Anolis macrinii Smith 1968
Köhler, Gunther, Pérez, Raúl Gómez Trejo, Petersen, Claus Bo P., Méndez, Fausto R. & Cruz, De La, 2014, A revision of the Mexican Anolis (Reptilia, Squamata, Dactyloidae) from the Pacific versant west of the Isthmus de Tehuantepec in the states of Oaxaca, Guerrero, and Puebla, with the description of six new species, Zootaxa 3862 (1), pp. 1-210: 181-190
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|Anolis macrinii Smith 1968|
Anolis macrinii Smith 1968: 143 ; type locality: “Cafetal Santa Hedvigis, Pochutla, Oaxaca,” Mexico. Holotype: MCZ 46202 View Materials . Fitch & Henderson 1973, 1976, Smith & Smith 1976, Lieb 1981, Gorman et al. 1984, Flores-Villela 1993, Flores-Villela & Gerez 1994, Lieb 1995, Liner 2000, Lieb 2001, Liner 2007, Fläschendräger & Wijffels 2009, Urbina-Cardona & Flores- Villela 2010, Wilson & Townsend 2010, Köhler et al. 2013 a,b, Wilson et al. 2013, Köhler 2014, Köhler et al. 2014
Norops macrinii: Savage & Guyer 1989 , Liner 2000, Nicholson 2002, Nicholson et al. 2012
Diagnosis. A large species (SVL in largest male 95.0 mm, largest female 96.0 mm) of the genus Anolis (sensu Poe 2004) that differs from all Mexican and Central American anoles by having a combination of (1) smooth to weakly keeled ventral scales; (2) 2–8 moderately to greatly enlarged supraoculars, arranged in 2–3 rows; (3) 2–6 rows of slightly to moderately enlarged dorsal scales that are smaller than ventral scales; (4) short hind legs, longest toe of adpressed hind leg usually reaching usually to level of ear opening, occasionally to posterior margin of eye, ratio shank length/SVL 0.22–0.25; (5) prenasal divided; and (6) a large orange dewlap in males and a moderate-sized brownish-orange dewlap in females.
Description. Anolis macrinii is a large anole (maximum recorded SVL 95.0 mm in males, 96.0 mm in females); dorsal head scales in internasal region mostly keeled, other dorsal head scales smooth, rugose or tuberculate; moderately deep prefrontal depression present, parietal depression absent; 5–7 postrostrals; anterior nasal divided, the lower scale in contact with rostral and first supralabial; 6–8 internasals; canthal ridge sharply defined; scales comprising supraorbital semicircles weakly keeled (especially anterior ones whereas posterior ones smooth or with rounded keel), largest scale in semicircles larger than largest supraocular scale; supraorbital semicircles well defined; usually a single scale separating supraorbital semicircles at narrowest point, two scalesseparating supraorbital semicircles at narrowest point in one specimen ( ENS 12012 View Materials ), narrowly in contact in two specimens (MCZ R-46202, UIMNH 78762); 0–3 scales separating supraorbital semicircles and interparietal at narrowest point; interparietal well defined, greatly enlarged relative to adjacent scales, surrounded by scales of moderate size, longer than wide, usually about the same size as ear opening; 2–8 moderately to greatly enlarged supraoculars; enlarged supraoculars usually separated from supraorbital semicircles by a complete row of small scales, occasionally these scales narrowly in contact (e.g., narrowly in contact on one side in IBH 26580 View Materials ); 2–3 rows of small scales between enlarged supraoculars and superciliaries; 2–3 elongate superciliaries, anterior one longest, followed posteriorly by a series of 4–5 squarish, keeled scales of moderate size; 3–4 enlarged canthals; 6–9 scales between second canthals; 6–11 scales present between posterior canthals; loreal region slightly concave, 24–41 mostly keeled (some smooth or rugose) loreal scales in a maximum of 5–7 horizontal rows; 6–9 supralabials to level below center of eye; suboculars smooth, tuberculate, or keeled, in