Anolis omiltemanus Davis 1954

Köhler, Gunther, Pérez, Raúl Gómez Trejo, Petersen, Claus Bo P., Méndez, Fausto R. & Cruz, De La, 2014, A revision of the Mexican Anolis (Reptilia, Squamata, Dactyloidae) from the Pacific versant west of the Isthmus de Tehuantepec in the states of Oaxaca, Guerrero, and Puebla, with the description of six new species, Zootaxa 3862 (1), pp. 1-210: 168-174

publication ID

http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.3862.1.1

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:3FA375FE-E4E0-4509-BE02-EE5E786B07C6

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/8A288798-FF67-E794-7EC3-FF61FCD6C221

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Felipe

scientific name

Anolis omiltemanus Davis 1954
status

 

Anolis omiltemanus Davis 1954  

Figs. 137–142 View FIGURE 137 View FIGURE 138 View FIGURE 139 View FIGURE 140 View FIGURE 141 View FIGURE 142

Anolis omiltemanus Davis 1954: 2   ; type locality: “two miles west of Omiltemi, 7800 ft., Guerrero.” Holotype: TCWC 10278 (examined by the authors). Etheridge 1959, Davis & Dixon 1961, Duellman 1961, Smith et al. 1964, Duellman 1965, Smith & Taylor 1966, Fitch 1970, Smith 1972, Smith et al. 1972, Fitch & Henderson 1973, Smith & Smith 1976, Lieb 1981, Gorman et al. 1984, Buth et al. 1985, Saldaña de la Riva & Pérez-Ramos 1987, Muñoz-Alonso 1988, Flores-Villela & Muñoz-Alonso 1990, Muñoz-Alonso & Flores-Villela 1990, Flores-Villela 1993, Flores-Villela & Muñoz-Alonso 1993, Flores-Villela & Gerez 1994, Lieb 1995, Pérez-Ramos et al. 2000, Lieb 2001, Liner 2007, Fläschendräger & Wijffels 2009, Flores-Villela et al. 2010, Urbina-Cardona & Flores-Villela 2010, Wilson & Townsend 2010, Köhler et al. 2013 a, Wilson et al. 2013, Köhler 2014, Köhler et al. 2014

Norops omiltemanus: Savage & Guyer 1989   , Nicholson 2002, Nicholson et al. 2012

Diagnosis. A small species (SVL in largest male 47.0 mm, largest female 48.0 mm) of the genus Anolis (sensu Poe 2004)   that differs from all other Mexican and Central American congeners except A. dunni   , A. gadovii   , A. liogaster   , and A. peucephilus   by having (1) smooth ventral scales; (2) an oval patch of usually three greatly enlarged supraorbital scales; (3) a pair of greatly enlarged postcloacal scales in males. Anolis omiltemanus   differs from A. dunni   and A. gadovii   by having 10–15 rows of dorsal scales moderately enlarged (vs. the middorsal scales not or only 2–4 rows slightly enlarged in A. dunni   and A. gadovii   ). It further differs from A. dunni   by having a uniform orange yellow male dewlap (vs. pinkish to orange red male dewlap with semicircular pale streaks and blotches in A. dunni   ). It also differs from A. gadovii   by the absence of a bold reticulated body pattern (vs. such a pattern present in A. gadovii   ). Anolis omiltemanus   differs from A. liogaster   by having shorter hind legs with the longest toe of adpressed hind leg reaching to level of ear opening or to a point between shoulder and ear opening, ratio ShL/ SVL 0.18–0.23 (vs. usually to a point between posterior and anterior margin of eye or occasionally to a point between ear opening and eye in A. liogaster   ; ratio ShL/SVL 0.24–0.30), usually two pairs of greatly enlarged sublabial scales in contact with infralabial scales (vs. usually a single pair in A. liogaster   ), and an orange yellow male dewlap (vs. pink to purple in A. liogaster   ), as well as in the number of loreal scale rows (usually four, occasionally five, exceptionally three, in A. omiltemanus   vs. commonly four or five, occasionally six, in A. liogaster   ) and in the number of scales between interparietal and supraorbital semicircles (usually one, commonly two, exceptionally zero, in A. omiltemanus   vs. usually two, commonly one, occasionally three, in A. liogaster   ). Females of A. omiltemanus   have a very small dirty white dewlap, whereas those of A. liogaster   have a very small to small pink dewlap. In external morphology, A. omiltemanus   is most similar to A. peucephilus   from which it differs by having slightly longer hind legs with the longest toe of adpressed hind leg reaching usually to ear opening, occasionally to slightly beyond ear opening or to a point between shoulder and ear opening (vs. to a point between levels of axilla and ear opening in A. peucephilus   ), a slightly smaller dewlap in females, in largest female about 41 mm 2 (vs. to 64 mm 2 in A. peucephilus   ), the circumnasal separated from the first supralabial by the presence of a subnasal (the circumnasal usually in contact with the first supralabial in A. peucephilus   ), and 6–7 internasal scales (vs. 4–6 in A. peucephilus   ). Furthermore, A. omiltemanus   differs from A. peucephilus   in hemipenial morphology (a finger-like processus on asulcate side in A. omiltemanus   vs. no such processus in A. peucephilus   ).

