Pachycondyla sikorae, Fore, 1891

Rakotonirina, Jean Claude & Fisher, Brian L., 2013, Revision of the Pachycondyla sikorae species-group (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in Madagascar, Zootaxa 3683 (4), pp. 447-485 : 451-457

publication ID

https://doi.org/ 10.11646/zootaxa.3683.4.8

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:A7A91D16-85AD-40DB-9627-FD02101289A4

DOI

https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.6402245

persistent identifier

https://treatment.plazi.org/id/8931A65B-FFB7-4244-FF54-469CFA3EFDDD

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Pachycondyla sikorae
status

 

Synopsis of the taxonomic history of the P. sikorae species-group

Pachycondyla sikorae was first described as a subgenus ( Euponera ) of Ponera by Forel 1891: 127. The new subgenus Euponera was later raised to genus ( Emery, 1901: 46) and by 1911, included a heterogenous group of species placed in four subgenera: Euponera, Mesoponera, Brachyponera , and Trachymesopus ( Emery 1911: 79– 86). Brown in Bolton (1994) synonymized the genus as a junior synonym of Pachycondyla , which is where it remains today though molecular results suggest that Pachycondyla is paraphyletic ( Ward 2011; Schmidt 2013).

Detailed taxonomic history of Euponera modified from AntCat.org 2013:

Euponera Forel, 1891: 126 [as subgenus of Ponera ] Type-species: Ponera sikorae , by monotypy.

Euponera in Ponerinae , Ponerini : Emery, 1895: 767; Emery, 1911: 79 [subtribe Pachycondylini ]; Wheeler, 1915: 37; Arnold, 1915: 63; Forel, 1917: 237; Wheeler, 1922: 648; all subsequent authors.

Euponera as subgenus of Ponera: Forel, 1891: 126 ; Emery, 1895: 767.

Euponera as genus: Emery, 1901: 46; Emery, 1909: 364; Wheeler, 1910: 135; Emery, 1911: 79; Arnold, 1915: 63; Forel, 1917: 237; Gallardo, 1918: 64; Wheeler, 1922: 648; Borgmeier, 1923: 70; Clark, 1934: 30; Creighton, 1950: 44; Chapman & Capco, 1951: 63; Bernard, 1953: 189; Wheeler & Wheeler, 1985: 256; Dlussky & Fedoseeva, 1988: 78; Hölldobler & Wilson, 1990: 11.

Euponera as junior synonym of Pachycondyla: Brown , in Bolton, 1994: 164; Bolton, 2003: 166.

Checklist of the Malagasy P. s i k o r a e species-group

sikorae complex:

gorogota Rakotonirina and Fisher , sp. n.

haratsingy Rakotonirina and Fisher , sp. n.

ivolo Rakotonirina and Fisher , sp. n.

maeva Rakotonirina and Fisher , sp. n.

mialy Rakotonirina and Fisher , sp. n.

nosy Rakotonirina and Fisher , sp. n.

sikorae Forel 1891

vohitravo complex:

agnivo Rakotonirina and Fisher , sp. n.

antsiraka Rakotonirina and Fisher , sp. n.

daraina Rakotonirina and Fisher , sp. n.

rovana Rakotonirina and Fisher , sp. n.

tahary Rakotonirina and Fisher , sp. n.

vohitravo Rakotonirina and Fisher , sp. n.

zoro Rakotonirina and Fisher , sp. n.

Key to species of Malagasy P. sikorae species-group

The function of the key is primarily to identify workers, but can also identify ergatoid and winged queens to species as long as the shape of the mesosoma is not considered.

1. With head in full-face view, anterior margin of clypeus widely transverse and more or less straight, with weak median notch ( Fig. 2 View FIGURES 2 – 3 ) ( sikorae complex)............................................................................... 2

- With head in full-face view, anterior margin of clypeus generally convex or medially bluntly angulate; slight median notch may be present ( Fig. 3 View FIGURES 2 – 3 ) ( vohitravo complex)................................................................ 8

2. Posterior surface of petiole node covered with numerous slender hairs and abundant pubescence; anterior surface of third abdominal segment concave, forming a shallow cavity to lodge the posterior surface of the petiole ( Fig. 4 View FIGURES 4 – 5 )............... 3

- Posterior surface of petiole node convex and not covered with numerous slender hairs and abundant pubescence; anterior surface of the third abdominal segment straight, without shallow cavity to lodge the posterior surface of the petiole ( Fig. 5 View FIGURES 4 – 5 ).... 4

3. Lateral surface of head and petiole node smooth and shiny, with scattered piligerous punctures ( Fig. 6 View FIGURES 6 – 7 ) [known from queen specimen]........................................................................................ ivolo

- Lateral portion of head densely and finely reticulate-rugulose, sides of petiolar node densely and finely punctate ( Fig. 7 View FIGURES 6 – 7 )................................................................................................. haratsingy

4. With mesosoma in dorsal view, metanotal groove deeply impressed ( Fig. 8 View FIGURES 8 – 9 ); in lateral view the dorsal outline of mesosoma complex, at least with distinct convex mesonotum ( Figs 37 View FIGURES 37 – 39 , 46 View FIGURES 46 – 48 )................................................. 5

- With mesosoma in dorsal view, metanotal groove not impressed or absent ( Fig. 9 View FIGURES 8 – 9 ); in lateral view, the dorsal outline of mesosoma almost straight or slightly evenly convex, without breaks ( Figs 49, 51 View FIGURES 49 – 51 )....................................... 7

5. Petiole node anteroposteriorly flattened in profile ( Fig. 10 View FIGURES 10 – 11 ), in dorsal view its posterior margin medially notched; posterior margin of head slightly concave; antennal scape not surpassing the concave posterior cephalic margin ( Figs 38 View FIGURES 37 – 39 , 47 View FIGURES 46 – 48 ); mandible smooth between small punctures; tegument densely and finely reticulate-punctate ( Figs 37 View FIGURES 37 – 39 , 46 View FIGURES 46 – 48 )........................ 6

