Anolis immaculogularis, Köhler & Pérez & Petersen & Méndez & Cruz, 2014

Köhler, Gunther, Pérez, Raúl Gómez Trejo, Petersen, Claus Bo P., Méndez, Fausto R. & Cruz, De La, 2014, A revision of the Mexican Anolis (Reptilia, Squamata, Dactyloidae) from the Pacific versant west of the Isthmus de Tehuantepec in the states of Oaxaca, Guerrero, and Puebla, with the description of six new species, Zootaxa 3862 (1), pp. 1-210: 96-103

publication ID

http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.3862.1.1

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:3FA375FE-E4E0-4509-BE02-EE5E786B07C6

DOI

http://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4930969

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/8A288798-FF9F-E75F-7EC3-FB81FE13C07E

treatment provided by

Felipe

scientific name

Anolis immaculogularis
status

sp. nov.

Anolis immaculogularis   sp. nov.

Figs. 77–83 View FIGURE 77 View FIGURE 78 View FIGURE 79 View FIGURE 80 View FIGURE 81 View FIGURE 82 View FIGURE 83

Holotype. SMF 96266 View Materials , an adult male from Puerto Escondido , Punta Colorada (15.87038°N, 97.10152°W, WGS84), 40 m, Estado de Oaxaca, Mexico; collected 14 November 2012 by Gunther Köhler and Jesús García Grajales. Field tag number GK-4116. GoogleMaps  

Paratypes. All from Estado de Oaxaca, Mexico: SMF 96267 View Materials , same collecting data as holotype. IBH 26567 View Materials , from Puerto Escondido, Universidad del Mar (15.88934°N, 97.07703°W, WGS84), 80 m GoogleMaps   , collected 14 November 2012 by Gunther Köhler and Jesús García Grajales. IBH 26560 View Materials –64 View Materials , SMF 96263 View Materials –64 View Materials , from near Huatulco, 15.78191°N, 96.16257°W, 90 m GoogleMaps   ; collected 12 November 2012 by Gunther Köhler and Raúl Gómez Trejo Pérez. IBH 26993 View Materials –94 View Materials , SMF 93842 View Materials –43 View Materials , 96467–68 View Materials from Parque National Huatulco, 15.73268°N, 96.16357°W, 10 m GoogleMaps   ; collected 28 February 2013 by Gunther Köhler and Raúl Gómez Trejo Pérez. IBH 26562 View Materials –63 View Materials , SMF 93842 View Materials –43 View Materials , 96263–64 View Materials , 96467 View Materials are males, IBH 26560 View Materials , 26564 View Materials , 26993 View Materials , SMF 96267 View Materials , 96468 View Materials are females, IBH 26561 View Materials , 26567 View Materials , 26569 View Materials are juveniles   .

Referred specimens ⎯ Mexico: Oaxaca: Angeles Bay [Puerto Angel?]: UMMZ 84239 View Materials   ; Puerto Angel : KU 38262   ; Escondido Bay : UMMZ 84238 View Materials (four specimens)   ; Cacalotepec : USNM 123703 View Materials   ; Potrero Itierba Santa , Plan de la Campana: UIMNH 40932 View Materials   ; 5 mi NW Río Canoa, 33 mi ESE Cuajinicuilapa : 174 m: UIMNH 52898 View Materials   ; San José Chacalapa , 13 km on road N Pochutla, 230 m: KU 38261,   SMF 96265 View Materials   ; 8 mi E Pochutla : UIMNH 8903 View Materials   ; 6 mi N (on road) Puerto Escondido, 250 m: UMMZ 130953 View Materials (two specimens)   ; 1.5 km N San José Chacalapa : TCWC 17348 View Materials   ; Mira Leon , 1 mi N Huatulco: UIMNH 8904 View Materials   .