broad contact with supralabials (1–3 suboculars in contact with 1–4 supralabials); ear opening vertically oval; scales anterior to ear opening keeled granulars, slightly larger than those posterior to ear opening; 6–10 infralabials to level below center of eye; usually 4, occasionally 5 or 6 postmentals, outer pair at least four times larger than adjacent median postmental scales ( Figs. 5c,d View FIGURE 5 ); 0–3 (usually 2) enlarged sublabials in contact with infralabials on each side; keeled granular scales present on chin and throat; male dewlap very large, size 987, 1255 and 1463 mm 2, respectively, in three adult males ( SMF 96208 View Materials , 96388, 96387), extending well onto venter; female dewlap of moderate size, size 227 and 342 mm 2, respectively, in two adult females ( SMF 96210 View Materials , IBH 26577 View Materials ), extending onto chest; 9–11 horizontal gorgetal-sternal rows with 28–37 scales per row; modal number of marginal pairs 4–5; a nuchal crest and a dorsal ridge present in males; 2–6 middorsal scale rows slightly enlarged, weakly keeled, dorsal scales lateral to middorsal series gradually larger than granular lateral scales; no enlarged scales scattered among granular laterals in adults, but such scales present in the two juveniles (SVL 50–59 mm; 63–85 dorsal scales along vertebral midline between levels of axilla and groin in males, 65–87 in females; 38–58 dorsal scales along vertebral midline contained in one head length in males, 38–52 in females; ventral scales on midsection slightly larger than largest dorsal scales; scales on midventer smooth or weakly keeled, subimbricate to imbricate with rounded posterior margins; 62–78 ventral scales along midventral line between levels of axilla and groin in males, 59–78 in females; 40–64 ventral scales contained in one head length in males, 34–58 in females; 134–162 scales around midbody in males, 132–158 in females; tube-like axillary pocket absent; precloacal scales not keeled; males with 2–4 moderately to greatly enlarged postcloacal scales; tail laterally compressed in cross section, tail height/tail width 1.04–1.64 in males, 1.26–1.52 in females; basal subcaudal scales smooth or weakly keeled; lateral caudal scales keeled, homogeneous, although an indistinct division in segments is discernible; dorsomedial caudal scale row enlarged, keeled, not forming a crest; scales on anterodorsal surface of brachium and on dorsal surface of antebrachium keeled, unicarinate; 31–41 subdigital lamellae on Phalanges II–IV of Toe IV of hind limbs; 7–10 subdigital lamellae on distal phalanx of Toe IV of hind limbs; digital pads dilated, slightly more than three times the width of distal phalanx; in the twelve newly collected specimens, the longest toe of the adpressed hind leg reaching usually to level of ear opening, occasionally to posterior margin of eye. For variation in selected scalation and morphometric characters see Table 13 View TABLE 13 .
The coloration in life of an adult male ( SMF 96208 View Materials ; Fig. 151a View FIGURE 151 ) was recorded as follows: Dorsal ground color Olive Yellow (117) with Greenish Olive (125) and Dark Brownish Olive (127) splotches and streaks; a Medium Lime Green (114) ring around eye; dorsal surface of tail Olive Yellow (117) with Army Brown (46) bands and grading into Vandyke Brown (282) toward tip; dewlap Light Chrome Orange (76) with a suffusion of Buff (15) and a Pale Neutral Gray (296) basal blotch; ventral surface of head Pale Greenish Yellow (86) with Olive Clay Color (85) stipples; ventral surfaces of body and limbs Chamois (84); ventral surface of tail Trogon Yellow (81) with Olive Clay Color (85) stipples and grading into Vandyke Brown (282) towards tip; iris Brick Red (36).
