Teramocerus Schoenherr, 1840

Mantilleri, Antoine, 2015, What is Teramocerus Schoenherr, 1840? A new definition from revision and phylogeny of the group (Insecta, Coleoptera, Brentidae), Zoosystema 37 (2), pp. 285-322: 287-297

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Teramocerus Schoenherr, 1840
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Genus Teramocerus Schoenherr, 1840  

Teramocerus Schoenherr, 1840: 556   . — Type species: Teramocerus janthinus Boheman, 1840   , by original designation.

Acratus Lacordaire, 1865: 463   , n. syn. — Type species: Brentus suturalis Lund, 1800   , by original designation.

Proteramocerus Kleine, 1921: 129   , n. syn. — Type species: Brenthus acutipennis Boheman, 1833   , by original designation.

DISTRIBUTION. — Neotropical region (Central America from Costa Rica as northernmost country, Amazonian Basin, Eastern Brazil). Not recorded from Antilles and Pacific slopes of Andes.

DIAGNOSIS. — Medium-sized to large brentids (11-34 mm), body slender much longer than wide (males are 7.5 to 11 × longer than wide, females 7-8 × longer than wide), metallic green and bluish, or brownish. Head not grooved. Metarostrum without paramedian grooves. Venter of head with gular suture well distinct ending in post-ocular median fovea, without longitudinal groove ( Fig. 8C View FIG ). Antennomeres 3-11 not transverse; 9-10 cylindrical, much longer than broad, with numerous short hairs; 11 the longest, not or hardly curved. Pronotum much longer than broad, longitudinally grooved, not punctate. Scutellum with deep fovea ( Fig. 8E View FIG ), not inserted between elytra at its apex. Elytra without hole or deep depression at base at the place of insertion on mesonotum; base well distinct, steep. Striae 1-2 well distinct; 3-8 hardly distinct or only represented by rows of superficial punctures; 9 well marked on posterior half, not reaching base of elytra; 10 deep at base, vanishing posteriorly. Apex of elytra with one tooth. Prosternum glabrous, prosternal suture well distinct. Prosternellum well distinct. Metathorax smooth, not grooved, weakly foveate or depressed in front of metacoxae. Femora pedunculate. First tarsal segment longer than broad; tarsomeres 2-3 impressed on upper side. Sternites V-VI smooth; sternite VII almost completely smooth, with few fine punctures mostly at apex. Membranous tergites of abdomen not dark.

Males. Prorostrum deflexed, not grooved, shorter than metarostrum and mesorostrum together, slightly enlarged and notched at apex, carinate on sides at base, not punctate. Tegmen with parameroid lobes well developed. Penis pointed at apex, with short apodemes (temones). Internal sac with one proximal pointed sclerite; frena well developed, comma-shaped.

Females. Prorostrum straight, cylindrical, not grooved, longer than mesorostrum and metarostrum together.Tergite VIII dentate at apex ( Fig.15B View FIG ). Epipleurites VIII with one large accessory gland ( Fig. 15C View FIG ). Spermatheca falcate, without constrictions at base. Vagina with two lateral glands; the size of these glands may vary between individuals of the same species, probably depending on the maturity or sexual activity. Coxites not fused, apical styli well distinct.

REMARKS

Considering the characters of the type species of the genera Teramocerus   , Acratus   and Proteramocerus   , including characters of the internal sac of the aedeagus, it is obvious that these three names designate the same group of species. For this reason, I propose the following new synonymies: Acratus Lacordaire, 1865   , n. syn. for Teramocerus Schoenherr, 1840   , and Proteramocerus Kleine, 1921   , n. syn.for Teramocerus Schoenherr, 1840   .

Kleine (1938: 126) erroneously considered Belorhynchus gracilis Boheman, 1833   as the type species of Teramocerus   . However, Schoenherr (1840: 557) had fixed T. janthinus   as the type species by original designation.

In the genus, species are listed as follow: first, the type species T. janthinus   ; then, species are grouped following the affinities revealed by the phylogenetic analysis.

Teramocerus janthinus 

Boheman, 1840 ( Figs 1 View FIG ; 7 View FIG J-M; 11D-G)

Teramocerus janthinus Boheman   in Schoenherr, 1840: 558. — Lacordaire 1865: 466. — Schönfeldt 1908: 70. — Kleine 1938: 126. — Blackwelder 1947: 774. — Sforzi & Bartolozzi 2004: 589.

Proteramocerus emendatus Kleine, 1927a: 448   , n. syn. — Kleine 1938: 127. — Blackwelder 1947: 774. — Soares & Dias 1971: 58. — Sforzi & Bartolozzi 2004: 583.

Proteramocerus eminens Kleine, 1927a: 447   , n. syn. — Kleine 1938: 127. — Blackwelder 1947: 774. — Soares & Dias 1971: 59. — Sforzi & Bartolozzi 2004: 584.

Proteramocerus villens Soares & Dias, 1971: 69   , n. syn. — Sforzi & Bartolozzi 2004: 587.

TYPE MATERIAL. — T. janthinus   : ♂ holotype ( Fig. 1A View FIG ), “Amer. mer., Ménètriès, typus, NHRS-JLKB 000020288” ( NHRS)   ; P. emendatus   : ♂ holotype ( Fig. 1D View FIG ), “ Fulgid. , [illegible word] ♂, Bras.; Bowring, 63 47*; prép. micro. n°AM-NHM 00011” ( NHM)   ; P. eminens   : ♂ holotype ( Fig. 1C View FIG ), “ Minas Geraes ; Fry coll., 1905 100; prép. micro. n°AM-NHM 00010” ( NHM)   ; P. villens   : ♂ holotype [not examined], “ Itapura [20°39’S 51°31’W], X.1938 ” ( MZSP) GoogleMaps   ; 2 ♂ and 2 ♀ paratypes, “ Anhangaí , XII.1926, Spitz” ( IPEACS) GoogleMaps   ; 4 ♂ and 5 ♀ paratypes, “ Piraçununga , X.1950, O. Schubart ” ( MZSP and IPEACS)   ; 1 ♂ paratype, “ Leopoldo Bulhões , XII.1933, Spitz” ( MZSP)   ; 1 ♂ paratype, “ Arapongas , XII.1952, A. Maller ” ( MNRJ)   ; 1 ♂ and 1 ♀, “ Rolândia , XII.1943, III.1946, Diringshofen” ( MZSP)   .

