Conostegia rufescens Naudin
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|Conostegia rufescens Naudin|
Conostegia rufescens Naudin, Ann. Sc. Nat. Bot. ser. 3 16: 108. 1850. Type: Jamaica. no date, W. Purdie s.n. ( Schnell (1996) cited holotype at P "fide Almeda pers. com." but annotated that of K as the holotype; isotypes: GH!, K!, fragment BR).
Conostegia formosa Macfad., Fl. Jamaica 2: 70. 1850; nom. inval.
Conostegia puberula Cogn., DC Monog. Phan. 7: 703. 1891. Type: NICARAGUA. Chontales: no date, B. Seemann 30 (lectotype: BM!, designated here; isolectotypes: BR, K!, LE, W). Additional syntype: Costa Rica. Naranjo, Wendland s.n. ( GOET).
Conostegia hotteana Urban & Ekman, Ark. Bot. 22a 17: 29. 1929. Type: Haiti. Massif de la Hotte, western group, Dame-Marie, Montagniac, 500 m, Ekman 10324 (holotype: S!; isotypes: A!, C, IJ, NY!, US!).
Conostegia affinis Urban, Arkiv. Bot. 22a 17: 29. 1929. Type: Haiti. Massif de la Hotte, western group, Jeremie, near La Source Chaude, E. Ekman 10264 (holotype: S!).
Shrubs to trees 1.5-20 m tall with tetragonal to terete slightly ridged stems that are usually densely covered with small brown dendritic trichomes sometimes intermixed with sessile stellate and stalked-stellate trichomes, sometimes glabrescent; the nodal line present (sometimes obscured by indument). Leaves of a pair equal to somewhat unequal in length. Petioles 0.4-5 cm, occasionally densely setose adaxially. Leaf blades 8-27 × 3-10.5 cm, 3-5 nerved or if plinerved, with the innermost diverging from the mid vein up to about 1 cm above the base in opposite or sub opposite or alternate fashion, elliptic, the base obtuse to acute and sometimes decurrent on the petiole, the apex acute, acuminate or short-caudate, the margin entire to denticulate, the adaxial foliar surface essentially glabrous, the abaxial surface densely or lightly furfuraceous or puberulent with mealy brown stellate or branching trichomes, sessile or short stipitate, thick bodied and short branched. Inflorescence a terminal panicle 5-23 cm branched well above the base but sometimes appearing branched at the base because of multiple inflorescences arising at opposing meristems at the terminal node and with the flowers frequently clustered at the end of the branches, accessory branches absent or present, the rachis pubsecent with brown stellate and branching trichomes, bracts early deciduous or absent, the bracteoles to 3 mm, deciduous. Pedicel 1-3 mm. Flowers 7-8(-12) merous, calyptrate. Floral buds 5.5-12.75 × 3-7 mm, broadly pyriform, the base and apex obtuse to acute, slightly constricted below the torus, the hypanthium 3.5-4.5 × 4-5 mm, ferrugineous. Petals 7-11 × 5-7.5 mm, white or pink, obovate, spreading, rounded-truncate to emarginate, glabrous. Stamens 20-28, 6-7 mm, slightly zygomorphic, the filaments 3.5-5.25 mm, white, anthers 2.75-3.5 × 0.5-0.75 mm, linear and often recurved, yellow or rarely pink or yellow with a pink tip, the base sagittate, somewhat laterally compressed, the pore ca. 0.1 mm, subterminal. Ovary 10-14 locular, inferior, apically glabrous and with a conspicuous collar around the style base. Style 4-7 mm long, straight or slightly bending just below the stigma, distance from the anthers to the stigma ca. -1.5-0 mm, horizontal ca. distance 0-2 mm; stigma capitate, 1.25-75 mm wide. Berry 9-15 × 9-15 mm, blue-black to purple. Seeds 0.5-0.7 mm long, obliquely pyramidal.
(Fig. 104 View Figure 104 ). In the mainland ranging from Nicaragua through Costa Rica and Panama to Colombia and Ecuador, in the Caribbean known from Dominican Republic, Jamaica, Haiti, and Puerto Rico, from sea level to 1700 m elevation.
Conostegia rufescens can be recognized by its dense but short indument of mainly small brown dendritic trichomes covering floral buds and veins on the abaxial leaf surface. This species is variable in habit, the amount of indument on the leaves and the shape of the leaf base. In Costa Rica for example, one can find shrubs to small trees in Braulio Carrillo National Park at 500 meters elevation with acute leaf bases and in the same park at 1500 meters tall trees with decurrent leaf bases. Conostegia rufescens can be easily confused with Conostegia centronioides and Conostegia rubiginosa on the basis of the rusty indument. The latter two species differ from Conostegia rufescens in their exserted styles. Schnell (1996) noted limited local flowering seasons and differentiation between population in flowering time due to local adaptation. Schnell (1996) also studied a population in Alto La Palma, Costa Rica, and noted brief and concentrated flowering peaks, more so than he observed in other species such as Conostegia macrantha , Conostegia montana , Conostegia oerstediana , and Conostegia rhodopetala . Lastly, Schnell (1996) noted the earlier flowering season of populations at lower elevations and a later flowering season for more higher elevation populations. Conostegia formosa Macfad. from Jamaica was considered by Schnell (1996) as conspecific with Conostegia rufescens based on Macfadyen’s description. Schnell (1996) argued that if Macfadyen’s treatment were accepted, Conostegia formosa would be the oldest name available.