Description. Anolis omiltemanus   is a small anole (maximum recorded SVL 47.0 mm in males, 48.0 mm in females); dorsal head scales in internasal region rugose or keeled, other dorsal head scales smooth or rugose; moderately deep prefrontal depression present, shallow parietal depression; 4–6 postrostrals; anterior nasal usually single, occasionally divided, the lower scale in contact with rostral and first supralabial or, exceptionally, only with rostral scale; usually 6, commonly 7, exceptionally 4, internasals; canthal ridge sharply defined; scales comprising supraorbital semicircles well defined, posterior ones smooth, anterior ones weakly keeled, largest scale in semicircles subequal or larger than largest supraocular scale; supraorbital semicircles usually broadly in contact; 0–2 scales separating supraorbital semicircles and interparietal at narrowest point; interparietal well defined, greatly enlarged relative to adjacent scales, surrounded by scales of moderate size, longer than wide, usually about the same size as ear opening; usually 3–4 greatly enlarged supraoculars arranged in a single row; enlarged supraoculars separated from supraorbital semicircles by a complete row of small scales, or these scales narrowly in contact; 1–2 rows of granular scales between enlarged supraoculars and superciliaries; 2–3 elongate superciliaries, anterior one longest, followed posteriorly by a series of 4–5 rounded or squarish scales of moderate size; 3–4 enlarged canthals; 4–7 scales between second canthals; 5–9 scales present between posterior canthals; loreal region slightly concave, 14–25 mostly keeled (some smooth or rugose) loreal scales in a maximum of 3–5 (usually 4) horizontal rows; 6–8 supralabials to level below center of eye; suboculars keeled, in broad contact with supralabials (2–5 suboculars in contact with 2–5 supralabials); ear opening vertically oval, oriented slightly obliquely; scales anterior to ear opening granulars, twice as large than those posterior to ear opening; 5–9 infralabials to level below center of eye; 3–6 postmentals (usually 4), outer pair at least four times larger than adjacent median postmental scales; usually two, occasionally one or three, enlarged sublabials in contact with infralabials on each side; faintly keeled granular scales present on chin and throat; male dewlap moderate-sized (150 and 139 mm 2, respectively, in two adult males, SMF 96226 View Materials , 96228) extending onto chest; 6–7 horizontal gorgetal-sternal rows with 8–16 scales per row; modal number of marginal pairs 2–4; female dewlap very small (28 and 41 mm 2, respectively, in two adult females, SMF 96227 View Materials , 96229); a nuchal crest and a dorsal ridge present in males; 10–15 middorsal scale rows slightly to moderately enlarged, two vertebral rows occasionally larger than adjacent rows (e.g., in MCZ R-78717) and usually a few smaller scales interspersed in enlarged rows; weakly to moderately keeled dorsal scales lateral to middorsal series gradually larger than granular lateral scales; usually a few enlarged scales scattered among granular laterals, or lateral scales more or less homogeneous; 43–62 dorsal scales along vertebral midline between levels of axilla and groin in males, 47–67 in females; 28–40 dorsal scales along vertebral midline contained in one head length in males, 26–42 in females; ventral scales on midsection about twice the size of largest dorsal scales; scales on midventer smooth, subimbricate to imbricate with rounded posterior margins, usually somewhat heterogeneous in size; 32–50 ventral scales along midventral line between levels of axilla and groin in males, 39–52 in females; 21–38 ventral scales contained in one head length in males, 20–30 in females; 94–124 scales around midbody in males, 94–114 in females; tube-like axillary pocket absent; precloacal scales smooth or weakly keeled; males with two greatly enlarged postcloacal scales; tail moderately compressed in cross section, tail height/ tail width 1.05–1.50 in males, 1.00– 1.50 in females; basal subcaudal scales smooth or weakly keeled; lateral caudal scales keeled, homogeneous, although an indistinct division in segments is discernible; dorsomedial caudal scale row slightly enlarged, keeled, not forming a crest; scales on anterodorsal surface of brachium and on dorsal surface of antebrachium weakly to strongly keeled, unicarinate; 21–26 subdigital lamellae on Phalanges II–IV of Toe IV of hind limbs; 5–7 subdigital lamellae on distal phalanx of Toe IV of hind limbs; digital pads dilated, about three times the width of distal phalanx; in all specimens examined, the longest toe of the adpressed hind leg reaching to level of ear opening or to a point between shoulder and ear opening. For variation in selected scalation and morphometric characters see Table 12 View TABLE 12 .

The coloration in life of an adult male of Anolis omiltemanus   ( SMF 96227 View Materials ) was recorded as follows: Dorsal ground color Mikado Brown (42) grading into Ground Cinnamon (270) and with Dark Brownish Olive (127) paravertebral blotches, edged with Cream White (52); a Drab (19) interorbital bar; iris Warm Sepia (40); ventral surface of head Pale Buff (1) with Dark Grayish Olive (275) stipples; ventral surface of body, limbs and tail Light Buff (2) with Drab (19) suffusions; dewlap Chrome Orange (74) grading into Light Chrome Orange (76) near gorgetal rows.

