Parapercis rubromaculata Ho, Chang & Shao, 2012

Johnson, Jeffrey W. & Wilmer, Jessica Worthington, 2018, Three new species of Parapercis (Perciformes: Pinguipedidae) and first records of P. muronis (Tanaka, 1918) and P. rubromaculata Ho, Chang & Shao, 2012 from Australia, Zootaxa 4388 (2), pp. 151-181: 172-176

publication ID

https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4388.2.1

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:FC535C0E-D05E-40E5-93C6-F0B3C2F92655

DOI

http://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.5957131

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/865AB924-FFF0-FFAA-C9FD-FAC0D966F9F8

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Parapercis rubromaculata Ho, Chang & Shao, 2012
status

 

Parapercis rubromaculata Ho, Chang & Shao, 2012  

English name: Redspot Sandperch

Figures 1 View FIGURE 1 , 5–6 View FIGURE 5 View FIGURE 6 , 8 View FIGURE 8 ; Tables 1–2, 6

Diagnosis. A species of Parapercis   with dorsal-fin rays V, 20–21 (usually 21); anal-fin rays I, 17; pectoral-fin rays 16–18 (usually 17); lateral-line scales 51–53 (modally 52); gill rakers 4–6 + 8–11 = 12–16 (modally 14); predorsal scales 8–9, cycloid, almost reaching vertical from hind margin of preopercle; scales on cheek cycloid, extending forward just beyond tip of maxilla, to vertical from anterior margin of pupil to middle of eye; fourth dorsal-fin spine longest; 6 canine teeth in outer row at front of lower jaw; vomer with single row of 6–10 robust conical teeth; palatines edentate; angle of subopercle smooth, or with several minute serrae; 10 abdominal and 20 caudal vertebrae; pelvic fin tip reaching from just posterior to vent to base of second anal-fin ray; and colouration including 5 broad poorly-defined reddish wedge-shaped saddles across sides; longitudinal series of large irregular yellowish blotches on lower sides from pectoral-fin base through base of saddles to caudal peduncle; soft dorsal fin with row of red spots along proximal quarter of fin, 6–7 of spots with black centres persisting in preservative; and caudal fin with large irregular red blotches on base, followed by smaller red blotches and scattered smaller red spots around centre and rear of fin.

Colour of Australian specimens when fresh. Based on colour photographs (fig. 5A–C), ground colour pale reddish pink on head and body. Upper body with 5 pairs of dark red blotches outlining series of 5 broad wedgeshaped red saddles, saddles variable, well-defined and continuous (e.g. fig. 5A–B) to discontinuous across sides (e.g. fig.5 C). First saddle originating between nape and base of fifth dorsal-fin spine, second between base of soft dorsal-fin rays 2–7, third between bases of soft dorsal-fin rays 9–13, fourth between bases of soft dorsal-fin rays 15–19, fifth on caudal peduncle. First saddle extending below pectoral fin to belly, second to fourth saddles almost reaching anal-fin base, fifth saddle reaching lower edge of caudal peduncle. Longitudinal series of irregular yellow blotches outlined diffusely in red along lower body from pectoral-fin base to caudal peduncle, larger yellow blotches form base of each saddle and smaller yellow blotches occur in centre of each interspace between saddles. Head with two reddish-yellow bars or blotches, first on centre of preorbital small, second on suborbital much larger, blotches varying from vague to distinct and ranging in colour from yellow, reddish-yellow, pale red, to deep red. Lips reddish-yellow to deep red, especially anteriorly. Membrane between dorsal-fin spines 1–3 red with yellow blush; soft dorsal fin pale yellow with row of 6–7 dark red spots with black centres along basal quarter of fin, spots situated on membrane between dorsal fin rays 2–3, 5–6, 8–9, 11–12, 14–15 and 17–18 most distinct, spot between rays 19–20 lacking a well-defined black centre. Anal fin whitish near base, remainder of fin pale yellow. Caudal fin with 2 diffuse red blotches near base, followed by 2 smaller red blotches around centre of fin and several small scattered red spots posteriorly, spots varying in size and in colour from crimson red, dark red to reddishbrown. Pectoral fins semitranslucent. Pelvic fins white to faintly yellowish.

Colour of Australian specimens in alcohol. Head and body (fig. 5D) pale yellowish brown with 5 faint diffuse dark saddles formed by darker scale edges. First saddle originating between nape and base of fifth dorsal-fin spine, second between base of soft dorsal-fin rays 2–7, third between bases of soft dorsal-fin rays 9–13, fourth between bases of soft dorsal-fin rays 15–19, fifth on caudal peduncle very faint. Soft dorsal fin with row of 6 small black spots along basal quarter of fin, spots situated on membrane between dorsal fin rays 2–3, 5–6, 8–9, 11–12, 14–15 and 17–18, smaller more indistinct spot between soft dorsal-fin rays 19–20. Anal, caudal, pectoral and pelvic fins pale.

Molecular results. Intraspecific s equence divergence between specimens of P. rubromaculata   from Taiwan and Western Australia was minimal at only 0.3% ( Table 1), supporting the view that the populations are conspecific. Consistent with the findings of Ho et al. (2012), phylogenetic analyses indicate that P. rubromaculata   is most closely related to P. randalli Ho & Shao, 2010   , with average sequence divergence of 13.2% between the latter and combined populations of P. rubromaculata   from Taiwan and Western Australia.