HAITI (fide Schnell). Riviere Glace, Holdridge 2120 ( MICH, US).
JAMAICA. Portland: Vicinity of Moody's Gap , Britton 3392 ( NY) . Westmoreland: Copse Mt. Woods c. 1 mile southwest of Rat Trap, Proctor 21476 ( NY) .
PUERTO RICO. Luquillo: Northeastern Luquillo Mts. Rd. 191, Woodbury s.n. ( NY).
NICARAGUA (fide Schnell). Jinotega: Cordillera Isabelia, Macizos de Peñas Blancas, Neill 7180 ( GH). Matagalpa: N & NW sides of Cerro Musun above Salto Grande de Q. Negra, Río Bilampi, Neill 1797 ( MO). Zelaya: 20 km O de Awas Tingi, S. de Rio Wawa, Little and Delvis 23354 ( US).
COSTA RICA. Alajuela: La Palma de San Ramón, Brenes 4401, 5688, 6283, 16203 ( CR, NY); Cerro de "La Muralla" de San Ramón, Brenes 5688 ( NY); San Carlos, Fortuna, R. B. Arenal, Mundo Aventura, Rodríguez 8606, 8830 ( INB, NY); Villa Quesada, Cantón de San Carlos, Smith 2556 ( NY); 3.5 km west of Fortuna , 2.5 km northeast of New Volcan Arenal along sloping base, Taylor and Taylor 11625 ( NY); La Palma, Tonduz 12434 ( NY) . Cartago: P.N. Tapantí, sendero Oropéndula, ca. 10 mfrom river, Penneys and Blanco 1792 ( FLAS, NY) . Limón: Quebrada González, sendero Las Palmas, Kriebel 1422, 5314 ( INB, NY); 6 miles inland from mouth of Estrella River, Stork 4614 ( NY); Talamanca , Fila Carbon , Buena Vista , Finca Corredor Biologico , Valverde 13 ( CR, NY) . Puntarenas: Forested slopes east of Las Cruces and 5 to 6 km south of San Vito on and around the property of Mr. Robt. Wilson, Burger and Matta 4470 (F, NY); R.B. Monteverde, Cordillera de Tilaran , Pacific slope wet forest road to Continental divide, Haber 11514 ( INB, MO, NY) . San José: Tarrazú, San Lorenzo, Estribaciones sureste de cerro Toro, Estrada et al. 684 ( CR, NY); Límite del P. N. Braulio Carrillo, 2 Km después del peaje hacia Guápiles, Kriebel 1938 ( INB, NY); Pérez Zeledón, Río Nuevo, El Brujo, 0.5 km NO del Andaribel del Brujo, Rodríguez et al. 6974 ( INB, CR, NY); San Isidro de Dota , albergue Tinamú, Santamaría and Morales 813 ( INB, NY) .
PANAMA. Bocas del Toro: Cricamola Valley, Cooper 486 ( NY); Buena Vista Camp on Chiriqui trail, Cooper 581 ( NY); Along road towards Chiriquí Grande along trail leaving road, McPherson 12553 ( MO, NY) . Coclé: Vicinity of La Mesa, Croat 13325 (F, MO, NY); La Mesa, Gentry 5636 ( MO, NY); Vicinity of La Mesa above El Valle, Gentry 7427 ( MO, NY) . Veraguas: Along road on Pacific slope 1-3 km above Escuela Agricola Alto Piedra, Croat 25996 ( NY); Area between La Junta and Limón, 5 hours walk north of Alto Calvario, Folsom 5877 ( MO, NY) . Colón: Around Dos Bocas, Rio Fato valley , Pittier 4218 ( NY) .
COLOMBIA. Nariño: Espriella, Tumaco, Romero-Castañeda 2801 ( NY) . Pichincha: 20 km W of Santo Domingo de los Colorados, Cazalet 5110 ( NY) .
ECUADOR. Esmeraldas: Parroquia Mataje, Reserva Etnica Awá, Centro Mataje, Aulestia et al. 442 ( MO, NY, QCNE); Parroquia de Concepción, bank of Río Santiago, above Playa Rica, Mexia 8471 ( NY); Eloy Alfaro, Reserva Ecológica Cotacachi-Cayapas, Parroquia Luis Vargas Torres, Río Santiago, Estero Angostura, Tirado et al. 647 ( MO, NY, QCNE).
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