MATERIAL EXAMINED. — South America. ♂ holotype T. janthinus     ; 1 ♂, Amér. Sud, Mniszech, ex musaeo G. Power ( MNHN)   .

Bolivia [?]. 1 ♂, de Chiquitos à Mojos, D’Orbigny, 1834 ( MNHN). Brazil. ♂ holotypes of P. emendatus   and P. eminens   ; 1 ♂, Sete Lagoas [19°28’S, 44°15’W] ( MLUH); 1 ♂ paratype P. villens, Piraçununga   [22°00’S, 47°25’W], 10.X.1950, O. Schubart, prép. micro. n°AM- MZSP 00001 ( MZSP); 2 ♂ et 1 ♀, Jatahy [17°53’S, 51°43’W], État de Goyaz, Ch. Pujol, 1895-96 ( MNHN); 5 ♂ et 1 ♀, Jatahy ( MNHN); 1 ♂ et 2 ♀, Et. de Sao Paulo, val du rio Pardo [22°56’S, 49°38’W], E. Gounelle, XII.1898 ( MNHN); 2 ♂ et 2 ♀, Serra de Baturite (Céara) [4°12’S, 38°56’W], E. Gounelle, I.1895 ( MNHN); 1 ♀, Minas Gerais, Sertao de Diamantina [18°13’S, 43°41’W], Fazenda das Melancias, X-XI.1902, E. Gounelle ( MNHN); 1 ♂ et 3 ♀, Trinidade [16°39’S, 49°29’W] ( MNHN).

French Guiana [?]. 1 ♂, Cayenne [4°55’N 52°20’W], T. fulgidus   ex col. Dejean, exemp. provenant de Mannerheim ( MNHN) GoogleMaps   ; 1 ♀, idem, Chevrolat, prép. micro. n°AM00268 ( MNHN) GoogleMaps   .

DISTRIBUTION. — Brazil (East). See remarks below for other records, and map ( Fig. 16B View FIG ).

DESCRIPTION

Males

Measurements. Length of head (rostrum included): 6.4- 13.8 mm; length of body (from front margin of pronotum to apex of elytra): 9.8-20.0 mm; width across humeral calli: 1.5-3.0 mm. Pattern of coloration as in females. Habitus: Fig. 1A View FIG , C-E.

Head. Prorostrum much shorter than metarostrum and mesorostrum together. Mesorostrum elevated, longitudinally grooved. Metarostrum not grooved, with weak median carina, carinate on sides. Eyes quite large but shorter than temples. Head smooth, tapering backwards, with weak inter-ocular fovea; collar constriction well marked. Sides of head ( Fig. 7J View FIG ) almost without pores; venter with two rows of pores below eyes. Sides of metarostrum smooth, venter with two longitudinal rows of small sensorial pores and numerous setae reaching base of prorostrum ( Fig. 7J View FIG ), without median carina or grooves. Venter of prorostrum smooth.

Antennae. Antennae with segments 2-8 longer than broad, subconical, with long setae; 9 less than 1.5 × longer than 8.

Thorax. Pronotum not punctate, microreticulate. Elytra depressed at base of interstria 5. Apex of elytra extended by one large blunt tooth formed by interstriae 3, 9 and 11 (interstria 3 often quite thin and elevated at apex) ( Fig. 7K View FIG ). Prosternum with few large punctures in front of bulging procoxae, area in front of procoxae depressed. Mesothorax with few punctures on sides; mesanepisternum and mesepimeron with deep confluent punctures. Metanepisternum with one row of punctures. Legs with meso- and metacoxae with rare setae; trochanters with one or two raised setae; femora strongly pedunculate, not depressed laterally, glabrous except metafemora with few hairs below at base. Tibiae quite long, hairy on inner side; apex of metatibia with one calcar on inner side, but not very acute. First tarsal segment shorter than 2-3 together; segment 2 longer than broad.

Abdomen. Abdomen ( Fig. 7M View FIG ) with sternites III-IV, glabrous, smooth, with very weak longitudinal median depression.Tegmen with parameroid lobes rounded at apex, with few setae ( Fig. 11D). Internal sac with one proximal hook-like sclerite and most distally with few very small spiny sclerifications on walls of internal sac ( Fig. 11 D-G).

Females

Measurements. Length of head (rostrum included): 4.2- 6.2 mm; length of body (from front margin of pronotum to apex of elytra): 10.9-16.7 mm; width across humeral calli: 1.7-2.8 mm. Brown-red, elytra and pronotum with metallic glints, greenish to bluish; median part of pronotum brown-red; head, interstria 1-2 and apex of elytra not metallic. Habitus: Fig. 1B View FIG .

Head. Mesorostrum weakly elevated, hardly grooved longitudinally. Metarostrum without median carina at middle, not carinate on sides, without paramedian grooves. Eyes longer than temples, quite bulging. Head weakly foveate between eyes, tapering backwards, collar constriction well distinct. Sides of head and metarostrum with very few sensorial pores. Venter of head with few sensorial pores forming two rows below eyes. Venter of metarostrum with two rows of pores reaching base of mesorostrum; no elevated area separating two rows of pores at middle.

Antennae. Antennae with segments 2-8 slightly longer than broad, subconical, with few long setae; 9 1.5 × longer than 8.

Thorax. Pronotum microreticulate, not punctate. Elytra depressed at base of interstria 5. Apex of elytra extended by one blunt tooth formed mainly by interstria 9 and 11 ( Fig. 7L View FIG ). Prosternum with few large punctures in front of bulging procoxae, area in front of procoxae depressed. Mesothorax with few punctures on sides; mesanepisternum and mesepimeron with deep confluent punctures. Metanepisternum with row of weak punctures hardly distinct. Legs with meso- and metacoxae with 5-6 setae; trochanters with one or two raised setae; femora laterally with shallow longitudinal groove, glabrous except metafemora with hairs below peduncle. Tibiae quite long, hairy on inner side. First tarsal segment shorter than 2-3 together; segment 2 as long as broad.