- Petiole node thick in profile ( Fig. 11 View FIGURES 10 – 11 ); in dorsal view, the posterior margin broadly convex; antennal scape surpassing the broadly convex posterior cephalic margin ( Fig. 59 View FIGURES 58 – 60 ); mandible striate-punctate; black species with mostly smooth and shiny tegument ( Fig. 58 View FIGURES 58 – 60 )................................................................................ sikorae

6. Posterolateral margin of propodeum bordered with broad lamellae which project as tubercles at about the level of propodeal spiracle; antennal scape and outer surface of each tibia covered with erect, slender hairs ( Fig. 12 View FIGURES 12 – 13 ); dorsum of head near the posterior margin and rest of body covered with numerous slender long hairs; posterior cephalic margin more or less straight................................................................................................... gorogota

- Posterolateral margin of propodeum bordered with narrow lamellae which form an obtuse angle at about the level of propodeal spiracle; antennal scape and outer surface of each tibia lacking erect, slender hairs ( Fig. 13 View FIGURES 12 – 13 ); dorsum of head and rest of body covered with few erect, slender hairs; posterior cephalic margin concave...................................... maeva

7. Smaller species (HW: 1.15, HL<1.5, WL: 1.78); eyes smaller, with seven to eight ommatidia; metanotal groove absent ( Fig. 14 View FIGURES 14 – 15 ); mesopleural suture lacking...................................................................... mialy

- Larger species (HW: 1.44, HL: 1.62, WL: 2.34); eyes larger, with 13 ommatidia; metanotal groove present as a dotted line ( Fig. 15 View FIGURES 14 – 15 ); mesopleural suture present........................................................................ nosy

8. Anterior surface of the third abdominal segment concave ( Fig. 16 View FIGURES 16 – 17 ), forming a shallow cavity to lodge the median portion of the posterior surface of petiole node..................................................................... agnivo

- Anterior surface of the third abdominal segment straight, not forming a shallow cavity to lodge the posterior surface of petiole node ( Fig. 17 View FIGURES 16 – 17 )........................................................................................ 9

9. Posterolateral margins of petiole node without a series of sharp teeth or tubercles ( Fig. 18 View FIGURES 18 – 19 ); dorsum of node not tubercuate.... 10

- Posterolateral margins of petiole node armed with a series of sharp teeth or tubercles ( Fig. 19 View FIGURES 18 – 19 ); dorsum of node tuberculate... 12

10. In dorsal view, petiole node almost twice as broad as long ( Fig. 20 View FIGURES 20 – 21 ); in lateral view, subpetiolar process simple with only an anterior triangular lobe ( Fig. 18 View FIGURES 18 – 19 ).................................................................... daraina

- In dorsal view, petiole nodenearly as broad as long ( Fig. 21 View FIGURES 20 – 21 ); in lateral view subpetiolar process with an anterior hook-like process and a posterior subtriangular process separated by a concavity ( Fig. 55 View FIGURES 55 – 57 )...................................... 11

11. Larger ant (HW: 1.22–1.32, WL: 1.85–2.05); mesopleuron and lower half of the side of propodeum mostly smooth and shiny with scattered small punctures in the center and fine rugulae at the junction of anepisternum and katepisternum and the lower portion of the metapleuron near the opening of the metapleural gland ( Fig. 22 View FIGURES 22 – 23 ).................................. zoro

- Smaller species (HW: 1.01–1.14, WL: 1.58–1.77); mesopleuron and lower half of the side of propodeum densely rugulose and superimposed with punctures or foveolae ( Fig. 23 View FIGURES 22 – 23 )...................................................... rovana

12. Second gastral (fourth abdominal) tergite punctate to sparsely punctuate; pubescence absent or reduced in abundance on first and second gastral segments, distance between two adjacent pubescences generally equal to or greater than the length of the pubescence itself ( Fig. 24 View FIGURES 24 – 25 )............................................................................. 13

- Second gastral (fourth abdominal) tergite densely punctate, with small punctures between larger ones; first and second gastral segments with abundant pubescence, distance between two adjacent pubescences always less than the length of the pubescence itself ( Fig. 25 View FIGURES 24 – 25 )................................................................................. vohitravo

13. Mesopleural suture distinctly continuous and narrowly impressed ( Fig. 26 View FIGURES 26 – 27 ); head densely and finely reticulate-rugulose or reticulate-punctate behind the level of eye; with head in full-face view, the lateral borders at the level of anterior margin of eye not strongly curving towards the base of mandibles ( Fig. 32 View FIGURES 31 – 33 ); in profile, distance between eyes and base of mandibles roughly three times or more than the maximum diameter of eye................................................. antsiraka

- Mesopleural suture indistinct, with broad and discontinuous concavities or impressions in this region, but no obvious suture ( Fig. 27 View FIGURES 26 – 27 ); head mostly smooth and shiny with faintly effaced reticulate-punctate sculpture behind the level of eyes; with head in full-face view, the lateral margins from the level of anterior margin of eye abruptly curving toward the base of mandibles ( Fig. 62 View FIGURES 61 – 63 ); in lateral view, distance between eye and base of mandible slightly less than twice the maximum diameter of eye................................................................................................... tahary

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Insecta

Order

Hymenoptera

Family

Formicidae

Genus

Pachycondyla

Loc

Pachycondyla sikorae

Rakotonirina, Jean Claude & Fisher, Brian L. 2013
2013
Loc

Euponera

Forel 1891: 126
1891
Loc

Ponera:

Forel 1891: 126
1891