ S, 36°31′13″W; 502 m a.s.l.; 23Aug. 2012; E.M.Almeida & A.M. Wanderley 478; holotype: EAN!; isotypes: IMA!, IPA!, K!, RB GoogleMaps   !.

Other material

BRAZIL – Alagoas • Quebrangulo, estrada para Bom Retiro; 09°17ʹ56ʺ S, 36°30ʹ33ʺ W; 25 Aug. 2013; L.P. Felix & E.M. Almeida 14,339; EAN[19,860] GoogleMaps   !.

Description

Saxicolous chamaephyte up to 150 cm, frequently with secondary branching along the stem. Young branches green to slightly purplish, bifacial, dull, quadrangular or hexangular, often narrowly winged, pubescent, with recurved trichomes; brown cinereous when mature, slightly inclined to decumbent, subquadrangular. Leaves opposite, decussate, occasionally verticillate and then up to three leaves per node; leaf blade 5.1–14.0 × 1.4–3.9 cm, green, lustrous, elliptic to narrowly elliptic, rarely trullate, bullate when young, later smooth; adaxial side glabrous, abaxial side pubescent, with recurved trichomes; apex acute, rarely acuminate, flat to reflexed; margin revolute when young, later flat, ciliate. Inflorescence a compound dichasium, occasionally simple. Peduncle green or tinged purple, subcylindrical, winged, pubescent, with recurved trichomes; primary peduncle 0.7–4.0 × 0.1–0.2 cm, secondary peduncle 0.30– 1.80 × 0.13–0.15 cm, tertiary peduncle 0.30–1.20 × 0.07–0.10 cm. Pedicel 0.6–2.5 × 0.1–0.2 cm, green to slightly purplish, pubescent, with recurved trichomes; ventral side winged up to the proximal third. Bracts 0.20–0.60 × 0.03–0.08 cm, green, abaxial side glabrous, adaxial side glabrescent with papillose trichomes, margin ciliate with recurved trichomes. Calyx green, abaxial side glabrescent, with recurved and/or papillose trichomes, adaxial side covered by papillose trichomes, margin ciliate with recurved trichomes; sepals lanceolate, dorsal one 1.2–1.5 × 0.3–0.5 cm, lateral ones 1.0–1.2 × 0.2 cm, ventral ones 0.8–1.1 × 0.2–0.3 cm. Corolla 4.5–5.6 cm long, orangish, with proximal third yellowish, external side pubescent, trichomes glandular, rarely recurved and/or papillose; tube 3.5–4.4 cm long; upper lip 1.2–1.8 × 0.6–0.8 cm, slightly bilobate; lower lip 1.1–1.4 × 0.35–0.50 cm, inner perianth with white filiform trichomes; lobes revolute, median lobe 0.1 × 0.2 cm. Stamens occasionally with the ventral pair exserted, adnate to the median third of the corolla tube; filaments violet, dorsal ones 1.6–2.6 × 0.8 cm, ventral ones 1.9–2.9 × 0.8 cm; thecae ca 0.2 cm diam.; staminodium 0.3–0.4 cm, adnate to the median third of the corolla tube, glabrous. Ovary 0.4–0.7 × 0.2–0.3 cm; style 3.6–5.6 cm, occasionally exserted. Capsule 1.2–1.6 × 0.6–0.8 cm, greenish. Seeds 0.10 × 0.05 cm.

Distribution

Only two populations of Ameroglossum intermedium   sp. nov. are currently known, both in the municipality of Quebrangulo, Agreste mesoregion of Alagoas State. Elevation ca 500 m.

Ecology

This species occurs exclusively on granite outcrops. Flowering and fruiting recorded in August and like all other Ameroglossum species   it is pollinated by hummingbirds. The surrounding vegetation was probably originally composed of deciduous forest, but this has now been replaced by natural pasture.

Population and threats

Only two rock outcrops separated by pasture in a single municipality in Alagoas State are known to harbour this species. Approximately 200 adult individuals can be found in the first population, whereas the other comprises approximately 30 individuals. The main threat to these populations are farming and grazing of the site by stray animals.

Taxonomic notes

Among the species of Ameroglossum   with quadrangular stems, A. intermedium   sp. nov. stands out by having reproductive and vegetative structures covered in trichomes, a characteristic otherwise typically observed in A. pernambucense   . However, A. intermedium   sp. nov. differs by having leaves that are principally opposite and decussate, inflorescences of compound dichasia and the revolute lower lip.

Ameroglossum intermedium E.M.Almeida, A.M.Wanderley & L.P.Felix   sp. nov.

urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:77216330-1

Figs 2F View Fig , 5e–h View Fig

Diagnosis

Ameroglossum intermedium   sp. nov. combines characters of both A. manoelfelixii   and A. pernambucense   . It can be distinguished from A. manoelfelixii   by its puberulent branches and leaves (vs glabrousglabrescent leaves), with acicular trichomes recurved at the apex (vs papillose trichomes), and from A. pernambucense   by its compound dichasial inflorescence (vs a simple dichasium) and the revolute lower lip (vs involute).

Etymology

The specific epithet is derived from the Latin adjectives ʻ inter ʼ, ʻbetweenʼ, and ʻ medius ʼ, ʻmiddleʼ, referring to the morphological characteristics of the new species that are intermediate between A. manoelfelixii   and A. pernambucense   .

