Anolis taylori Smith and Spieler 1945

Köhler, Gunther, Pérez, Raúl Gómez Trejo, Petersen, Claus Bo P., Méndez, Fausto R. & Cruz, De La, 2014, A revision of the Mexican Anolis (Reptilia, Squamata, Dactyloidae) from the Pacific versant west of the Isthmus de Tehuantepec in the states of Oaxaca, Guerrero, and Puebla, with the description of six new species, Zootaxa 3862 (1), pp. 1-210: 144-150

publication ID

http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.3862.1.1

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:3FA375FE-E4E0-4509-BE02-EE5E786B07C6

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/8A288798-FF4F-E7AC-7EC3-FF61FCD3C36A

treatment provided by

Felipe

scientific name

Anolis taylori Smith and Spieler 1945
status

 

Anolis taylori Smith and Spieler 1945  

Figs. 118–123 View FIGURE 118 View FIGURE 119 View FIGURE 120 View FIGURE 121 View FIGURE 122 View FIGURE 123

Anolis taylori Smith and Spieler 1945: 165   ; type locality: “in the hills about one mile north of Acapulco, Guerrero,” Mexico. Holotype: USNM 132358. Smith & Taylor 1950 a,b, Davis 1954, Etheridge 1959, Cochran 1961, Shelford 1963, Smith et al. 1964, Duellman 1965, Smith 1972, Smith et al. 1972, Fitch & Henderson 1973, Fitch 1976, Fitch & Henderson 1976, Fitch et al. 1976, Smith & Smith 1976, Lieb 1981, Fitch & Hillis 1984, Gorman et al. 1984, Flores-Villela 1993, Flores- Villela & Gerez 1994, Lieb 1995, Liner 2000, Pérez-Ramos et al. 2000, Lieb 2001, Poe 2004, Liner 2007, Fläschendräger & Wijffels 2009, Losos 2009, Urbina-Cardona & Flores-Villela 2010, Wilson & Townsend 2010, Köhler et al. 2013 a,b, Wilson et al. 2013, Köhler 2014, Köhler et al. 2014

Norops taylori: Savage & Guyer 1989   , Liner 2000, Nicholson 2002, Nicholson et al. 2012

Diagnosis. A moderate-sized to moderately large species (SVL in largest male 73.0 mm, largest female 58.0 mm) of the genus Anolis (sensu Poe 2004)   that differs from all other Mexican and Central American congeners except A. dunni   , A. gadovii   , A. liogaster   , A. omiltemanus   , and A. peucephilus   by having (1) smooth ventral scales; (2) an oval patch of usually three greatly enlarged supraorbital scales; (3) a pair of greatly enlarged postcloacal scales in males. Anolis taylori   differs from A. liogaster   , A. omiltemanus   , and A. peucephilus   by having the middorsal scales not or only 2-4 rows slightly enlarged (vs. 10–15 rows of dorsal scales moderately enlarged in A. liogaster   , A. omiltemanus   , and A. peucephilus   ) and by having a pinkish to orange red male dewlap with semicircular pale streaks and blotches (vs. uniform purple to pink in A. liogaster   , and uniform orange yellow in A. omiltemanus   and A. peucephilus   ). Also, A. taylori   has longer hind legs than A. omiltemanus   and A. peucephilus   with the longest toe of adpressed hind leg usually reaching to a point between ear and eye or to posterior border of eye, rarely to ear opening or to mideye (vs. to level of ear opening or to a point between shoulder and ear opening in A. omiltemanus   and A. peucephilus   ) and usually only a single pair of greatly enlarged sublabial scales in contact with infralabial scales (vs. usually two pairs in A. omiltemanus   and A. peucephilus   ). Anolis taylori   differs from A. gadovii   by having shorter hind legs with the longest toe of adpressed hind leg usually reaching to a point between ear and eye or to posterior border of eye, rarely to ear opening or to mideye (vs. to level of mideye or anterior border of eye in A. gadovii   ), absence of a bold reticulated body pattern (vs. such a pattern present in A. gadovii   ), and a pinkish to orange red male dewlap with semicircular pale streaks and blotches (vs. pink to purple in A. gadovii   ). Anolis taylori   differs from A. dunni   by exhibiting a bold color pattern consisting of contrasting white longitudinal body stripes in large males (vs. no such contrasting pattern present in A. dunni   ) and by having a red dewlap with bold bluish purple semicircular markings in adult males (vs. red or orange red male dewlap with yellow or whitish markings in A. dunni   ).

