Urophonius mondacai, Ojanguren-Affilastro & Pizarro-Araya & Prendini, 2011
Ojanguren-Affilastro, Andrés A., Pizarro-Araya, Jaime & Prendini, Lorenzo, 2011, New data on Chilean Urophonius Pocock, 1893 (Scorpiones, Bothriuridae), with description of a new species, American Museum Novitates 2011 (3725), pp. 1-44: 7-15
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Urophonius mondacai , n. sp.
Figures 1 View FIGURE 1 , 2B, 3B, 6A, B, 7A, B, 11A, D, 12A, D, 13–15; tables 1, 2
TYPE MATERIAL: Holotype Ƌ ( AMNH), CHILE: Región Metropolitana de Santiago: Chacabuco Province: La Dormida, Til-Til , Chaca Lavio [32°53′08.13″S 71°7′56.99″W], 4–6.x.1991, L. Peña GoogleMaps . Paratype ♀ ( MACN), CHILE: Región V (Valparaíso): Valparaíso Province: Valparaíso , Cerro La Campana [32°54′47.59″S 71°08′53.52″W], 12.x.1968, L. Vásquez GoogleMaps .
ETYMOLOGY: This species is dedicated to the Chilean biologist, José Mondaca Escudero (Servicio Agrícola Ganadero de Chile (SAG) and Sociedad Entomológica Chilena), for his assistance during recent expeditions to Chile.
DIAGNOSIS: Urophonius mondacai , n. sp., is morphologically most similar to U. tregualemuensis , but the two species can be separated based on the orientation of the VSM carinae of metasomal segments I–III. The VSM carinae are subparallel in the posterior two-thirds of the segment, and diverging at the anterior margin in U. mondacai , n. sp. (fig. 7A), but subparallel along the entire length of the segment in U. tregualemuensis .
Urophonius mondacai , n. sp., is also related to U. pizarroi , which occurs in close geographical proximity and shares a similar activity period. Urophonius mondacai , n. sp., can be separated from U. pizarroi and U. tregualemuensis by the pigmentation pattern on metasomal segments I–IV. Urophonius mondacai , n. sp., exhibits a single, faint VM stripe, paired, faint VSM stripes and paired VL stripes, whereas U. pizarroi and U. tregualemuensis exhibit only a single VM and paired VL stripes. In addition, U. mondacai , n. sp., is light yellowish in color, whereas U. pizarroi is dark brown.
Urophonius transandinus also occurs in the same area as U. mondacai , n. sp. The two species can be separated as follows. Urophonius mondacai , n. sp., possesses one macroseta (M1) associated with the d and e trichobothria of the pedipalp femur, whereas U. transandinus possesses two (M1, M2). The pedipalp chela manus of U. mondacai , n. sp., is less robust, with length/width ratio of 4.36 in Ƌ and 5.07 in ♀, than that of U. transandinus , with length/width ratio of 2.53–3.08 (n = 20; mean = 2.78) in Ƌ and 3.27–3.77 (n = 20; mean = 3.51) in ♀.
Urophonius mondacai , n. sp., can be further separated from U. pizarroi and U. transandinus by the shape of the hemispermatophore. In U. mondacai , n. sp., the proximal part of the basal lobe is weakly developed, situated in line with or distal to the capsular concavity (fig. 6A), and the proximal part of the basal lobe terminates in a short laminar structure whereas, in U. pizarroi and U. transandinus , the proximal part of the basal lobe is well developed, situated proximal to the capsular concavity, and the basal lobe terminates in a conspicuous elongated structure (fig. 5E, G).
DESCRIPTION: Based on the holotype Ƌ ( AMNH) and a paratype ♀ ( MACN) .
Total length: 29.33 mm in Ƌ holotype; 29.01 mm in ♀ paratype.