Material examined

Type BRAZIL – Alagoas • Quebrangulo ; 09°18′17″ S, 36°31′13″W; 502 m a.s.l.; 23Aug. 2012; E.M.Almeida & A.M. Wanderley 478; holotype: EAN!; isotypes: IMA!, IPA!, K!, RB GoogleMaps   !.

Other material

BRAZIL – Alagoas • Quebrangulo, estrada para Bom Retiro; 09°17ʹ56ʺ S, 36°30ʹ33ʺ W; 25 Aug. 2013; L.P. Felix & E.M. Almeida 14,339; EAN[19,860] GoogleMaps   !.

Description

Saxicolous chamaephyte up to 150 cm, frequently with secondary branching along the stem. Young branches green to slightly purplish, bifacial, dull, quadrangular or hexangular, often narrowly winged, pubescent, with recurved trichomes; brown cinereous when mature, slightly inclined to decumbent, subquadrangular. Leaves opposite, decussate, occasionally verticillate and then up to three leaves per node; leaf blade 5.1–14.0 × 1.4–3.9 cm, green, lustrous, elliptic to narrowly elliptic, rarely trullate, bullate when young, later smooth; adaxial side glabrous, abaxial side pubescent, with recurved trichomes; apex acute, rarely acuminate, flat to reflexed; margin revolute when young, later flat, ciliate. Inflorescence a compound dichasium, occasionally simple. Peduncle green or tinged purple, subcylindrical, winged, pubescent, with recurved trichomes; primary peduncle 0.7–4.0 × 0.1–0.2 cm, secondary peduncle 0.30– 1.80 × 0.13–0.15 cm, tertiary peduncle 0.30–1.20 × 0.07–0.10 cm. Pedicel 0.6–2.5 × 0.1–0.2 cm, green to slightly purplish, pubescent, with recurved trichomes; ventral side winged up to the proximal third. Bracts 0.20–0.60 × 0.03–0.08 cm, green, abaxial side glabrous, adaxial side glabrescent with papillose trichomes, margin ciliate with recurved trichomes. Calyx green, abaxial side glabrescent, with recurved and/or papillose trichomes, adaxial side covered by papillose trichomes, margin ciliate with recurved trichomes; sepals lanceolate, dorsal one 1.2–1.5 × 0.3–0.5 cm, lateral ones 1.0–1.2 × 0.2 cm, ventral ones 0.8–1.1 × 0.2–0.3 cm. Corolla 4.5–5.6 cm long, orangish, with proximal third yellowish, external side pubescent, trichomes glandular, rarely recurved and/or papillose; tube 3.5–4.4 cm long; upper lip 1.2–1.8 × 0.6–0.8 cm, slightly bilobate; lower lip 1.1–1.4 × 0.35–0.50 cm, inner perianth with white filiform trichomes; lobes revolute, median lobe 0.1 × 0.2 cm. Stamens occasionally with the ventral pair exserted, adnate to the median third of the corolla tube; filaments violet, dorsal ones 1.6–2.6 × 0.8 cm, ventral ones 1.9–2.9 × 0.8 cm; thecae ca 0.2 cm diam.; staminodium 0.3–0.4 cm, adnate to the median third of the corolla tube, glabrous. Ovary 0.4–0.7 × 0.2–0.3 cm; style 3.6–5.6 cm, occasionally exserted. Capsule 1.2–1.6 × 0.6–0.8 cm, greenish. Seeds 0.10 × 0.05 cm.

Distribution

Only two populations of Ameroglossum intermedium   sp. nov. are currently known, both in the municipality of Quebrangulo, Agreste mesoregion of Alagoas State. Elevation ca 500 m.

Ecology

This species occurs exclusively on granite outcrops. Flowering and fruiting recorded in August and like all other Ameroglossum species   it is pollinated by hummingbirds. The surrounding vegetation was probably originally composed of deciduous forest, but this has now been replaced by natural pasture.

Population and threats

Only two rock outcrops separated by pasture in a single municipality in Alagoas State are known to harbour this species. Approximately 200 adult individuals can be found in the first population, whereas the other comprises approximately 30 individuals. The main threat to these populations are farming and grazing of the site by stray animals.

Taxonomic notes

Among the species of Ameroglossum   with quadrangular stems, A. intermedium   sp. nov. stands out by having reproductive and vegetative structures covered in trichomes, a characteristic otherwise typically observed in A. pernambucense   . However, A. intermedium   sp. nov. differs by having leaves that are principally opposite and decussate, inflorescences of compound dichasia and the revolute lower lip.

P

Museum National d' Histoire Naturelle, Paris (MNHN) - Vascular Plants

A

Harvard University - Arnold Arboretum

EAN

Universidade Federal da Paraiba, Campus III - CCA

Kingdom

Plantae

Phylum

Tracheophyta

Class

Magnoliopsida

Order

Lamiales

Family

Plantaginaceae

Genus

Ameroglossum

Kingdom

Plantae

Phylum

Tracheophyta

Class

Magnoliopsida

Order

Lamiales

Family

Plantaginaceae

Genus

Ameroglossum

Kingdom

Plantae

Phylum

Tracheophyta

Class

Magnoliopsida

Order

Lamiales

Family

Plantaginaceae

Genus

Ameroglossum

Kingdom

Plantae

Phylum

Tracheophyta

Class

Magnoliopsida

Order

Lamiales

Family

Plantaginaceae

Genus

Ameroglossum

Kingdom

Plantae

Phylum

Tracheophyta

Class

Magnoliopsida

Order

Lamiales

Family

Plantaginaceae

Genus

Ameroglossum