Solaenodolichopus walesius Verhoeff, 1928

Mesibov, Robert, 2014, The millipede genus Solaenodolichopus Verhoeff, 1924 (Diplopoda, Polydesmida, Paradoxosomatidae). 1. New genus diagnosis and redescriptions of named species, European Journal of Taxonomy 83, pp. 1-36: 29-33

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Solaenodolichopus walesius Verhoeff, 1928


Solaenodolichopus walesius Verhoeff, 1928  

Figs 1A–B View Fig , 2F View Fig , 3C View Fig , 11A–C View Fig , 11E –I View Fig

Solänodolichopus walesius Verhoeff, 1928: 94   (genus misspelled Solanodolichopus   ), 95 (first description, genus misspelled Solandolichopus), 114 (as Solänodolichopus walesius   in list of species described in paper); pl. 10, figs 26–27.

Parwalesoma castaneum Verhoeff, 1937: 139   (first description); figs 6–7 (p. 138).

Parwalesoma castaneum   – Attems 1940: 549 (Verhoeff’s description reworded). — Jeekel 1968: 19, 29. — Jeekel 1971: 231 (noted as type of Parwalesoma   ). — Jeekel 1981: 49. — Jeekel 2000: 41 (synonymised with Parwalesoma walesium   ). — Nguyen & Sierwald 2013: 1157 (as synonym of Parwalesoma walesium   ).

Aulacoporus walesius   – Attems 1937: 261 (new combination), 264 ( Verhoeff’s 1928 description reworded); fig. 329 (p. 264; same as fig. 26 in Verhoeff 1928). — Jeekel 1968: 18, 29; Jeekel 1981: 49. Parwalesoma walesium   – Jeekel 2000: 41 (new combination). — Nguyen & Sierwald 2013: 1157.

Material examined

S. walesius   lectotype (here designated)

Male in alcohol with original Verhoeff label, broken between rings 6 and 7 and rings 7 and 8, North Dorrigo, NSW [30°16’S 152°41’E ± 5 km], 4 Jan. 1923,A. Musgrave, AM KS.76508 (formerly K47704 View Materials ).

S. walesius   paralectotypes

1 male in alcohol with original Verhoeff label, broken between rings 6 and 7, ZMB 7962; 1 female in alcohol without original Verhoeff label, broken between rings 5 and 6, AM KS.76509 (also formerly K47704 View Materials ); collection details for both as for S. walesius   lectotype.

P. castaneum   lectotype (here designated)

Male in alcohol with original Verhoeff label, broken between rings 8 and 9, missing left antenna, ZMB 12652 View Materials ; Comboyne district, NSW [31°35’ S, 152°28’ E, ± 10 km], date unknown, E.C. Chisholm (see general notes, below).

P. castaneum   paralectotypes

Slide mount with original Verhoeff label containing male legpairs 1 and 9 and both gonopods, ZSM A20033565; male rings 4–6 and an isolated diplosegment, and 1 female broken between rings 8 and 9, and 10 and 11, in alcohol with new labels (male and female in separate vials), ZSM 20052246; 1 female in alcohol with original Verhoeff label, broken between rings 6 and 7 and rings 12 and 13, AM KS76700; collection details for all three as for P. castaneum   lectotype. I assume that the male rings in ZSM A 20052246 and the slide-mounted parts in ZSM A20033565 are from the same individual, i.e., that together they represent a single male paralectotype specimen (see taxonomic notes, below).

Other material

NEW SOUTH WALES: 1 ♂, Comboyne [31°35’ S, 152°28’ E, ± 10 km], Aug. 1926, E.C. Chisholm, AM KS.94102 (see taxonomic notes, below); 2 ♂♂, Comboyne Cave KSS-C4, 31°34’13” S, 152°23’38” E [± 100 m], 21 Mar. 1971, C. Carter, AM KS.96065; 2 ♂♂, 2 ♀♀, Kerewong State Forest near Lorne, site 108, 31°36’ S, 152°34’ E [± 2 km], pitfall, 7 Nov.–10 Dec. 1978, D. Milledge, AM KS.16152; 1 ♂, same details, KS.18483; 1 ♂, same details but site 81, 31°35’ S, 152°38’ E [± 2 km], pitfall, 26 Sep.–12 Dec. 1978, AM KS.105104 (ex KS.96075); 1 ♂, 2 ♀♀, Boundary Creek Road, Boundary Creek State Forest, 29°56’ S, 152°33’ E [± 500 m], pitfall, 4 Feb.–9 Apr. 1993, M. Gray and G. Cassis, AM KS.93755.