The coloration in life of an adult female of Anolis omiltemanus   ( SMF 96228 View Materials ) was recorded as follows: Dorsal ground color Antique Brown (24) grading into Clay Color (18) on flanks, with Drab (19) vertebral stripe bordered by a pair of Warm Sepia (40) lines, which are bordered by Pale Pinkish Buff (3) paravertebral stripes; interorbital bar Clay Color (18); ventral surface of head Light Buff (2) with suffusions of Light Orange Yellow (7); ventral surface of body, limbs and tail Light Buff (2) with suffusions of Light Flesh Color (250); Dewlap Pale Buff (1); iris Warm Sepia (40).

The completely everted hemipenis of SMF 96226 View Materials ( Fig. 142 View FIGURE 142 ) is a small, slightly bilobed organ; sulcus spermaticus bordered by weakly developed sulcal lips, opening into a large concave area at base of apex; a fingerlike processus bordered below by a weak ridge on asulcate side; asulcate side of apex grossly calyculate; apex with transverse folds.

Natural History Notes: The habitat of Anolis omiltemanus   at La Laguna is mostly pine forest with some scattered oak trees and with very little undergrowth. The pine trees are somewhat spaced allowing sunlight to reach the forest floor. We collected all ten specimens of A. omiltemanus   at night while they were sleeping on the periphery of pine tree branches, 200–500 cm above the ground. During a short visit in the afternoon a few days later, we did not observe any anoles at this site. Obviously, the anoles escaped observation either by perching too high on the trees or by moving to the side of the branch opposite to the position of us when approached by us. This species was said to be “found on the ground in leaf litter and in low shrubs of pine-oak and oak forests” (Flores- Villela and Muñoz-Alonso, 1990: 1). A similar statement is found in Flores-Villela and Muñoz-Alonso (1993: 431): “It lives mainly between 2,150 to 2,350 meters in the understory vegetation of oak forests, although some specimens were collected in pine-oak forest” (our translation). At least at La Laguna, A. omiltemanus   seems to be a strictly arboreal species with a strong affinity for pine trees. Placed on the ground, these anoles move in an awkward, clumsy manner. Its extremely short legs are reminiscent of anoles from the A. pentaprion   group, which are exclusively arboreal species ( Köhler, 2010). It is very likely that A. omiltemanus   is an arboreal pine forest specialist that prefers open pine forests with little undergrowth. This might explain why this species is rare or rarely recorded in the dense pine-oak forests in the vicinity of the village of Omiltemi ( Flores-Villela and Muñoz-Alonso, 1993). Among the ten individuals collected were six juveniles (SVL <33 mm), indicating that hatching events had taken place recently.

Geographic Distribution and Conservation. As currently known, Anolis omiltemanus   is restricted to the region of Omiltemi in the south-central portion of the Mexican State of Guerrero at elevations between 1890 and 2400 masl ( Fig. 111 View FIGURE 111 ). More field work is needed in order to obtain a better understanding of the population size and the actual geographic distribution of this species before the conservation status can be assessed   .

Specimens examined ⎯ Mexico: Guerrero: 15 mi W Asoleadero: UMMZ 130985; La Laguna near Omiltemi: IBH 26554 View Materials –57, 26559; SMF 96226 View Materials –30; 0.5–1.0 m S Omiltemi: UTA R-4408; 1.0 mi E Omiltemi: UTA R-6369; 2 mi W Omiltemi: MCZ R-78717, TCWC 10278-80; 1.5 km E Omiltemi, Chilpancingo de Los Bravo: MZFC 2825; Omiltemi, Barranca de Potrerillos, Chilpancingo de Los Bravo: MZFC 2826–27, 2829; Omiltemi, Chilpancingo de Los Bravo: MZFC 3066–67; Omiltemi, Cueva del Borrego, Chilpancingo de Los Bravo: MZFC 2813; Plan de Potrerillos, 2 km E Omiltemi, Chilpancingo de Los Bravo: MZFC 2814–15, 2830–31, 2833; Plan de Potrerillos, 2.5 km E Omiltemi, Chilpancingo de Los Bravo: MZFC 2828, 2832; 1 km E Omiltemi, 28 km W Chilpancingo: POE 3817 (MZFC uncatalogued); 21 km W Chilpancingo, road to Omiltemi: POE 3819, 3821, 3827, 3829 (MZFC uncatalogued); 38 km W Milpillas/Casa Verde: POE 3786–87, 3789–90 (MZFC uncatalogued); 14 km E Mazatlan: MVZ 106304–06; 4 mi W Mazatlán: TCWC 11386-87.

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Chordata

Class

Reptilia

Order

Squamata

Family

Dactyloidae

Genus

Anolis

Loc

Anolis omiltemanus Davis 1954

Köhler, Gunther, Pérez, Raúl Gómez Trejo, Petersen, Claus Bo P., Méndez, Fausto R. & Cruz, De La 2014
2014
Loc

Anolis omiltemanus

Davis, W. B. 1954: 2
1954