Description. Anolis taylori   is a moderate-sized–moderately large anole (maximum recorded SVL 73.0 mm in males, 58.0 mm in females); dorsal head scales in internasal region mostly strongly keeled, some rugose or weakly keeled; other dorsal head scales mostly smooth to rugose; moderately deep prefrontal depression present, shallow to moderate parietal depression; 5–7 postrostrals; anterior nasal usually single, occasionally divided, the lower scale in contact with rostral and first supralabial or, exceptionally, only with rostral scale; usually 7–8, exceptionally 9 internasals; canthal ridge sharply defined; scales comprising supraorbital semicircles well defined, with pronounced longitudinal ridge, largest scale in semicircles larger than largest supraocular scale; supraorbital semicircles broadly in contact; 0–3 scales separating supraorbital semicircles and interparietal at narrowest point; interparietal well defined, greatly enlarged relative to adjacent scales, surrounded by scales of small to moderate size, longer than wide, larger than ear opening; enlarged supraoculars separated from supraorbital semicircles by a complete row of small scales or circumorbital row incomplete with one or two enlarged supraoculars in contact with supraorbital semicircles; 3–4 rows of granular scales between enlarged supraoculars and superciliaries; 2–3 elongate superciliaries, anterior one longest, followed posteriorly by a series of 5–6 rounded or squarish keeled scales of moderate size; usually 3 enlarged canthals, the second canthal largest; 4–9 scales between second canthals; 6–12 scales present between posterior canthals; loreal region slightly concave, 19–42 mostly keeled (some smooth or rugose) loreal scales in a maximum of 4–6 (usually 5–6) horizontal rows; 6–9 supralabials to level below center of eye; suboculars keeled, in broad contact with supralabials (2–4 suboculars in contact with 2–4 supralabials); ear opening vertically oval, oriented slightly obliquely; scales anterior to ear opening smooth or keeled granulars, twice as large than those posterior to ear opening; 5–8 infralabials to level below center of eye; 4–7 (usually 4) postmentals, outer pair at least four times larger than adjacent median postmental scales; one to two enlarged sublabials in contact with infralabials on each side; faintly keeled granular scales present on chin and throat; male dewlap large extending from level below anterior margin of eye to level of chest; 10–12 horizontal gorgetal-sternal rows with 10–16 scales per row; modal number of marginal pairs 2–4; female dewlap absent or very small to small; a nuchal crest and a dorsal ridge present in males; scales on middorsum subimbricate, weakly keeled, with rounded posterior margins, grading into smaller granular lateral scales; 0–6 middorsal scale rows slightly to moderately enlarged, often two vertebral rows larger than adjacent rows; lateral scales more or less homogeneous; 69–101 dorsal scales along vertebral midline between levels of axilla and groin in males, 72–105 in females; 38–52 dorsal scales along vertebral midline contained in one head length in males, 36–54 in females; ventral scales on midsection about twice the size of largest dorsal scales; scales on midventer smooth, flat, subimbricate to imbricate with rounded posterior margins, slightly heterogeneous in size; 64–73 ventral scales along midventral line between levels of axilla and groin in males, 50–72 in females; 42–60 ventral scales contained in one head length in males, 28–46 in females; 164–188 scales around midbody in males, 150–168 in females; tube-like axillary pocket absent; precloacal scales smooth; males with two greatly enlarged postcloacal scales; tail moderately compressed in cross section, tail height/tail width 1.35–1.70 in males, 1.17–1.44 in females; basal subcaudal scales usually smooth, occasionally faintly keeled; lateral caudal scales keeled, homogeneous, although an indistinct division in segments is discernible; dorsal medial caudal scale row slightly enlarged, keeled, not forming a crest; scales on anterodorsal surface of brachium and on dorsal surface of antebrachium subimbricate to imbricate, weakly keeled, unicarinate; 25–32 subdigital lamellae on Phalanges II–IV of Toe IV of hind limbs; 6–9 subdigital lamellae on distal phalanx of Toe IV of hind limbs; digital pads dilated, 3 to 4 times the width of distal phalanx. In all specimens examined, the longest toe of the adpressed hind leg reaches to level of between beyond tympanum and anterior border of eye. For variation in selected scalation and morphometric characters see Table 12 View TABLE 12 .