Diagnosis. A small to moderate-sized species (SVL in largest male 43.0 mm, largest female 49.5 mm) of the genus Anolis (sensu Poe 2004)   that differs from all Mexican and Central American anoles except A. boulengerianus   , A. carlliebi   , A. quercorum   , A. subocularis   , and A. sacamecatensis   by having a combination of (1) strongly keeled ventral scales; (2) usually a patch of three greatly enlarged supraocular scales; (3) 13–20 rows of slightly to moderately enlarged dorsal scales that are smaller than ventral scales; (4) moderately long hind legs, longest toe of adpressed hind leg usually reaching to level of posterior border of eye or beyond, ratio shank length/ SVL 0.24–0.31; and (5) a large pinkish red dewlap in males and a small red or pink dewlap in females. Anolis immaculogularis   differs from A. carlliebi   , A. quercorum   , and A. sacamecatensis   by having longer legs with the longest toe of adpressed hind leg usually reaching to level of posterior border of eye or beyond, ratio shank length/ SVL 0.24–0.31 (vs. to ear opening or to a point between ear opening and eye, ratio shank length/SVL 0.20–0.26). Anolis immaculogularis   differs from A. subocularis   in male dewlap coloration in life (pinkish red without paler areas around gorgetals in A. immaculogularis   vs. pinkish red with paler areas around gorgetals in A. subocularis   ). Also, in A. immaculogularis   , the subocular scales are usually broadly in contact with the supralabials (vs. subocular scales separated from supralabials by one scale row or these scales in contact in A. subocularis   ). Anolis immaculogularis   differs from A. boulengerianus   in male dewlap coloration in life (pinkish red without paler areas around gorgetals in A. immaculogularis   vs. orange yellow with paler areas around gorgetals in A. boulengerianus   ).

Description of the holotype. Adult male as indicated by almost completely everted hemipenes and presence of large dewlap; SVL 44.0 mm; tail incomplete; tail moderately compressed in cross section, tail height 1.7 mm and width 1.3 mm; axilla to groin distance 17.7 mm; head length 11.8 mm, head length/SVL ratio 0.27; snout length 5.2 mm; head width 6.9 mm; longest toe of adpressed hind limb reaching to ear opening; shank length 11.8 mm, shank length/head length ratio 1.00; longest finger of extended forelimb reaching to mideye; longest finger of adpressed forelimb reaching to a point 2.5 mm beyond anterior insertion of hind limbs. Dorsal head scales in internasal region keeled, uni- to tricarinate; other dorsal head scales rugose or keeled; 6 postrostrals; 7 scales between nasals; 1 elongate prenasal scale on each side, in contact with both rostral and first supralabial; circumnasal in contact with first supralabial on left side, separated from supralabial by one scale row on right side; scales in moderate prefrontal depression mostly rugose or weakly keeled; supraorbital semicircles well developed, 3 scales of each side in broad contact with each other; supraorbital disc composed of an oval patch of 3 greatly enlarged, rugose keeled scales, arranged in a single row; two complete rows of circumorbital scales separating enlarged supraorbital scale from supraorbital semicircles; 2 elongated, strongly overlapping superciliaries, anterior one much larger than posterior one, followed posteriorly by 3 to 4 roundish to squarish scales of moderate size; 2 to 3 rows of small keeled scales extending between enlarged supraorbitals and superciliaries; parietal depression shallow; interparietal scale well developed, 1.7 x 1.2 mm (length x width), surrounded by scales of moderate size; 1 scale present between interparietal and supraorbital semicircles; canthal ridge distinct, composed of 3 large (second largest) and 4 small anterior canthal scales, posteriormost canthal scale divided on left side; 8 scales present between second canthals; 11 scales present between posterior canthals; 41 (right)– 41 (left) mostly keeled loreal scales in a maximum of 6 horizontal rows; 4 to 6 keeled subocular scales arranged in a single row, one scale horizontally divided on right side; 7 (right)– 6 (left) supralabials to level below center of eye; 1 subocular in contact with 1 supralabial; ear opening 0.5 x 1.1 mm (length x height); mental distinctly wider than long, completely divided medially, bordered posteriorly by 4 postmentals, outer ones moderately larger than median ones; 6 infralabials to level below center of eye; no greatly enlarged sublabials on each side; keeled granular scales present on chin and throat; dewlap large, extending from level below anterior margin of eye to level of chest; 8–9 horizontal gorgetal-sternal rows with 8–16 scales per row; modal number of marginal pairs 2–4; dorsum of body with strongly keeled, subimbricate, non-mucronate scales; about 14 medial rows slightly to moderately enlarged; largest dorsal scales about 0.48 x 0.39 mm (length x width); about 24 medial dorsal scales in one head length; about 37 medial dorsal scales between levels of axilla and groin; lateral scales keeled, granular and more or less homogeneous in size, average size 0.25 mm in diameter; ventrals at midbody strongly keeled, imbricate, mucronate, about 0.55 x 0.40 mm (length x width); about 34 medial ventral scales in one head length; about 40 medial ventral scales between levels of axilla and groin; 106 scales around midbody; all caudal scales keeled; caudal middorsal scales slightly enlarged, not forming a crest; lateral caudal scales without whorls of enlarged scales, although an indistinct division in segments is discernible; a pair of greatly enlarged postcloacal scales present, about 0.9 mm wide; no tube-like axillary pocket present; scales on dorsal surface of forelimb weakly keeled; digital pads dilated, dilated pad about 3 times width of non-dilated distal phalanx; distal phalanx narrower than and raised from dilated pad; 22 lamellae under phalanges II–IV of Toe IV of hind limbs; 7 (right)–6 (left) scales under distal phalanx of Toe IV of hind limbs.