Abdomen. Abdomen with sternites III-IV convex, glabrous, smooth, without groove; sternite VII almost completely smooth except few very fine punctures mostly at apex. Vagina not sclerified.

REMARKS

Dissection and examination of the holotypes of Proteramocerus emendatus   and P. eminens   revealed conspecificity of these two specimens with Teramocerus janthinus   , their genitalia being very similar, especially the shape of the proximal hook-like sclerite of the internal sac. Externally, the holotype of P.eminens   represents a brownish variation; P. emendatus   is a teratological case with the tooth at apex of elytra not well developed and directed downwardly. For these reasons, I consider Proteramocerus emendatus Kleine, 1927   , n. syn. for Teramocerus janthinus Boheman, 1840   and P.eminens Kleine, 1927   , n. syn. for T. janthinus Boheman, 1840   .

I was not able to examine the holotype of Proteramocerus villens   as it was not found in MZSP (C. Costa pers. comm.) Only a male paratype was available ( Fig. 1E View FIG ); dissection of genitalia left no room for doubt about conspecificity of this specimen with Teramocerus janthinus   . So, despite I could not examine the holotype, I am proposing here the following new synonymy: Proteramocerus villens Soares & Dias, 1971   , n. syn. for Teramocerus janthinus Boheman, 1840   .

The citation of T. janthinus   from Cayenne, French Guiana, is doubtful. Indeed, with the help of SEAG, I was able to examine large series of recently collected brentids from French Guiana but no specimen of this species has ever been collected there. The two citations are old records from collections of Dejean and Chevrolat, and the specimens were probably collected in another place in South America. The citation from Bolivia must also be taken with caution. Indeed, all the other records are clearly from Eastern Brazil (except for the very doubtful ones from French Guiana) and the distribution for this species is probably limited to this area; T. janthinus   is probably not present in the Amazonian Basin.

Teramocerus opacus ( Perty, 1832)   n. comb. ( Figs 2 View FIG D-G; 7N-O; 11H)

Arrhenodes opacus Perty, 1832: 69   .

Nematocephalus opacus   – Schönfeldt 1908: 67; 1910: 41.

Proteramocerus opacus   – Kleine 1927b: 54; 1938: 127. — Blackwelder 1947: 775. — Soares & Dias 1971: 67. — Sforzi & Bartolozzi 2004: 587.

Brenthus acutipennis Boheman   in Schoenherr, 1833: 350, n. syn.

Teramocerus acutipennis   – Boheman in Schoenherr 1840: 560. — Sharp 1895: 78.

Acratus acutipennis   – Schönfeldt 1908: 68; 1910: 41.

Teramocerus obscurus Perroud, 1853: 446   n. syn. — Schönfeldt 1908: 70. — Kleine 1938: 126. — Blackwelder 1947: 774. — Sforzi & Bartolozzi 2004: 590.

Proteramocerus acutipennis   – Kleine 1921: 129; 1927b: 54; 1938: 127. — Blackwelder 1947: 774. — Soares & Dias 1971: 46. — Sforzi & Bartolozzi 2004: 581.

TYPE MATERIAL. — Arrhenodes opacus   : ♂ holotype ( Fig. 2D View FIG ), “Brasilia, Brenthus opacus Prty   ” ( ZSM)   ; Brenthus acutipennis   : ♂ holotype ( Fig. 2E View FIG ), “typus; Brasilia, Mannerheim; ♂; Gattung Proteramocerus Kln   ; NHRS-JLKB 000020314; holotype ” ( NHRS)   ; Teramocerus obscurus   : ♂ holotype ( Fig. 2F View FIG ), “ obscurus Perroud   , Brésil; type; Acratus Lacord.   ; ex coll. B. P. Perroud; Muséum Paris, 1958, coll. M. Pic; MNHN-EC-EC1884”   .

MATERIAL EXAMINED. — South America. 2 ♂, Amer. Sud, Mniszech, ex musaeo G. Power ( MNHN)   ; 1 ♀, ex musaeo Desbrochers 1913 ( MNHN)   .

Brazil. ♂ holotype T. obscurus   . — ♂ holotype B. acutipennis (NHRS)   . — ♂ holotype A. opacus (ZSM)     ; 1 ♀, Brésil, A. Saint- Hilaire, 1815 ( MNHN)   ; 1 ♂ et 1 ♀, Chevrolat , ex musaeo G. Power ( MNHN)   ; 2 ♀, Mniszech , ex musaeo G. Power ( MNHN)   ; 1 ♂ et 1 ♀, ex musaeo Desbrochers 1913 ( MNHN)   ; 1 ♂, Brésil, Perroud , ex musaeo Desbrochers 1913 ( MNHN)   ; 1 ♀, Santa Catarina, Thomson , ex musaeo G. Power ( MNHN)   ; 1 ♂ et 1 ♀, Espirito Santo, ex musaeo Desbrochers 1913, prép. micro. n°AM00341 ( MNHN)   ; 2 ♀, Rio , 1844 et 1846, de Castelnau ( MNHN)   ; 1 ♂ et 1 ♀, Rio de Janeiro [22°55’S, 43°13’W], P. Germain, 1883 ( MNHN) GoogleMaps   ; 1 ♂, Tijuca ( Rio ) [23°00’S, 43°22’W], E. Gounelle, XII.1884 ( MNHN) GoogleMaps   ; 1 ♂ et 2 ♀, Minas Gerais, Caraça [20°06’S, 43°29’W], E. Gounelle, XII.1889 ( MNHN) GoogleMaps   ; 2 ♀, Caraça, P. Germain, VII-XII.1884 ( MNHN)   ; 1 ♂, Bahia, ex musaeo Desbrochers 1913 ( MNHN)   ; 2 ♂, Cachimbo [9°42’S, 38°34’W], Prov. de Bahia, Ch. Pujol, 1890 ( MNHN) GoogleMaps   ; 1 ♀, Constancia [21°23’S, 46°48’W], I.1857, J. Gray ( MNHN) GoogleMaps   ; 1 ♂, rio Piracicaba , P. Germain, II.1885 ( MNHN)   ; 1 ♂, Et. de Sao Paulo, val du rio Pardo [22°56’S, 49°38’W], E. Gounelle, XII.1898 ( MNHN) GoogleMaps   .

