Kocourekia fusis Cao & Zhu

Zhu, Chao-Dong, 2017, Notes on Kocourekia Bouček (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae: Tetrastichinae) with description of a new species from China, Zootaxa 4317 (2), pp. 391-400: 394-398

publication ID


publication LSID


persistent identifier


treatment provided by


scientific name

Kocourekia fusis Cao & Zhu

sp. n.

3. Kocourekia fusis Cao & Zhu   , sp. n.

( Figs 1–14 View FIGURES 1 – 4 View FIGURES 5 – 10 View FIGURES 11 – 14 )

Diagnosis (female). Body light brown to brown; scape, pedicel, and legs brownish-yellow. Antennae, eyes, and vertex densely hairy. Each funicular distinctly transverse, in particular F1 only about 1/5 length of F2. Malar sulcus distinct, although sometimes only reaching mid-length of gena. Toruli inserted distinctly above lower ocular line. Scutellum with numerous setae uniformly scattered entire surface, without a bare median line.

Description. Female: Body size around 1mm.

Body light brown to brown, without metallic reflections, and gaster slightly darker than mesosoma. Face brown. Scape, pedicel, and legs brownish-yellow ( Figs 12–14 View FIGURES 11 – 14 ); antennal flagellum light brown; fore and hind coxae sometimes with small area slightly infuscate. Wings hyaline, venation brownish-yellow.

Antenna very short and densely hairy ( Figs 3, 4 View FIGURES 1 – 4 ), easily collapsing after death in dry preserved specimens. Antennal scape and pedicel reticulate. Scape slightly expanded medially, with numerous setae in dorsal view. Pedicel subpyriform, longer than broad, with numerous setae in dorsal view and fewer setae in ventral view; rather large compared to funicle. Flagellum short, spindle-like, with 2 anelli, 3-segmented funicle and 3-segmented clava. Each funicular slightly wider than the preceding one and distinctly transverse, especially F1 extremely short and transverse, about 1/5 length of F2 (median length) ( Fig. 3 View FIGURES 1 – 4 ). Claval segments decreasing in width, without a distinct terminal spine. Each flagellomere, except anellus and F1, with longitudinal sensilla; F1–F3 and C1 with CPS apically, C2–C3 usually without CPS, but C3 occasionally with few scattered CPS ( Figs 3, 4 View FIGURES 1 – 4 ).

Vertex reticulate, and very easily collapsing ( Figs 1, 2 View FIGURES 1 – 4 ). Ocelli arranged in an obtuse-angled triangle. OOL nearly 1.5× as long as POL. Head in anterior view subovate and with numerous setae along outer margin ( Figs 1, 2 View FIGURES 1 – 4 ). Face reticulate except for interantennal area; lower third of face pubescent. Bottom of scrobes without lines but frons always collapsing in bottom of scrobes. Upper arm of frontofacial lines narrower than POL, and frons always collapsing in frontofacial lines ( Fig. 2 View FIGURES 1 – 4 ) which extend to vertex and run to a point at outer margin of each posterior ocellus (as described by Bouček 1966 for Kocourekia   ). Anterior margin of clypeus strongly bilobed ( Figs 1, 2 View FIGURES 1 – 4 ). Gena hairy. Malar sulcus present and distinct, but sometimes incomplete ( Figs 1, 2 View FIGURES 1 – 4 ), and straight in lateral view. Toruli inserted high above lower ocular line ( Figs 1, 2 View FIGURES 1 – 4 ).

Mesosoma wholly reticulate in dorsal view ( Figs 5, 6 View FIGURES 5 – 10 ). Pronotum moderately elongate, campanulate, uniformly covered with setae, and collar not differentiated. Mesoscutum without a median line, but with distinct, deep notauli that nearly develop as notaular depressions ( Figs 5, 6 View FIGURES 5 – 10 ). MLM uniformly covered with numerous setae, LLM and axillae with scattered setae, whereas notauli almost bare ( Figs 5, 6 View FIGURES 5 – 10 ). Axillae strongly shifted forward and differentiated from LLM by a deep but incomplete groove. Scutellum subquadrate, slightly longer than broad, with a round apical margin; differentiated from MLM by a superficial line. Scutellum uniformly covered with setae, and submedian lines absent but sublateral grooves deep ( Figs 5, 6 View FIGURES 5 – 10 ). Metanotum reticulate; dorsellum narrow as compared to scutellum and slightly pointed apically ( Fig. 6 View FIGURES 5 – 10 ). Lateral panel of pronotum, prepectus, mesepimeron and mesepisternum reticulate, except a small area between mesepimeron and mesepisternum smooth; acropleuron smooth, without reticulation ( Figs 7, 8 View FIGURES 5 – 10 ). Propodeum without any carina or groove; spiracle with entire rim exposed ( Fig. 6 View FIGURES 5 – 10 ); callus with 8 setae.

Metasoma longer than mesosoma (3:2) in dorsal view. Petiole very short and hidden. In non-collapsed specimens, gaster sessile and pointed apically; at least twice as long as broad, longer but narrower than mesosoma, shorter than combined length of head plus mesosoma, and Gt1 longer than subsequent tergites ( Fig. 9 View FIGURES 5 – 10 ). Gaster with each segment reticulate anteriorly, Gt1–5 with longitudinal rugae posteriorly; with sparse, scattered setae in dorsal view but more setae in lateral view ( Figs 9, 10 View FIGURES 5 – 10 ); Gt7 with 2 cercal setae, one long and curved and the other straight and short. Hypopygium extended beyond middle of gaster, and ovipositor sheaths visible in lateral view ( Fig. 10 View FIGURES 5 – 10 ).