Coloration after eleven months preservation in 70% ethanol was recorded as follows: Dorsal surfaces of head, body, limbs, and tail Drab (19); eye region Grayish Horn Color (268); ventral surfaces of head and body Pale Buff (1); ventral surfaces of limbs and tail Pale Pinkish Buff (3); finger and toe pads Drab (19); anterior portion of dewlap Salmon Color (251) grading into Pale Buff (1) on posterior portion.

Variation. The paratypes agree well with the holotype in general appearance, morphometrics and scalation (see Table 16). Variation was evident in some scalation characters as follows: The number of slightly to moderately enlarged dorsal scale rows varies from 12 to 17. All but one specimen have a single elongate prenasal. Suboculars in contact with supralabials (1–4 suboculars in contact with 1–5 supralabials) in all specimens examined. Of 14 individuals, the longest toe of adpressed hind leg reaching to a point between ear opening and eye in 14.3%, to posterior border of eye in 50.0%, to mideye in 28.6%, and to anterior border of eye in 7.1%. All males have a pair of greatly enlarged postcloacal scales. For variation in selected scalation and morphometric characters see Table 10 View TABLE 10 .

The coloration in life of an adult male from near Huatulco ( SMF 96263 View Materials ) was recorded as follows: Dorsal ground color Cinnamon Drab (50) with Raw Umber (280) chevrons and a Brownish Olive (276) interorbital bar; lateral stripes Tawny Olive (17) edged above and below by series of Hazel (26) streaks; dorsal surface of limbs and tail Drab (19) with Buff (15) bands; ventral surfaces of body, limbs and tail Pale Buff (1) with Burnt Sienna mottling on ventral surface of head; dewlap Pinkish Flesh Color (253) with Pale Buff (1) gorgetals and Pale Pinkish Buff (3) marginal; iris Raw Umber (22). The coloration in life of the dewlap of an adult male from Puerto Escondido ( SMF 96266 View Materials ) was recorded as follows: Dewlap ground color Peach Red (70) with Chamois (84) gorgetals and marginals.

The coloration in life of and adult female from near Huatulco ( IBH 26560 View Materials ) was recorded as follows: Dorsal ground color Drab (19) with Yellow Ocher (14) middorsal stripe and a Clay Color (18) interorbital bar; dorsal surface of limbs Amber (51) with faint Salmon Color (83) grading into Cinnamon-Drab (50) distally; ventral surface of limbs and tail Tawny Olive; dewlap Scarlet (69) with Pale Buff (1) gorgetals and Chamois (84) marginal; iris Burnt Sienna (38).

The completely everted hemipenis of SMF 93842 View Materials ( Fig. 83 View FIGURE 83 ) is a small, slightly bilobate organ; sulcus spermaticus bordered by well developed sulcal lips and opening into two apical fields void of ornamentation, one on each lobe; a finger-like asulcate processus and an indistinct asulcate ridge present; no surface ornamentation discernible.

Etymology. The name immaculogularis   is a compound adjective derived from immaculosus (Latin for not spotted) and gula (Latin for throat) referring to male dewlap that lacks pale spots around the gorgetals, a diagnostic character to distinguish Anolis immaculogularis   from its supposed closest relative, A. boulengerianus   .

Natural History Notes: Around Huatulco and Puerto Escondido we encountered A. immaculogularis   mostly in forest edge situations and in open, bushy forest habitats; here most specimens were found while these were sleeping on branches and leaves at 0.4 to 2.0 m above the ground.

Geographic Distribution and Conservation. As currently known, Anolis immaculogularis   is restricted to the Pacific versant of the Mexican State of Oaxaca from about the town of Huatulco to at least the region of Puerto Escondido at elevations between 10 and 230 masl ( Fig. 76 View FIGURE 76 ). Given its usual abundance wherever this species occurs, it seems justified to classify A. immaculogularis   as Least Concern based on the IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria ( IUCN 2012).

SMF

Forschungsinstitut und Natur-Museum Senckenberg

IBH

Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Instituto de Biologia

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Chordata

Class

Reptilia

Order

Squamata

Family

Dactyloidae

Genus

Anolis