The coloration in life of an adult male ( SMF 96269 View Materials ) from the Acapulco region was recorded as follows: Ground color of dorsal surfaces Drab (19) with paravertebral accumulation of Cinnamon Rufous (31); lateral stripe Cream White (52) edged with Brick Red (36); dorsolateral surface of tail Tawny Olive (17) with Drab (19) indistinct bands; dorsal surfaces of limbs and head with Cream White (52) molding and a narrow Tawny (60) interorbital bar; chin Drab Gray (256) with Smokey Gray (267) suffusions; venter Cream White (52) with a suffusion of Drab-Gray (256); ventral surface of limbs Cinnamon-Drab (259); ventral surface of tail Drab-Gray (256); dewlap Brick Red (36) with Lavender Blue (195) semicircular bands and gorgetals; iris Warm Sepia (40). The coloration in life of the dewlap of another adult male ( SMF 96271 View Materials ) from the Acapulco region was recorded as follows: Ground color Carmine (64) with an upper Dark Carmine (61) semicircle and a lower and bigger Lavender Blue (195) semicircles.

The coloration in life of an adult female ( SMF 96270 View Materials ; Fig. 119f View FIGURE 119 ) from the Acapulco region was recorded as follows: Dorsal ground color Sayal Brown (41) with Olive Horn Color (16) lateral stripe and indistinct Clay Color (18) chevrons and a Cinnamon (21) interorbital bar; dorsal surfaces of limbs Ground Cinnamon (270) with Robin Rufous (29) bars and blotches; dorsal and lateral surfaces of tail Raw Umber (22) with Burnt Umber (48) narrow bands; ventral surfaces of tail and limbs Cinnamon Drab (50); ventral surface of body Cram White; dewlap Crimson (62); iris Warm Sepia (40).

The completely everted hemipenis of SMF 96272 View Materials ( Fig. 123 View FIGURE 123 ) is a moderate-sized, bilobate organ; sulcus spermaticus bordered by well developed sulcal lips and opening into two apical fields void of ornamentation, one on each lobe; a low asulcate processus near tip of apex and a low asulcate ridge present; apex, except for apical fields, strongly calyculate; asulcate ridge and truncus with transverse folds.

Natural History Notes: We encountered Anolis taylori   mostly in forested and semiforested habitats such as the archaeological site of Palma Sola and in the Botanical Garden of Acapulco. The population density of A. taylori   in the Botanical Garden appeared to be quite high; in less than one hour we counted more than 30 individuals. These mostly perched head down on standing tree trunks. We did not observe signs for affinities to rocks in this species although big rocks and boulders were abundant in the species’ habitat in the Acapulco region. This somewhat contrasts the observations by Fitch and Henderson (1976) who classified this lizard as a rock anole.

Geographic Distribution and Conservation. As currently known, Anolis taylori   is restricted to the hills around the city of Acapulco on the Pacific versant in the southern central portion of the Mexican State of Guerrero at elevations between 250 and 330 masl ( Fig. 111 View FIGURE 111 ). Given its usual abundance wherever this species occurs, it seems justified to classify A. taylori   as Least Concern based on the IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria ( IUCN 2012).

Specimens examined ⎯ Mexico: Guerrero: 1 mi W Puerto Marquéz: KU 320902 View Materials –08; Acapulco: USNM 132358–61; near Acapulco: FMNH 116741–43, 116746–48, 116750, 116752, 116754–56, 116759, 116762–65, 116767, MCZ R-58225–26, UIMNH 20099, 20101–02, 20104, 20106; Acapulco, Jardin Botanico, 250 m: IBH 26597 View Materials , 26602–03, SMF 96268 View Materials –74; Acapulco, Zona Arqueológica Palma Sola, 330 m: IBH 26595 View Materials –96, 26598, 26604; 0.5 mi S Las Cruces: KU 320889 View Materials –93; 19.2 mi S Puerto Gallo, 1020 m: UMMZ 130984; 2 km E Río Santiago, 25 km NE Atoyac, 805 m: MVZ 106349–52.

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Chordata

Class

Reptilia

Order

Squamata

Family

Dactyloidae

Genus

Anolis

Loc

Anolis taylori Smith and Spieler 1945

Köhler, Gunther, Pérez, Raúl Gómez Trejo, Petersen, Claus Bo P., Méndez, Fausto R. & Cruz, De La 2014
2014
Loc

Anolis taylori

Smith, H. M. & Spieler, R. A. 1945: 165
1945