(Based, unless otherwise indicated, on S. walesius   lectotype and paralectotypes.) As for the genus. Maximum male/female midbody width ca. 4.5/4.5 mm. Colour in alcohol: “Body ringed, the metazonites for the most part dark brown and the prozonites wine red. / The wine-red colour of the prozonites extends on to the anterior bands of the metazonites, which are otherwise dark brown. The lower sides and abdomen are also wine-red, the legs yellowish” ( Verhoeff 1928: 94 /95); colouring of types now faded and patchy, but rings light brown, darker dorsally, lightening to yellow at the waist, darkening towards rear of metatergite; colouring of more recent specimens as noted by Verhoeff.

Male with distinct transverse furrow on metazonites, stopping a little above level of ozopore. No longitudinal furrows laterally on diplosegments. Sternal lamella ( Fig. 2F View Fig ) broadly paraboloid in outline. Scopulae on legs 1 to 29, i.e., not present on last podous ring. Leg bases on ring 6 separated a little more than on ring 5; leg bases with normal separation on ring 8. Anterior margin of aperture more or less straight with small, rounded-triangular, medial extension.

Gonocoxa (of male in AM KS.93755) about 1/2 telopodite length, slightly flattened anteroposteriorly, with sparse, long setae anterodistally. Cannula short, narrow, uniformly tapering towards prefemur. Gonopod telopodite ( Fig. 11A–C, E–I View Fig ) just reaching leg 6 bases when retracted. Prefemur small, rounded, densely setose posteromedially, demarcated from femorite laterally by small, narrow notch. Remainder of telopodite more or less straight, slender, clearly divided into femorite and solenomere at about 2/3 telopodite length. Femorite narrowing very slightly between ends, slightly flattened anteroposteriorly. Medial femorite process a small, triangular tab; lateral femorite process spine-like, between 1/4 and 1/3 solenomere length, arising more distally than medial process, curving slightly anteriorly towards solenomere. Solenomere arising anterior to femorite processes, ca. 1/2-2/3 femorite width at base, curving laterally then medially and flattening to form trough-like hollow, concave medially; basal half of anterior margin of hollow extending distomedially and a little anteriorly as large, flat, triangular tab reaching ca. 1/2 solenomere length, curving posteriorly, distal margin of tab with a few small teeth; hollow at apex of solenomere facing posteromedially, the anterior margin produced as small subapical tab with rounded notch medially on distal margin, the solenomere apex distal to the notch at right angles to the subapical tab. Prostatic groove running on anterior surface of telopodite and lateral to large, basal solenomere tab, following subapical tab margin and terminating at distal corner of subapical tab.

Female without process on leg 2 coxa.


Known from eucalypt forest (and rainforest?) in northeast NSW from the ranges northwest of Coffs Harbour to the Comboyne district, a north-south extent of ca. 180 km (map Fig. 12 View Fig ). Overlaps in range with S. sulcatus   .

Taxonomic notes

The lectotype and paralectotype S. walesius   males from North Dorrigo are almost identical in size and morphological details to the lectotype P. castaneum   male from the Comboyne district, 150 km to the south; they differ slightly in the slenderness of the femorite ( Fig. 11A–B View Fig ). It is a little puzzling that Verhoeff did not recognise them as the same species. His drawings of the S. walesius   telopodite tip (figs 26 and 27 in Verhoeff 1928; Fig. 11J View Fig ) appear to have been done from a posterior and slightly oblique view of the left gonopod of the lectotype, while the drawings of the P. castaneum   telopodite tip (figs 6 and 7 in Verhoeff 1937; Fig. 11H View Fig ) are from a medial view of the left gonopod telopodite on the lectotype slide mount. Verhoeff may have returned one of his S. walesius   males to AM before he received the P. castaneum   specimens, but he may still have held the male that found its way to ZMB. If not, it is possible that Verhoeff had no gonopod drawings of S. walesius   to compare other than his published ones. Ironically, it was a comparison of those drawings that led Jeekel (2000) to propose that P. castaneum   was a junior synonym of S. walesius   .