Color: Base color yellowish, with dark brown spots of pigmentation (fig. 13). Cheliceral manus, external surface with faint reticulate pigmentation; fixed finger densely pigmented basally; movable finger, external surface densely pigmented. Carapace, anterior margin with small unpigmented subtriangular area medially; paired broad, dark stripes extending from lateral sides to anterior part of posteromedian longitudinal sulcus, surrounding median ocular tubercle and unpigmented triangle; distal half of anteromedian longitudinal sulcus densely pigmented; median ocular tubercle and lateral ocelli dark brown; paired stripes extending from lateral margins to posteromedian longitudinal sulcus; paired dark spots covering most of posterior margin laterally, leaving unpigmented area medially. Tergites I–VI each with paired dark spots, laterally and submedially, submedian spots subtriangular, converging medially at posterior margin of segment and reaching anterior margin to form small median spot, lateral spots occupying most of lateral margins; VII with paired dark spots converging laterally at anteromedian margin. Sternum, genital opercula and pectines unpigmented. Sternite III unpigmented; IV and V, lateral margins faintly pigmented; VI, lateral and posterior margins faintly pigmented; VII with pair of broad VSM stripes in posterior half of segment, faintly pigmented on lateral margins. Metasomal segment I, dorsal surface with paired dark spots posterolaterally, not contiguous medially, connected to lateral spots, and with paired narrow stripes along DL carinae; lateral surfaces each with broad dark spots ventral to VSM carinae in posterior half of segment, not connected to VL stripes, and reticulate pigmentation elsewhere, connected to VL stripes; ventral surface, anterior margin with paired reticulate VSM stripes and paired narrow VL stripes, contiguous in posterior half of segment, forming pair of broad VL stripes not contiguous at posterior margin, VM stripe in anterior half of segment also connected to VSM stripes by reticulate pigmentation (fig. 3B). Metasomal segments II and III as for I except lateral spot ventral to LSM carinae only reaching posterior third of segment. Metasomal segment IV as for II and III except lateral spot contiguous with VSM stripes near posterior margin. Metasomal segment V, dorsal surface with faint reticulate pigmentation in posterior three-quarters of segment; lateral surfaces with reticulate pigmentation in anterior three-quarters and dark spot in posterior quarter; ventral surface with paired narrow VSM and VL stripes at anterior margin, contiguous in anterior third of segment, forming two broad VL stripes not contiguous at posterior margin of segment, narrow VM stripe in anterior third not contiguous with VSM stripes. Telson vesicle, dorsal surface densely pigmented (♀) or covered mostly by unpigmented gland (Ƌ); other surfaces densely pigmented, except for paired, narrow VSM and VL unpigmented stripes; aculeus unpigmented basally, apex dark brown. Pedipalps, trochanter with reticulate pigmentation dorsally; femur with well-developed stripes along DI and DE carinae, connected by three dark spots, medially, at articulation with trochanter, and at articulation with patella; patella, internal margin with dark spot medially, dorsal surface densely pigmented, with dark spots at articulation with femur and chela, connected by broad stripe medially, posterior margin with dark stripe medially and narrow, dark stripe ventroexternally; chela with seven dark stripes along DI, DM, DS, D, E, V and VM carinae; base and articulation of fixed and movable fingers with sparse, reticulate pigmentation. Legs, coxa faintly pigmented near base; trochanter spotted prolaterally; femur pigmented at articulation with patella and along ventroexternal margin; patella pigmented at articulations and along ventral margin; tibia pigmented at articulation with patella; basitarsus pigmented at articulation with tibia; telotarsus unpigmented.
Carapace: Surfaces smooth (♀) or slightly granular (Ƌ), more densely so near lateral margins. Anterior margin almost straight. Anteromedian longitudinal sulcus and interocular sulcus weakly developed; posteromedian longitudinal and posterolateral sulci well developed. Median ocular tubercle pronounced; median ocelli large, approximately 1.5 diameters apart; each with two longitudinally aligned microsetae anteriorly and one macroseta posteriorly. Three pairs of small lateral ocelli on each side of carapace; anterior ocellus ca. 30% larger than other ocelli, anterior and median ocelli situated close together, in same horizontal axis, posterior ocellus, 50% smaller, situated slightly dorsal to others.
Tergites: Surfaces I–VI smooth (♀) or finely granular (Ƌ), more coarsely so near posterior and lateral margins; VII with paired submedian carinae, restricted to posterior half of segment, and lateral carinae, restricted to posterior two-thirds, intercarinal surfaces with scattered medium-sized granules, remaining surfaces finely granular.
Sternites: Surfaces III–VI smooth, each with small elliptical spiracles; VII, anterior half smooth, posterior half finely granular, with four well-developed (paired VL and VSM) carinae; posterior margin with moderate carina.