DISTRIBUTION. — Brazil (East). See map ( Fig. 16C View FIG ).

DESCRIPTION

Males

Measurements. Length of head (rostrum included): 5.7- 10.2 mm; length of body (from front margin of pronotum to apex of elytra): 9.9-16.9 mm; width across humeral calli: 1.5- 2.7 mm. Body entirely brownish, not metallic, sometimes bronzed. Habitus: Fig. 2 View FIG D-F.

Head. Prorostrum much shorter than metarostrum and mesorostrum together. Mesorostrum elevated, longitudinally grooved. Metarostrum not grooved, with weak median carina, not or weakly carinate on sides. Eyes quite large but shorter than temples. Head smooth, tapering backwards, with weak inter-ocular fovea; collar constriction well marked. Sides of head almost without pores ( Fig. 7N View FIG ); venter with two rows below eyes. Sides of metarostrum smooth, venter with two longitudinal rows of small sensorial pores and quite few setae hardly reaching base of mesorostrum, without median carina or grooves. Venter of prorostrum smooth.

Antennae. Antennae with segments 2-8 longer than broad, subconical, with long setae; 9 less than 1.5 × longer than 8.

Thorax. Pronotum not punctate, microreticulate. Elytra depressed at base of interstria 5. Apex of elytra extended by one large blunt tooth formed by interstria 9 and 11 ( Fig. 7O View FIG ); interstria 3 not thin and elevated at apex. Prosternum with few large punctures in front of bulging procoxae, area in front of procoxae depressed. Mesothorax with few punctures on sides; mesanepisternum and mesepimeron with deep confluent punc - tures. Metanepisternum with one row of small and shallow punctures hardly distinct. Legs with mesocoxae, metacoxae and trochanters with rare setae; femora strongly pedunculate, not depressed laterally, glabrous except metafemora with few hairs below at base. Tibiae quite long, hairy on inner side; apex of metatibia with very short calcar on inner side. First tarsal segment shorter than 2-3 together; segment 2 hardly longer than broad.

Abdomen. Abdomen with sternites III-IV, glabrous, smooth except punctures in front part of sternite III along metacoxae, with very weak longitudinal median depression.Tegmen with parameroid lobes rounded at apex, with few setae. Internal sac with one proximal hook-like sclerite and most rearward with numerous spiny sclerifications well distinct on walls of internal sac ( Fig. 11H).

Females

Measurements. Length of head (rostrum included): 4.9- 6.6 mm; length of body (from front margin of pronotum to apex of elytra): 11.4-18.6 mm; width across humeral calli: 1.7- 2.7 mm. Pattern of coloration as in males. Habitus: Fig. 2G View FIG .

Head. Mesorostrum weakly elevated, hardly grooved longitudinally. Metarostrum without median carina at middle or carina weak, not carinate on sides, without paramedian grooves.Eyes shorter than temples, quite bulging. Head weakly foveate between eyes, tapering backwards, collar constriction well distinct. Sides of head and metarostrum with very few sensorial pores. Venter of head with few sensorial pores forming two rows below eyes. Venter of metarostrum with two rows of pores reaching base of mesorostrum; no elevated area separating the two rows of pores at middle.

Antennae. Antennae with segments 2-8 slightly longer than broad, subconical, with few long setae; 9 almost 1.5 × longer than 8.

Thorax. Pronotum microreticulate, not punctate. Elytra depressed at base of interstria 5. Apex of elytra extended by one blunt tooth formed mainly by interstria 9. Prosternum with few large punctures in front of bulging procoxae, area in front of procoxae depressed. Mesothorax with few punctures on sides; mesanepisternum and mesepimeron with deep confluent punctures. Metanepisternum with one row of weak punctures hardly distinct. Legs with mesocoxae, metacoxae and trochanters bearing setae; femora laterally with shallow longitudinal groove, glabrous except metafemora with hairs below peduncle. Tibiae quite long, hairy on inner side. First tarsal segment shorter than 2-3 together; segment 2 as long as broad.

Abdomen. Abdomen with sternites III-IV convex, glabrous, smooth except punctures in front part of sternite III along metacoxae, without groove; sternite VII with few very fine punctures mostly at apex. Vagina not sclerified.

REMARKS

Types of Brenthus acutipennis   and Teramocerus obscurus   present the same characters as those of the type of Arrhenodes opacus   and then they must be considered as conspecific. For this reason, I propose the following new synonymies: Brenthus acutipennis Boheman, 1833   , n. syn. for Arrhenodes opacus Perty, 1832   and Teramocerus obscurus Perroud, 1853   , n. syn. for Arrhenodes opacus Perty, 1832   .

Arrhenodes opacus   is a species sharing several characters with Teramocerus janthinus   : mesorostrum and metarostrum of males together are much longer than prorostrum, the scutellum is deeply foveate, the elytra have no hole or deep depression at base at the place of insertion on mesonotum, the apex of elytra has one tooth, the femora are strongly pedunculate, the first metatarsal segment is longer than broad, the penis is tapered at apex with short temones, and the internal sac has one hooklike sclerite. For all these reasons, I consider these two taxa as congeneric and I propose the following new combination: Teramocerus opacus ( Perty, 1832)   n. comb.

Acratus opacus   is similar to T. janthinus   but may be distinguished by the usually very different coloration pattern. In T. janthinus   , males have numerous setae under the rostrum reaching the base of prorostrum. Females of T. janthinus   may be distinguished, apart from pattern of coloration, by a usually smaller apical elytral tooth.

Teramocerus badius 

Boheman, 1840 comb. rev. ( Figs 2 View FIG A-C; 7A-I; 11B-C)

Teramocerus badius Boheman   in Schoenherr, 1840: 563.

Acratus badius   – Schönfeldt 1908: 68; 1910: 42.

Proteramocerus badius   – Kleine 1921: 129; 1927b: 54; 1938: 127. — Blackwelder 1947: 774. — Sforzi & Bartolozzi 2004: 582.

Acratus fidelis Kleine, 1927a: 469   , n. syn.; 1927b: 74; 1938: 170; 1939: 36. — Blackwelder 1947: 776. — Sforzi & Bartolozzi 2004: 565.

