Syneucoila Liu and Engel, 2007

LIU, ZHIWEI, ENGEL, MICHAEL S. & GRIMALDI, DAVID A., 2007, Phylogeny and Geological History of the Cynipoid Wasps (Hymenoptera: Cynipoidea), American Museum Novitates 3583, pp. 1-48: 23-24

publication ID 10.1206/0003-0082(2007)3583[1:PAGHOT]2.0.CO;2

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scientific name

Syneucoila Liu and Engel

new genus

Syneucoila Liu and Engel   , new genus

TYPE SPECIES: Syneucoila magnifica Liu and Engel   , new species.

DIAGNOSIS: Typical eucoiline with postpetiolar metasomal terga fused but exhibiting a relatively shortened head (not elongate), possessing an anterior metepimeral impression, and with a well-developed subalar pit and subalar area. Additional features defining the genus include: broad metasubpleural depression anterior to metacoxal foramen present; metacoxa without setal patches; forewing with marginal cell closed; R1 complete and elongate, surpassing marginal cell apex; marginal ciliae of wing distinctly elongate along posterior margin of forewing.

ETYMOLOGY: The new genus-group name is a combination of syn - (Greek, meaning ‘‘together’’; a reference to the fused metasomal terga relative to other Cretaceous eucoilines) and Eucoila   , type genus of the subfamily. The name is feminine.

Syneucoila magnifica Liu and Engel   , new species figures 15 View Fig , 16 View Fig

DIAGNOSIS: As for the genus (see above).

DESCRIPTION: Female. Body length 0.73 mm; forewing length 0.65 mm. Body mostly dark brown; wings hyaline, without macula or band. Antenna cylindrical; pedicel almost spherical; F1 distinctly longer than F2; elongate placodeal sensilla distinct on at least distal flagellomeres. Frons, vertex, gena, and malar space glabrous; malar space with distinct sulcus; lower face somewhat elevated in upper part; gena not expanded behind compound eye; compound eye nearly three times longer than malar space. Lateral surface of pronotum glabrous. Mesoscutum curved dorsally in lateral view; mesoscutellum posteriorly sloped and dorsally with a central plate; mesopleuron glabrous, subalar pit well developed; mesopectus not protruding ventrally, mesocoxa directed vertically and not inserted on separate, oblique posterior area. Propodeum devoid of processes; lateral propodeal carina distinct. Wings hyaline, with sparse pubescence; all wing margins ciliate, ciliae particularly elongate along apical posterior margin of forewing. Forewing with marginal cell, triangular closed, about 2.5 times as long as wide; bulla in Sc+R 1 present; 2r-rs short, projecting straight posteriorly; areolet absent; Rs+M reduced, hardly traceable, apparently arising from posterior end of first free abscissa of M (5 basal vein). Metabasitarsus slightly more than one-half as long as combined lengths of second to fifth metatarsomeres; pretarsal claws simple, without basal lobe. Postpetiolar metasomal T2–4 fused. Male. Unknown.

TYPE MATERIAL: Female, AMNH NJ- 1075, Late Cretaceous (Turonian), White Oak Pit , Sayreville , Middlesex County, New Jersey; deposited in the Amber Fossil Collection , Division of Invertebrate Zoology , AMNH   .

ETYMOLOGY: The specific epithet is taken from the Latin word magnificus (meaning ‘‘splendid’’) and is a reference to the esthetic beauty of the holotype.


COMMENTS: Although the family Cynipidae   is universally accepted as monophyletic, satisfactory character evidence readily defining the family is lacking except for its phytophagous habit. Numerous characters have been put forward as putative synapomorphies for the family, including the lack of the lateral pronotal carina and an open marginal cell in forewing ( Liljeblad and Ronquist, 1998), as well as a medially narrowed dorsellum (Ronquist, 1999). However, all of these putative synapomorphies have exceptions both within Cynipidae   (as rever- sals) and in Figitidae   (as parallelisms) (e.g., Ronquist, 1999). Nonetheless, the family can still be reasonably defined based on a combination of morphological attributes. In addition to the aforementioned characters, the following traits can be useful in the diagnosis of cynipids: (1) dorsal pronotal area absent; (2) metasoma of female strongly compressed; (3) Rs+M arising from middle of the first free abscissa of M (5 basal vein); (4) 2r-rs about 0.5–0.65 times as long as Sc+R 1; (5) R 1 lateral of 2r-rs directed distinctly obliquely laterally rather than more or less perpendicular to anterior wing margin; and (6) R+Rs and Sc+R 1 smoothly continuous, not forming a distinct angle (see Liljeblad and Ronquist, 1998).