Metasoma: Segment I, dorsal surface finely granular (Ƌ) or smooth (♀); DL and LSM carinae granular, extending entire length of segment, more developed in Ƌ (fig. 7A, B); surface between DL and LSM carinae sparsely granular; LIM carinae restricted to posterior half of segment; one pair of LIM macrosetae; lateral margins and ventral surface sparsely granular; VL carinae subparallel, granular; VSM carinae diverging in anterior third of segment, subparallel in posterior two-thirds; three pairs of VL and two pairs of VSM macrosetae. Segment II, DL carinae granular, extending entire length of segment; LSM carinae restricted to anterior and posterior thirds of segment, smooth (♀) or finely granular (Ƌ) medially; LIM carina restricted to posterior half of segment; one pair of DL, LSM, and LIM macrosetae; VL carinae subparallel, extending entire length of segment; VSM carinae diverging in anterior third of segment, subparallel in posterior three-quarters, comprising discontinuous granules; three pairs of VSM and VL macrosetae, intermediate setae ca. 50% smaller. Segment III, DL carinae granular, extending entire length of segment; LSM carinae present in anterior and posterior thirds of segment, smooth medially; LIM carina represented by small granules in posterior quarter of segment; one pair of DL, LSM, and LIM macrosetae; VL carinae obsolete, reduced to slight curvature of surface along entire length of segment; VSM carinae absent (Ƌ) or similar to but less developed than on segment II, represented only by scattered granules (♀); three pairs of VSM and two pairs of VL macrosetae. Segment IV, DL carinae granular, extending almost entire length of segment; LSM carinae restricted to anterior margin of segment, accessory carina connecting posterior margin of LSM carina to median part of DL carina; LIM carina absent; one pair of DL, LSM, and LIM macrosetae; ventral surface smooth; three pairs of VSM and VL macrosetae. Segment V elongated (fig. 11A, D); length/width ratio: 2.28 (Ƌ), 2.37 (♀); length/ height ratio: 2.61 (Ƌ), 2.59 (♀); dorsal and lateral surfaces smooth; DL carina absent, reduced to single granule at anterodorsal margin and pair of macrosetae; LSM carina represented only by two pairs of macrosetae; LIM carina FIGURE 7. Urophonius mondacai , n. sp., sternite VII and metasomal segments I– III, ventral aspect. A. Holotype Ƌ ( AMNH). B. Paratype ♀ absent; ventral surface ( MACN). Scale bar = 1 mm. granular in posterior half of segment; VL carinae restricted to posterior two-thirds of segment, comprising larger granules near posterior margin; VSM carinae subparallel to VL carinae, restricted to posterior margin of segment and barely discernible from granulation; VM carinae reduced to posterior third of segment (Ƌ) or more developed and occupying posterior half (♀), bifurcating into two divergent carinae at posterior margin; four pairs of VL macrosetae, three pairs of VSM macrosetae, and two pairs of macrosetae at posterior margin of segment. Telson: Vesicle shallow (♀) or globose (Ƌ) (fig. 12A, D); dorsal surface smooth, with (Ƌ) or without (♀) elliptical median depression, corresponding to telson gland; ventral surface with scattered, blunt granules. Aculeus short, shallowly curved. Pedipalps: Femur with DI, DE, and VI carinae granular, extending entire length of segment; intercarinal surfaces sparsely covered with medium-sized granules; one dorsal macroseta (M1) associated with d and e trichobothria; trichobothrium e situated proximal to M1 (fig. 2B). Patella with DI and VI carinae distinct, granular, extending entire length of segment (fig. 14); DE carina obsolete, visible only as slight curvature of surface, along entire length of segment (Ƌ) or absent (♀). Chela manus very slender in ♀, slightly more robust in Ƌ, length/width ratio 4.36 (Ƌ), 5.07 (♀); length/height ratio 4.43 (Ƌ), 4.80 (♀); acarinate (fig. 15); internal surface with slight bulge near articulation of movable finger (♀) or pronounced, subtriangular projection, shallow depression, and group of six granules near base of movable finger, with additional granule between this group of granules and median denticle row of fixed finger (Ƌ); fingers elongated, median denticle row uneven medially, but not forming distinct double row, with five or six pairs of internal and external accessory denticles .
Legs: Surfaces smooth. Basitarsi each with two well-developed, equal-length pedal spurs. Telotarsi elongated, shallow, each with well-developed ventromedian row of hyaline spinules and paired pro- and retroventral rows of spiniform macrosetae, with following counts on telotarsus I: 1/1, II: 2/2, III: 5–6, IV: 5–6/6; only pair of spiniform macrosetae on I and first pair on II subspiniform, others stout spiniform. Ungues curved, equal in length. Pseudonychium medium sized, apex slightly curved. Median dorsal lobe short, barely protruding.
Pectines: Tooth count: 16–16 (Ƌ); 15–16 (♀).
Hemispermatophore: Basal portion well developed. Distal lamina well developed, ca. 30%
and metasomal segments I–III, ventral aspect. A. Ƌ (MACN). B. ♀ (MACN). Scale bar = 1 mm.
shorter than basal portion; distal crest slightly undulated, oriented in same direction as principal axis of hemispermatophore; frontal crest (distal posterior flexure) present; internal lobe with two well-developed denticles, not connected to distal lamina (fig. 6B), external denticle approximately double the size of internal denticle. Lobe region weakly developed (fig. 6A); basal lobe well developed, barely protruding, without internal laminar extension, anterior surface forming broad, concave excavation; genital plug not recovered during removal of paraxial organ tissues.
DISTRIBUTION: This species is presently known only from the “La Campana” and “La Dormida” hills, occupying a small area in the Región Metropolitania de Santiago and the Región V (Valparaíso) of central Chile (fig. 1) .
ECOLOGY: The known records of U. mondacai , n. sp., fall within the “Matorral y Bosque Esclerófilo” botanical region ( Gajardo, 1993), a heterogeneous landscape covered by dry woods, palm forests, and shrub steppes. The label data are insufficiently detailed to identify the exact habitat of the species, however. All known specimens were collected in October, suggesting that this species is active in spring.
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