TYPE MATERIAL. — T. badius   : ♂ holotype ( Fig. 2A View FIG ), “Bras.” ( MLUH) [the description of Boheman matches with a male; in the collection of MLUH, there are two specimens, 1 ♂ and 1 ♀; the female cannot be part of the type-series, the male is then considered as holotype]   ; A. fidelis   : ♂ lectotype ( Fig. 2B View FIG ), “ Fry , Rio Jano; prép. micro. n°AM- NHM00026 View Materials ” ( NHM), designated by Sforzi & Bartolozzi (2004)   ; 1 ♂ paralectotype, idem lectotype ( NHM)   .

MATERIAL EXAMINED. — Brazil. ♂ holotype T. badius (MLUH)   . — ♂ lectotype and ♀ paralectotype A. fidelis (NHM)     ; 1 ♂, Minas Gerais, Caraça [20°06’S, 43°29’W], E. Gounelle, XII.1885 ( MNHN) GoogleMaps   ; 1 ♂ and 2 ♀, Caraça, P. Germain, VII-XII.1884, prép. micro. n°AM00342 ( MNHN)   ; 1 ♀, Et. de São Paulo, Ribeirão Pires [23°43’S, 46°25’W], XI.1898, E. Gounelle ( MNHN) GoogleMaps   ; 1 ♀, Rio de Janeiro [22°55’S, 43°13’W], Mniszech ( MNHN) GoogleMaps   .

DISTRIBUTION. — Brazil (East). See map ( Fig. 16B View FIG ).

DESCRIPTION

Males

Measurements. Length of head (rostrum included): 6.1- 7.2 mm; length of body (from front margin of pronotum to apex of elytra): 11.3-14.9 mm; width across humeral calli: 1.9- 2.5 mm. Brown-red with more or less distinct darker postmedian area on elytra. Habitus: Fig. 2 View FIG A-B.

Head. Prorostrum much shorter than metarostrum and mesorostrum together ( Fig. 7A View FIG ). Mesorostrum slightly grooved, without paramedian grooves extending backward. Metarostrum subcylindrical, without groove or carina. Eyes much shorter than temples, quite prominent. Head slightly elongate, convex, smooth, barely foveate between eyes, collar constriction slightly marked. Sides of head and metarostrum with very few sensorial pores ( Fig. 7B View FIG ). Venter of metarostrum with quite numerous sensorial pores with setae, more or less aligned on two rows ( Fig. 7C View FIG ). Venter of prorostrum not carinate.

Antennae. Antennae with segments 2-8 similar, longer than broad, broader at apex with some pretty long setae.

Thorax. Pronotum slightly elongate, shallowly grooved (groove vanishing before the apex). Elytra weakly depressed at base of interstria 5; first elytral stria well marked all along, second shallower and not reaching base. Apex of each elytra with one short acute tooth formed by interstriae 9 and 11 ( Fig. 7D View FIG ). Prosternum hardly depressed in front of rather prominent procoxae, without punctation in front of them. Mesothorax with some coarse punctures on sides.Mesanepisternum slightly punctate; mesepimeron not very elongated forwardly, roughly punctated. Metanepisternum with weak unpunctated longitudinal groove. Legs with coxae and trochanters with one or two raised stiff setae; femora elongated, glabrous; tibiae without special character, without calcar on inner side of metatibiae; tarsal segment 1 shorter than 2-3 together; 2 as long as broad; segments 2-3 of all legs impressed above.

Abdomen. Abdomen ( Fig. 7E View FIG ) not very long, hairy on median rear part of sternite III, slightly grooved longitudinally.Tegmen with parameroid lobes slightly elongate and lobate ( Fig. 11B). Internal sac with hook-like sclerite, base swollen ( Fig. 11B, C); walls of internal sac with numerous small sclerites.

Females

Measurements. Length of head (rostrum included): 4.7- 5.8 mm; length of body (from front margin of pronotum to apex of elytra): 10.0- 11.8 mm; width across humeral calli: 1.7- 2.2 mm. Pattern of coloration as in males. Habitus: Fig. 2C View FIG .

Head. Mesorostrum elevated, slightly grooved longitudinally. Metarostrum not carinate at middle or on sides, without paramedian grooves ( Fig. 7F View FIG ). Eyes shorter than temples, weakly prominent. Head not foveate between eyes, collar constriction deep. Sides of head and metarostrum with one or two sensorial pores ( Fig. 7G View FIG ). Venter of head with few sensorial pores. Venter of metarostrum with two rows of sensorial pores hardly reaching mesorostrum; no elevated area separating the two rows of pores at middle ( Fig. 7H View FIG ).

Antennae. Antennae with segments 2-8 slightly longer than broad, subconical, with few long setae; 9 less than 1.5 × longer than 8.

Thorax. Pronotum microreticulate. Elytra not or hardly depressed at base of interstria 5. Apex of elytra extended by one short tooth formed mainly by interstriae 9 and 11. Prosternum with few large punctures in front of bulging procoxae, area in front of procoxae depressed. Mesothorax with few punctures on sides; mesanepisternum and mesepimeron with large and sometimes confluent punctures. Metanepisternum with row of punctures. Legs with trochanters and coxae bearing one or two raised setae; femora not depressed laterally, glabrous except metafemora with few hairs below at base.Tibiae quite long, hairy on inner side. First tarsal segment shorter than 2-3 together; segment 2 as long as broad.

Abdomen. Abdomen ( Fig. 7I View FIG ) with sternites III-IV convex, with one or two hardly distinct setae on sternite III, smooth except punctures in front part of sternite III along metacoxae, without groove. Vagina not sclerified.

REMARKS

The type of Acratus fidelis   presents the same characters as those of the type of Teramocerus badius   comb. rev. and then these two taxa must be considered as conspecific. For this reason, I propose the following new synonymy: Acratus fidelis Kleine, 1927   , n. syn. for Teramocerus badius Boheman, 1840   comb. rev.

Teramocerus suturalis 

( Lund, 1800) n. comb. ( Figs 3; 8 View FIG ; 11A)

Brentus suturalis Lund, 1800: 63   . — Fabricius 1801: 546. — Olivier 1807: 433.

