Anastatus (Anastatus) japonicus Ashmead
Chen, Yong-Ming, Gibson, Gary A. P., Peng, Ling-Fei, Iqbal, Asim & Zang, Lian-Sheng, 2019, Anastatus Motschulsky (Hymenoptera, Eupelmidae): egg parasitoids of Caligula japonica Moore (Lepidoptera, Saturniidae) in China, ZooKeys 881, pp. 109-134: 125-126
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|Anastatus (Anastatus) japonicus Ashmead|
Anastatus japonicus Ashmead, 1904: 153; syntypes ( USNM), examined.
Anastatus bifasciatus disparis Ruschka, 1921: 265. Synonymy by Bouček 1977: 124-124.
Anastatus disparis ; Burgess 1929: 574, new status for Anastatus bifasciatus disparis .
Anastatus japonicus ; Yang et al. 2015: 163-164, fig. 84.
Female. Macropterous ( Fig. 5A, B View Figure 5 ); fore wing with broad hyaline cross band behind marginal vein with similarly curved basal and apical margins so band uniformly wide, and without isolated dark setae medially ( Fig. 5E View Figure 5 ). Mesosoma (excluding legs) with mesonotum, prosternum and usually acropleuron anteriorly dark, but at least about posterior two-thirds of acropleuron, pronotum except for dark spot anterior to each spiracle ( Fig. 5B, D View Figure 5 ), prepectus ( Fig. 5D View Figure 5 ), and tegula at least basally ( Fig. 5C View Figure 5 ) contrastingly paler; procoxa, except often in part laterally ( Fig. 5D View Figure 5 ), similarly pale as pronotum and acropleuron posteriorly; mesotarsus with all tarsomeres similarly pale yellowish to white or with basal two tarsomeres only inconspicuously darker infuscate in part ( Fig. 5B View Figure 5 ). Mesoscutum with posterior concave part comparatively broadly setose but white setae not attaining lateral margins ( Fig. 5C View Figure 5 ). Antenna with at least apical funicular slightly transverse and previous one or two funiculars subquadrate.
Male. Structure as well as color, setae and sculptural patterns ( Fig. 5F View Figure 5 ) similar to those described for A. gansuensis except clava at least about as long as combined length of fl6-fl8 ( Fig. 5H View Figure 5 ), with fl8 and fl7 slightly transverse to quadrate and fl6 and fl5 slightly longer than wide ( Fig. 5H View Figure 5 ).
Anastatus japonicus (Genbank accession no. MK604240) was reported previously from China (Beijing, Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Hong Kong, Jiangsu, Jilin, Liaoning, Shaanxi, Shandong) by several authors ( Han et al. 1999; He 2001; He et al. 2001). We reared it in the field from the following localities: Gansu Province: Kang Co., Longnan City, collected 23.I.2018, Yong-Ming Chen (1♀, 1♂ AICF; 1♀, 1♂ BMNH; 21♀, 16♂ CNC; 5♀, 3♂ FAFU; 7♀,6♂ IZCAS; 1♀, 1♂ USNM). Jilin Province: Changchun City, Jilin Agricultural University, 20.VII.2017, Yong-Ming Chen (1♀, 1♂ AICF; 1♀, 1♂ BMNH; 33♀, 17♂ CNC; 1♀, 1♂ USNM).
Extralimital distribution listed for A. japonicus by Noyes (2019) includes at least one country from all biogeographic regions except the Neotropical. It is widely distributed throughout the entire Palaearctic region where it is native.
Noyes (2019) lists A. japonicus as a parasitoid of over 15 host species in two families of Hemiptera ( Alydidae , Pentatomidae ) and five families of Lepidoptera ( Lymantriinae ( Erebidae ), Lasiocampidae , Notodontidae , Papilionidae , Saturniidae ), sometimes as a hyperparasitoid through Braconidae and Encyrtidae primary parasitoids ( Peck 1963; Kochetova 1968). It was reared in China previously on A. pernyi ( Wu et al. 2000) and it has been utilized for biocontrol of the litchi stink bug, T. papillosa , being identified in the literature most commonly either as Anastatus sp. ( Lu and Yang 1983; Lin and Lin 1998) or as A. japonicus ( Xin and Li 1989, 1990; Tang et al. 1993; Xian et al. 2008; Li et al. 2017). Here we newly report it as an egg parasitoid of C. japonica .
Females of A. japonicus are most easily distinguished from two species with macropterous females reared from C. japonica by the acropleuron being extensively paler, lighter brown to yellowish ( Fig. 5D View Figure 5 ), in contrast with its dark mesonotum ( Fig. 5C View Figure 5 ). Females of A. fulloi and A. gansuensis either have the acropleuron entirely dark ( Fig. 1D View Figure 1 , 2F View Figure 2 ), similar in color to the mesonotum, or paler anteriorly only near the base of the prepectus ( Fig. 2F View Figure 2 ).
As noted under A. fulloi , males of A. japonicus and A. fulloi are differentiated from those of A. gansuensis and A. meilingensis by a longer clava relative to the combined length of the apical funiculars. This is because in A. fulloi ( Fig. 1H View Figure 1 ) and A. japonicus ( Fig. 5H View Figure 5 ) the apical funiculars are somewhat shorter compared to those of A. gansuensis ( Fig. 4H View Figure 4 ) and A. meilingensis ( Fig. 6H View Figure 6 ). Currently, we cannot reliably differentiate A. japonicus from A. fulloi males.
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