The coloration in life of an adult female ( SMF 96207 View Materials ) was recorded as follows: Dorsal ground color Lime Green (116) with a suffusion of Clay Color (18) middorsally and with oblique rows of Cyan White (155) splotches; dewlap Mars Brown (25) with Chamois (84) scales; a Medium Paris White (140) ring around eye; ventral surface of head Pale Lime Green (112) with suffusions of Olive Yellow (117); ventral surfaces of body, limbs, and tail Pale Buff (1); iris Brick Red (36).
The coloration in life of a juvenile female ( SMF 96209 View Materials ; Fig. 151e View FIGURE 151 ) was recorded as follows: Dorsal ground color Olive Clay Color (85) with Pale Greenish White (97) scattered scales and with a diffuse Raw Umber (22) reticulum; dorsal surface of tail Raw Umber (22) with Sepia (279) bands; a Greenish Glaucous (271) ring around eye; dewlap Dark Salmon Color (252) with Warm Buff (4) gorgetals and marginals; ventral surfaces of head, body, and limbs Pale Pinkish Buff (3); ventral head suffused with Buff (5); Mikado Brown (42) lip bars partially reach onto ventral portion of head; iris Chestnut (30).
Whereas the majority of specimens of Anolis macrinii have a more or less uniformly colored dorsum, ENS 12012 View Materials (MZFC uncatalogued) and SMF 96648 View Materials ( Fig. 151f View FIGURE 151 ) have distinct dark broad bands running transversely across the dorsal and lateral surfaces of the body.
The completely everted hemipenis of SMF 96387 View Materials ( Fig. 156 View FIGURE 156 ) is a small, slightly bilobate organ; lobes weakly developed; sulcus spermaticus bordered by well developed sulcal lips and opening into a broad concave area on
apex, somewhat divided medially; a well developed asulcate ridge and a small asulcate processus present; asulcate side of apex strongly calyculate; asulcate ridge and truncus with transverse folds.
Natural History Notes: The habitat of Anolis macrinii in the vicinity of Santiago La Galera is mostly semideciduous forest but we found some individuals also on trees within shaded coffee plantations. The specimens we collected were perched mostly on bushes and small trees, 100–250 cm above the ground. Two individuals were found at night, the others during daytime. Those discovered during the day were all awake, usually motionless, and very well camouflaged. One of the two specimens encountered sleeping at night was a subadult male ( IBH 26580 View Materials ) that was on a branch of a bush about 150 cm above the ground. The other was an adult female that was sleeping on a coffee leaf with the head pointing up toward the main branch. At midday, one juvenile was encountered sitting head down on one of the main vertical branches of a coffee plant. Analysis of the fecal droppings revealed remains of Caelifera, Coleoptera , and Heteroptera .
Geographic Distribution and Conservation. As currently known, Anolis macrinii is restricted to the coffee growing region and forested hills north of the city of San Pedro Pochutla in the southern central portion of the Mexican State of Oaxaca at elevations between 1025 and 1370 masl ( Fig. 158 View FIGURE 158 ). On the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, Anolis macrinii is listed as Least Concern and the population trend is given as stable ( IUCN, 2012). Although we wonder who has the data to support this supposed population trend, given that so few specimens are known to science, we would agree that this species was not uncommon in the surroundings of Santiago La Galera, as evidenced by the seven individuals we encountered during three days of search. On the other hand, this species is given a Conservation Status Score of 3 by Wilson and Townsend (2010), which is the highest level of conservation concern, essentially the opposite of the IUCN determination. It indicates restriction to a single country, physiographic region, and vegetation zone. More fieldwork is needed in order to get a better understanding of the population size and the actual geographic distribution of this species. On the national level, A. macrinii is in the category “special protection” (Pr) by NOM-059-SEMARNAT- 2008, the lowest category (Diario Oficial de la Federación, 2010).