Brenthus [sic] suturalis   – Gyllenhal in Schoenherr 1833: 354. — Schoenherr 1840: 550.

Acratus suturalis   – Lacordaire 1865: 463. — Schönfeldt 1908: 68; 1910: 42. — Kleine 1927b: 74; 1938: 36; 1939: 36. — Blackwelder 1947: 776. — Soares 1970: 241.

TYPE MATERIAL. — Brentus suturalis   was described on one female specimen ( Lund, 1800) ( Fig. 3 A-B): “Type; Essequibo, Smidt, Mus: S & T. L., Suturalis, ♀ T. Lund, F.; zmuc 00021676; prép. micro. n°AM-ZMUC 00003; holotype ” ( ZMUC)   .

MATERIAL EXAMINED. — Brazil. 1 ♀, Amazone, ex musaeo G. Power ( MNHN)   ; 1 ♂, Brésil , ex musaeo G. Power, prép. micro.n°AM00232 ( MNHN)   ; 1 ♂ et 1 ♀, Amaz., H. W. Bates ( MNHN)   ; 1 ♀, Pará, Óbidos [1°54’S, 55°31’W], M. de Mathan, 2 e trimestre 1878, prép. micro. n°AM00219 ( MNHN) GoogleMaps   ; 1 ♂, Mato Grosso, Cuiabá [15°35’S, 56°05’W], prép. micro. n°AM00228 ( MNHN) GoogleMaps   .

Costa Rica. 2 ♂ and 2 ♀, Las Horquetas [10°20’N, 83°57’W], VI.1969, prép. micro. n°AM00336 ( MNHN) GoogleMaps   ; 1 ♂, Heredia, Est. Biol. La Selva , 10°26’N 84°01’W, 50-150 m, III.1995, coll. Ronald Vargas ( CMNC) GoogleMaps   ; 1 ♀, idem, VII.1992 ( CMNC) GoogleMaps   ; 2 ♂, Heredia, P. N. Braulio Carillo, Est. Magsasay [10°24’N 84°03’W], 200 m, XII.1990, M. Zumbado & R. Aguilar ( CMNC) GoogleMaps   ; 1 ♀, Puntarenas, R. B. Carara, Est. Quebrada Bonita [9°50’N 84°58’W], 50 m, V.1994, R. M. Guzman ( CMNC) GoogleMaps   .

French Guiana. 1 ♀, Cayenne [4°55’N, 52°20’W], ex musaeo G. Power, prép. micro. n°AM00276 ( MNHN) GoogleMaps   ; 1 ♀, Réserve du Trésor [4°35’N, 52°18’W], 6.XII.2009, S. Brûlé, P.-H. Dalens & E. Poirier leg. (coll. AM) GoogleMaps   ; 1 ♀, Saül [3°37’N, 53°12’W], 20.XII.2010, S. Brûlé, P.-H. Dalens & E. Poirier leg., prép. micro. n°AM00177 ( MNHN) GoogleMaps   ; 1 ♀, idem, 4.I.2011, prép. micro.n°AM00175 ( MNHN) GoogleMaps   ; 1 ♂, montagne des Chevaux [4°43’N 52°25’W], 17.III.2013, P.-H. Dalens leg. (coll. AM) GoogleMaps   .

Guyana. ♀ holotype ( ZMUC).

Trinidad and Tobago. 1 ♂, Morne Bleu, 2700’ [10°43’N 61°15’W, 820 m], 6.VIII.1969, H. & A. Howden ( CMNC).

DISTRIBUTION. — Brazil, Costa Rica, French Guiana, Guyana, Trinidad and Tobago. Citations from Costa Rica and Trinidad and Tobago are new country records. The occurrence in Bolivia ( Sforzi & Bartolozzi 2004: 569) has not been verified. Probably present at least from Costa Rica to all the Amazonian Basin and Guiana Shield. See map ( Fig. 16A View FIG ).

DESCRIPTION

Males

Measurements. Length of head (rostrum included): 5.3- 13.2 mm; length of body (from front margin of pronotum to apex of elytra): 10.5-19.6 mm; width across humeral calli: 1.9-3.1 mm. Body metallic greenish; legs, antennae and prorostrum brown-red; first elytral interstria brown reddish; abdomen with metallic glints. Habitus: Fig. 3 C-D.

Head. Prorostrum much shorter than metarostrum and mesorostrum together ( Fig. 8A View FIG ). Mesorostrum elevated, longitudinally grooved. Metarostrum not grooved, with median carina, hardly carinate on sides. Eyes quite large but shorter than temples. Head smooth, tapering backwards, with weak inter-ocular fovea; collar constriction not well marked. Sides and venter of head with sensorial pores ( Fig. 8 View FIG B-C). Sides of metarostrum smooth, venter with two longitudinal rows of sensorial pores vanishing well before reaching mesorostrum, without median carina or grooves. Venter of meso- and prorostrum smooth.

Antennae. Antennae ( Fig. 8D View FIG ) with segments 2-8 longer than broad, subconical, with long setae; 9 less than 1.5 ×longer than 8.

Thorax. Pronotum microreticulate.Elytra not depressed at base of interstria 5 ( Fig. 8E View FIG ). Apex of elytra extended by one large tooth formed mainly by interstriae 9, 10 and 11 ( Fig. 8 View FIG F-G). Prosternum with few large punctures in front of bulging procoxae, area in front of procoxae depressed. Mesothorax with few punctures on sides; mesanepisternum and mesepimeron with deep confluent punctures. Metanepisternum with row of punctures. Legs with coxae and trochanters bearing one or two raised setae; femora ( Fig. 8I View FIG ) strongly pedunculate, not depressed laterally, glabrous except metafemora with few hairs below at base. Tibiae quite long, hairy on inner side; apex of metatibia ( Fig. 8H View FIG ) with one calcar on inner side, but not very acute. First tarsal segment shorter than 2-3 together; segment 2 as long as broad ( Fig. 8I, J View FIG ).

Abdomen. Abdomen ( Fig. 8K View FIG ) with sternites III-IV, glabrous, smooth except punctures in front part of sternite III along metacoxae, with shallow longitudinal median depression.Tegmen with parameroid lobes rounded at apex with few setae ( Fig. 11A). Internal sac with one proximal hook-like sclerite without swollen base, and few longitudinal sclerifications most rearward ( Fig. 11A).