Legs short, with coxae, femora and tibiae of fore and hind legs enlarged ( Figs 12, 14 View FIGURES 11 – 14 ). Tibial spur of all legs very long, at least as long as breadth of tibia ( Figs 12–14 View FIGURES 11 – 14 ). Fore wing with postmarginal vein absent; submarginal vein with 5 setae ( Fig. 11 View FIGURES 11 – 14 ).

Male. Unknown.

Etymology. This new species is derived from the Latin word fusus (meaning “spindle”), in reference to its fusiform antennal flagellum.

Type material. Holotype ♀, CHINA, Jiangxi, BEF-China Main Experiment, near Xingangshan , 18.VI.2016, Huan-Xi Cao & Peng-Fei Guo, ex. Polemistus   sp. ( IZCAS)   . Paratypes: 5♀, same data as holotype   ; 5♀, CHINA, Jiangxi, BEF-China Main Experiment sites, near Xingangshan , 25.V.2015, Felix Fornoff, ex. Epsilon fujianensis   ( IZCAS)   ; 5♀, CHINA, Jiangxi, BEF-China Main Experiment, near Xingangshan , 01.VI.2015, Felix Fornoff, ex. Polemistus   sp. ( IZCAS)   ; 5♀, CHINA, Jiangxi, BEF-China Main Experiment, near Xingangshan , 05.IX.2014, Felix Fornoff, ex. Deuteragenia   sp. ( IZCAS)   ; 5♀, CHINA, Jiangxi, BEF-China Main Experiment, near Xingangshan , 18.VI.2016, Huan-Xi Cao & Peng-Fei Guo, ex. Deuteragenia   sp. ( IZCAS)   . Other material examined: 5♀, CHINA, Shandong, Taian, Erguoyuan , 08.X.2015, Xue-Mei Yang ( IZCAS)   ; 1♀, NEPAL, Kakani Forest , 1– 15.IX.1984, M. G. Allen ( ANIC)   .

Biology and hosts. Gregarious parasitoid and ectoparasitoid of larva-pupa of aculeate Hymenoptera   . Specimens from Jiangxi were reared from pupae of aculeate Hymenoptera   in trap-nests, including Polemistus   sp. ( Crabronidae   ), Epsilon fujianensis Lee   ( Vespidae   ) and Deuteragenia   sp. ( Pompilidae   ).

Distribution. CHINA (Jiangxi, Shandong); NEPAL (Kakani). Because K. fusis   has been found in both temperate and subtropical areas of China as well as the temperate area of Nepal, it may have a wider distribution in China or even the world.

Remarks. In the key to genera presented by LaSalle (1994), this new taxon would not key appropriately because at couplet 7 the presence of a malar sulcus would direct it away from Melittobia   and related genera, even though it does possess all the other characters included in couplet 7, in addition to having numerous setae on both the scutellum and mesoscutum. However, it would key to Kocourekia   in the generic keys for European Tetrastichinae   by Graham (1987, 1991) who brought out Kocourekia   at couplet 2 based on the numerous scattered setae on the scutellum and mesoscutum. Because our new species possesses all of the characters used to define Kocourekia   except for the presence of the malar sulcus, we prefer to place it in Kocourekia   rather than describe a new genus for it at this time.

Within Kocourekia   , K. fusis   is unique not only for the presence of the malar sulcus, but also for an unusual antenna with an extremely transverse F1. Kocourekia fusis   most closely resembles K. debilis   , but differs conspicuously from the latter species by the presence of a distinct, though sometimes incomplete malar sulcus, and differences of the antenna and of the color of the legs and antennae. Compared with K. debilis   , K. fusis   has an extremely transverse F1 only about 1/5 the length of F2 and brownish-yellow antennae and legs, whereas K. debilis   has F1 at about 1/2 length of F2 and dark brown antennae and legs except for yellowish-brown tarsi. Kocourekia fusis   has a short dorsellum relative to the scutellum with the posterior margin distinctly protruding medially, whereas in K. debilis   the dorsellum is longer relative to scutellum and has the posterior margin less protruding medially so as to appear straight. Moreover, the toruli are inserted distinctly above the lower ocular line in K. fusis   but approximately at the lower ocular line and much closer to the clypeus in K. debilis   .

Although K. clavigera   also has a light colored scape and pedicel as well as some body parts (lateral and ventral sides of thorax), it differs from K. fusis   by the form of the antenna, with a less transverse F1 ( Bouček 1977, fig. 24) and a scutellum with a bare median line ( Bouček 1977). It should be noted the above discussion of the differences between K. fusis   and the other two Kocourekia   species are only based on females because their respective males have not been discovered so far.


University of Puget Sound, Slater Museum of Natural History


Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences


Australian National Insect Collection














Kocourekia fusis Cao & Zhu

Zhu, Chao-Dong 2017

K. fusis

Zhu 2017

K. fusis

Zhu 2017

K. clavigera

Boucek 1977


Boucek 1966