Specimens examined ⎯ Mexico: Oaxaca: Cafetal Santa Hedvigis near Pochutla: MCZ R- 46202, UIMNH 78762; Carretera Pochutla- San José Pacífico: ENS 12012 View Materials , 12022 (MZFC uncatalogued); Copalita: SMF 96209 View Materials ; road to Molino de Piedra Juquilita: MZFC 22631; Pluma Hidalgo: MZFC 16565; near Pluma Hidalgo: SMF 96387 View Materials , SMF 96720 View Materials –21; Río Eureka, Pluma Hidalgo: MZFC 22636; Santiago la Galera: IBH 26577 View Materials , 26580, 26583; SMF 96207 View Materials , 96210; Sierra Madre del Sur, Santiago La Galera: MZFC 16425; Taquería Santiaguita: SMF 96208 View Materials ; Tierra Blanca: SMF 96722 View Materials ; near Tierra Blanca: SMF 96388 View Materials ; Carretera Pochutla-Oaxaca:UTAR-52813; 41.4 km S of San Miguel Suchixtepec [by Mexico Hwy. 175]: MVZ 165249.
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Taxonomy of the Pacific versant Mexican anoles related to Anolis sericeus Hallowell 1856
In 1856, Hallowell described the new species Anolis sericeus based on a specimen in the ANSP collection from “El Euceros le Jalapa, Mexico.” Barbour (1934: 149) corrected the type locality to “El Encero de Jalapa, Vera Cruz, Mexico.” According to Barbour (1934) and Stuart (1963), the holotype of A. sericeus is lost. Günther (1859) named A. sallaei based on an adult female specimen (now BMNH 19188.8.131.52) and gave the type locality as “Central America.” However, Stuart (1955: 25), based on “correspondence with Dr. Parker of the British Museum,” stated that the holotype of sallaei “almost certainly originated from Veracruz, probably the Jalapa region.” In 1873, Bocourt described Anolis jacobi based on an adult male specimen (now MNHN 2406) from “ Veracruz.” Boulenger (1885) placed A. jacobi in the synonymy of A. sallaei . Ruthven (1933) described Anolis kidderi based on an adult male specimen ( MCZ 72851 View Materials ) from “quinta at Merida, Yucatan.” In 1940, Ahl described the new subspecies Anolis ustus wellbornae based on an adult male ( ZMB 35710 View Materials ) from “ San Salvador, El Salvador.” Köhler and Vesely (2010) recognized three species of anoles related to A. sericeus , readily differentiated by hemipenial morphology and dewlap size in both sexes, as well as in the mean values of several scalation characters. Our specimens of sericeus -like anoles from the Pacific versant of Mexico agree well with the definition and description of A. unilobatus provided by Köhler and Vesely (2010) and we therefore assign our specimens to this species.
|Anolis macrinii ♂ 10 ♀ 12|
|TL / SVL||males||1.91–2.00 (1.96±0.04)|
|VDT / HDT||males||1.04–1.64 (1.37±0.21)|
|AGD / SVL||males||0.38–0.42 (0.40±0.02)|
|HL / SVL||males||0.27–0.31 (0.28±0.01)|
|HL / HW||males||1.59–1.82 (1.73±0.08)|
|SL / SVL||males||0.12–0.14 (0.13±0.01)|
|SL / HL||males||0.45–0.49 (0.47±0.02)|
|ShL / SVL||males||0.22–0.25 (0.24±0.01)|
|ShL / HL||males||0.71–0.92 (0.85±0.06)|
|subdigital lamellae on Phalanges II–IV of Toe IV||31–41 (35.6±2.5)|
|subdigital lamellae on distal phalanx of Toe IV number of scales between SS||7–10 (8.6±0.8) 0–2 (1.0±0.4)|
|number of scales between IP and SS||0–3 (1.5±0.7)|
|number of scales between SO and SPL||0|
|number of SPL to level below center of eye||6–9 (7.9±0.6)|
|number of IFL to level below center of eye||6–10 (8.0±0.7)|
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