Females

Measurements. Length of head (rostrum included): 4.0- 7.1 mm; length of body (from front margin of pronotum to apex of elytra): 9.1-18.9 mm; width across humeral calli: 1.8- 3.1 mm. Pattern of coloration as in males. Habitus: Fig.3A, B.

Head. Mesorostrum elevated, slightly grooved longitudinally. Metarostrum with median carina at middle, slightly carinate on sides, without paramedian grooves ( Fig. 8L View FIG ). Eyes longer than temples, quite bulging. Head hardly foveate between eyes, tapering backwards, collar constriction weak. Sides and venter of head with few large sensorial pores ( Fig. 8 View FIG M-N). Sides and venter of metarostrum with large sensorial pores, arranged in two rows below, not reaching mesorostrum; no median elevated area separating both rows of pores.

Antennae. Antennae ( Fig. 8O View FIG ) with segments 2-8 slightly longer than broad, subconical, with few long setae; antennomere 9 1.5 × longer than 8.

Thorax. Pronotum microreticulate. Elytra not depressed at base of interstria 5. Apex of elytra ( Fig. 8Q View FIG ) extended to form one tooth formed mainly from interstriae 9 and 11. Prosternum with few large punctures in front of bulging procoxae, area in front of procoxae depressed. Mesothorax ( Fig. 8P View FIG ) with few punctures on sides; mesanepisternum and mesepimeron with deep confluent punctures. Metanepisternum with row of punctures. Legs with trochanters bearing one or two raised setae; femora not depressed laterally, glabrous except metafemora with few hairs below at base. Tibiae quite long, hairy on inner side. First tarsal segment shorter than 2-3 together; segment 2 as long as broad.

Abdomen. Abdomen ( Fig. 8R View FIG ) with sternites III-IV convex, glabrous, smooth except punctures in front part of sternite III along metacoxae, without groove. Vagina not sclerified.

REMARKS

The concept of Acratus suturalis   as understood by previous specialists (Richard Kleine, Benedicto Soares) was erroneous and refers to a completely different species (probably not yet formally described), sharing no characters with Acratus   [see the key, description and drawings given by Soares (1970)]. Identifications made by these authors in the collections must be carefully verified as all those I checked were not correct.

I examined the female holotype of Trachelizus helmenreichii Redtenbacher, 1868   preserved in NMW. This taxon was synonymized with Acratus suturalis   by Kleine (1927b). Out of the metallic sheen of elytra, the holotype of T. helmenreichii   shares no synapomorphies with Teramocerus   and represents clearly a species very distinct of T. suturalis   n. comb. and I remove it from synonymy. It is morphologically similar to Nemobrenthus aeneipennis Sharp, 1895   and it is then transferred to the genus Nemobrenthus Sharp, 1895   , leading to the following new combination: Nemobrenthus helmenreichii (Redtenbacher, 1868)   n. comb.

Teramocerus appendiculatus 

( Soares & Scivittaro, 1972) n. comb. ( Figs 5A View FIG ; 13A View FIG )

Proteramocerus appendiculatus Soares & Scivittaro, 1972: 1   . — Sforzi & Bartolozzi 2004: 582.

TYPE MATERIAL. — ♂ holotype ( Fig. 5A View FIG ), “ Tabatinga , Amazonas Brasil [4°14’S, 69°56’W], XI.1958, F. M. Oliveira; typus; prép. micro. n°AM-MNRJ 00002” ( MNRJ) GoogleMaps   ; 1 ♂ and 1 ♀ paratypes, “ Benjamin Constant , IX.1955, IV.1957, I. C. Lima ” ( MNRJ) GoogleMaps   .

MATERIAL EXAMINED. — Brazil. ♂ holotype ( MNRJ).

DISTRIBUTION. — Brazil (Amazonian Basin); only known from the type-series. See map ( Fig. 16A View FIG ).

DESCRIPTION

Males

Measurements. Length of head (rostrum included): 9.9 mm; length of body (from front margin of pronotum to apex of elytra): 14.2 mm; width across humeral calli: 2.1 mm. Dark brown to blackish, head and especially pronotum and even more elytra greenish blue with metallic sheen. Habitus: Fig.5A View FIG .

Head. Prorostrum much shorter than metarostrum and mesorostrum together. Mesorostrum grooved, without lateral grooves extending backward. Metarostrum carinate on sides, without median groove but with longitudinal carina along its entire length. Eyes fairly large, shorter than temples. Head elongated, slightly wrinkled on rear part, foveate between eyes. Sides of head and metarostrum with few sensorial pores. Venter of head with two lines of sensorial pores converging forward towards metarostrum. Metarostrum, mesorostrum and base of prorostrum with numerous small sensorial pores with quite long setae, confusingly arranged, without smooth median area. Venter of prorostrum not carinate.

Antennae. Antennae with all segments much longer than broad; antennomeres 1-8 broadening from base to apex, with few fairly long setae; segments 3-8 of similar length, second a little shorter, 8th with many short setae; segments 9-11 with numerous short setae, long setae almost completely missing; segments 9-10 a little longer than 8.

Thorax. Elytra not depressed at base of interstria 5; first elytral stria well marked along entire length, second shallower, not really reaching the base of elytra and forming one row of punctures on rear part; stria 9 well marked in posterior half, wide and punctated at apex, forming indistinct punctures in front. Apex of each elytron with one tooth formed by interstriae 1, 3, 9 and 11 (interstria 3 joining interstria 9). Prosternum not depressed in front of bulging procoxae, with few large pits in front of them. Mesothorax punctated on sides and in front of mesocoxae. Mesanepisternum with coarse punctation; mesepimeron very elongated forward, with one line of coarse, tight, confluent punctation. Metanepisternum with longitudinal line of punctation. Metacoxae with few setae; trochanters with one or two long and stiff yellowish setae; femora elongated, metafemora with stiff reddish setae on underside; apex of metatibia with one calcar on inner side, but not very acute; tarsal segment 1 as long as 2-3 together; 2 longer than wide; segment 1 of metatarsi longitudinally carinate, segment 2 carinate only at apex; segment 5 of mesotarsi setose on the underside.