In both S. walesius   ( Fig. 11C View Fig ) and S. pruvoti   ( Fig. 11D View Fig ) the solenomere tip ends in an L-shaped channel. One side of the ‘L’ is the thin, anteroposteriorly flattened tab at whose medial margin the prostatic groove opens. The other, thicker side of the ‘L’ is distal to this tab and lies in a plane at right angles to it. In S. pruvoti   , a narrow notch (arrow in Fig. 11D View Fig ) separates the two sides of the ‘L’, the distal side thus becoming a separate process, i.e., the ‘pre-apical latero-distal process’ of Jeekel (2000). In S. walesius   , the two sides of the ‘L’ are joined at the tip by a shallow indentation (arrow in Fig. 11C View Fig ). This difference does not seem to me to be important enough to separate two genera, which is why I have synonymised Parwalesoma   with Solaenodolichopus   (see above). In future papers I will document variations at the tip of the solenomere in other Solaenodolichopus   species.

Verhoeff (1928, 1937) did not state how many specimens he examined, but gave male and female lengths for both S. walesius   and P. castaneum   . My lectotypifications imply that Verhoeff looked at two males and one female of S. walesius   and two males (one dissected, most parts now missing) and two females of P. castaneum   . However, the AM whole female in alcohol (KS.76509) and the ZSM male parts and whole female in alcohol (20052246) are missing any original Verhoeff labels. I include these among the types because I assume that the ZSM male parts are the remains of the male dissected for the ZSM slide mount, which does have a Verhoeff label, and because the collection details label for AM KS.76509 appears to be original. I have not made the male S. walesius   in AM KS.94102 a paralectotype because it has only a recent, printed label; it may have been deposited directly in AM by collector E.C. Chisholm (see below). The ZSM slide of P. castaneum   was labelled ‘lectotype’ by P.M. Johns in 1967, but this lectotypification was not published.

General notes

According to contemporary newspaper items, collector Dr E.C. Chisholm was a naturalist and Government Medical Officer in the Comboyne district from 1923 to 1935 (The Port Macquarie News and Hastings River Advocate, 4 Jun. 1927, p. 5, 112527391; The Sydney Morning Herald, 17 Jan. 1933, p. 6,; The Maitland Daily Mercury, 5 Jul. 1935, p. 3,; all accessed 24 Dec. 2013).

Chisholm presumably collected his Comboyne millipedes and sent them directly to Verhoeff ( Verhoeff 1937: 133) during that 12-year period. As he had done with descriptions of NSW species in his 1928 paper, Verhoeff used the State museum journal, Records of the Australian Museum, as an outlet for his descriptions of P. castaneum   and four other Comboyne millipede species. Verhoeff (1937) published in German, however, perhaps to avoid any misunderstandings arising from inadequate translation.

See also the general notes for S. rubriventris   (above).


Australian Museum


Museum für Naturkunde Berlin (Zoological Collections)


Bavarian State Collection of Zoology














Solaenodolichopus walesius Verhoeff, 1928

Mesibov, Robert 2014

Parwalesoma castaneum

Nguyen A. D. & Sierwald P. 2013: 1157
Jeekel C. A. W. 2000: 41
Jeekel C. A. W. 1981: 49
Jeekel C. A. W. 1971: 231
Jeekel C. A. W. 1968: 19
Attems C. 1940: 549

Parwalesoma castaneum

Verhoeff K. W. 1937: 139

Aulacoporus walesius

Nguyen A. D. & Sierwald P. 2013: 1157
Jeekel C. A. W. 2000: 41
Jeekel C. A. W. 1981: 49
Jeekel C. A. W. 1968: 18
Attems C. 1937: 261

Solänodolichopus walesius

Verhoeff K. W. 1928: 94