Abdomen. Abdomen elongate,smooth, with broad longitudinal groove on sternites III-IV and large yellowish setae mainly at apex of sternite III; sternite VII weakly setose. Tegmen with parameroid lobes elongate, lobate, with quite numerous apical setae ( Fig. 13A View FIG ). Internal sac with one large hook-like sclerite with swollen base ( Fig. 13A View FIG ).

REMARKS

This species is closely allied to Teramocerus eletus   . Indeed, it shares with it almost all the characters described above. It differs mainly by the segment 8 of antenna with numerous short setae (few short setae in T. eletus   ), the shape of the elytral apex (interstria 3 connected to interstria 9), the metatarsi 2 more weakly carinate, the abdomen with setae and, above all, by the absence of a cluster of small aligned spicules more or less arranged in a bowl, the wall of the internal sac without micro-spicules.

Females

Female unknown to me.

REMARKS

Because of the synonymy of Proteramocerus   with Teramocerus   , and because of the characters of male genitalia, P. appendiculatus   is transferred to Teramocerus   , leading to the following new combination: Teramocerus appendiculatus ( Soares & Scivittaro, 1972)   n. comb.

NHRS

Swedish Museum of Natural History, Entomology Collections

NHM

University of Nottingham

MZSP

Sao Paulo, Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de Sao Paulo

MNRJ

Museu Nacional/Universidade Federal de Rio de Janeiro

MNHN

Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle

MLUH

Martin Luther Universitaet

ZSM

Bavarian State Collection of Zoology

ZMUC

Zoological Museum, University of Copenhagen

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Insecta

Order

Coleoptera

Family

Brentidae

Loc

Teramocerus Schoenherr, 1840

Mantilleri, Antoine 2015
2015
Loc

Proteramocerus appendiculatus

SFORZI A. & BARTOLOZZI L. 2004: 582
SOARES B. A. M. & SCIVITTARO A. 1972: 1
1972
Loc

Proteramocerus villens

SFORZI A. & BARTOLOZZI L. 2004: 587
SOARES B. A. M. & DIAS S. M. 1971: 69
1971
Loc

Proteramocerus emendatus

SFORZI A. & BARTOLOZZI L. 2004: 583
SOARES B. A. M. & DIAS S. M. 1971: 58
BLACKWELDER R. E. 1947: 774
KLEINE R. 1938: 127
KLEINE R. 1927: 448
1927
Loc

Proteramocerus eminens

SFORZI A. & BARTOLOZZI L. 2004: 584
SOARES B. A. M. & DIAS S. M. 1971: 59
BLACKWELDER R. E. 1947: 774
KLEINE R. 1938: 127
KLEINE R. 1927: 447
1927
Loc

Proteramocerus opacus

SFORZI A. & BARTOLOZZI L. 2004: 587
SOARES B. A. M. & DIAS S. M. 1971: 67
BLACKWELDER R. E. 1947: 775
KLEINE R. 1938: 127
KLEINE R. 1927: 54
1927
Loc

Acratus fidelis

SFORZI A. & BARTOLOZZI L. 2004: 565
BLACKWELDER R. E. 1947: 776
KLEINE R. 1927: 469
1927
Loc

Proteramocerus

KLEINE R. 1921: 129
1921
Loc

Proteramocerus acutipennis

SFORZI A. & BARTOLOZZI L. 2004: 581
SOARES B. A. M. & DIAS S. M. 1971: 46
BLACKWELDER R. E. 1947: 774
KLEINE R. 1938: 127
KLEINE R. 1927: 54
KLEINE R. 1921: 129
1921
Loc

Proteramocerus badius

SFORZI A. & BARTOLOZZI L. 2004: 582
BLACKWELDER R. E. 1947: 774
KLEINE R. 1938: 127
KLEINE R. 1927: 54
KLEINE R. 1921: 129
1921
Loc

Nematocephalus opacus

SCHONFELDT H. & VON 1910: 41
SCHONFELDT H. & VON 1908: 67
1908
Loc

Acratus acutipennis

SCHONFELDT H. & VON 1910: 41
SCHONFELDT H. & VON 1908: 68
1908
Loc

Acratus badius

SCHONFELDT H. & VON 1910: 42
SCHONFELDT H. & VON 1908: 68
1908
Loc

Acratus

LACORDAIRE J. & TH 1865: 463
1865
Loc

Acratus suturalis

SOARES B. A. M. 1970: 241
BLACKWELDER R. E. 1947: 776
KLEINE R. 1939: 36
KLEINE R. 1938: 36
KLEINE R. 1927: 74
SCHONFELDT H. & VON 1910: 42
SCHONFELDT H. & VON 1908: 68
LACORDAIRE J. & TH 1865: 463
1865
Loc

Teramocerus obscurus

SFORZI A. & BARTOLOZZI L. 2004: 590
BLACKWELDER R. E. 1947: 774
KLEINE R. 1938: 126
SCHONFELDT H. & VON 1908: 70
PERROUD B. P. 1853: 446
1853
Loc

Teramocerus

SCHOENHERR C. J. 1840: 556
1840
Loc

Teramocerus janthinus

SFORZI A. & BARTOLOZZI L. 2004: 589
BLACKWELDER R. E. 1947: 774
KLEINE R. 1938: 126
SCHONFELDT H. & VON 1908: 70
LACORDAIRE J. & TH 1865: 466
SCHOENHERR C. J. 1840: 558
1840
Loc

Teramocerus acutipennis

SHARP D. 1895: 78
SCHOENHERR C. J. 1840: 560
1840
Loc

Teramocerus badius

SCHOENHERR C. J. 1840: 563
1840
Loc

Brenthus acutipennis

SCHOENHERR C. J. 1833: 350
1833
Loc

Brenthus [sic] suturalis

SCHOENHERR C. J. 1840: 550
SCHOENHERR C. J. 1833: 354
1833
Loc

Arrhenodes opacus

PERTY M. 1832: 69
1832
Loc

Brentus suturalis

OLIVIER A. G. 1807: 433
FABRICIUS J. C. 1801: 546
LUND N. T. 1800: 63
1800