Distribution and abundance. Previously known only from four specimens collected by hook and line at depths of about 50–80 m from off Hengchun, Pingtung, southern Taiwan, in the northern South China Sea. The geographic range is herein extended to the southern hemisphere and waters off Western Australia based on specimens collected by demersal trawl from south-west of Shark Bay (27°03.12’S 113°04.86’E), northward to Ashmore Terrace (12°26.7’S 123°36.05’E), at depths of 56–107 m (fig. 8). Taking into account the relatively small size of the specimens and low efficiency of trawl gear in collecting demersal fishes of this size, P. rubromaculata   appears relatively common off Western Australia where suitable habitat exists, with 16 specimens collected from six widely separated sites.

Discussion. Ho et al. (2012) described Parapercis rubromaculata   based on four specimens 78.1–114 mm SL, collected by hook and line in depths of about 50–80 m from off Hengchun, Pingtung, southern Taiwan, in the northern South China Sea (fig. 6). The species has not since been recorded elsewhere within or outside the region.

Sixteen specimens (43.9–80.1 mm SL) of an unidentified species of Parapercis   trawled off Western Australia in 56–107 m had a similar colouration (fig. 5A–D) and virtually identical meristic data and similar morphometrics to P. rubromaculata   ( Table 6). However, these specimens in alcohol appeared to differ subtly from the original description of that species in having 6 or 7 small black spots along the basal quarter of the soft dorsal fin (fig. 5D) and a slightly different configuration of spots on the caudal fin. A subsequent detailed examination of one of the paratypes of P. rubromaculata   (QM I.38836, 88.6 mm SL) revealed that it also has 6 small black spots in the basal quarter of the soft dorsal fin, each spot in exactly the same position as in the Western Australian specimens, despite the lack of mention of this feature in the original description. Detailed comparison of other morphological characters and analysis of DNA barcoding data confirmed that the two populations are conspecific.

The above diagnosis reflects additional information. Meristic and morphometric data for the two populations are compared in Table 6, genetic analysis is presented in fig. 1 and Table 1 and detailed descriptions of the colouration of fresh and preserved specimens from Australia are provided, with special attention to the soft dorsal and caudal fins.

Many species of Parapercis   are known to have sexual size dimorphism and dichromatism ( Randall, 1984, 2003; Imamura & Yoshino, 2007). The type specimens of P. rubromaculata   are mostly larger than the specimens collected in Western Australia (78.1–114.0, versus 43.9–80.1 mm SL) and although no determination of sex was provided in the original description, it is likely that most if not all of the types were male, whereas most of the smaller Western Australian specimens are juveniles, or females and may lack some colour features that develop in larger mature males (e.g. additional, or larger red spots on the soft dorsal and caudal fins). It is therefore considered likely that sex or maturity may account for minor differences noted in colouration between the two geographic populations. Proportional measurements of the two populations compare closely in all respects except for the length of the dorsal-fin spines, which are slightly shorter in Taiwanese than in Australian specimens ( Table 6). This difference is most likely due to the considerably larger size of the Taiwanese specimens and the tendency of fin spines to be relatively shorter with ontogenetic growth.

Material examined (17: 43.9–88.6 mm): Taiwan (1: 88.6 mm) QM I.38836, paratype, 88.6 mm, Hengchun, Pingtung, southern Taiwan, northern South China Sea. Western Australia (16: 43.9–80.1 mm) CSIRO H.1023-01, 80.1 mm, North of Dampier Archipelago, WA   , Australia, 19°48.3’S 116°38.8’E to 19°48.9’S 116°40.3’E, 56–59 m, trawl, CSIRO on FRV Soela , 27 Oct 1986 GoogleMaps   ; CSIRO H.1465-06, 56.7 mm, NW of Port Hedland , WA   , Australia, 19°28.4’S 117°52.1’E to 19°28.2’S 117°52.3’E, 63 m, beam trawl, CSIRO on FRV Soela , 21 Sept 1988 GoogleMaps   ; CSIRO H.6381–09, 3: 53.4–54.8 mm, SW of Shark Bay , WA   , Australia, 27°03.12’S 113°04.86’E to 27°02.88’S 113°04.8’E, 106 m, beam trawl, CSIRO on FRV Southern Surveyor , 6 Dec 2005 GoogleMaps   ; CSIRO H.6452-07, 58.0 mm, West of Shark Bay , WA   , Australia, 25°54.13’S 112°49.74’E to 25°54.38’S 112°49.62’E, 100– 95 m, trawl, CSIRO on FRV Southern Surveyor , 7 Dec 2005 GoogleMaps   ; CSIRO H.6597-01, 72.8 mm, Ashmore Terrace, WA, Australia, 12°26.7’S 123°36.05’E to 12°26.96’S 123°36.59’E, 95 m, beam trawl, D. Bray on FRV Southern Surveyor , 6 July 2007; CSIRO H.6497-02, 2: 43.9–49.4 mm GoogleMaps   ; NMV A.29729-013, 73.4 mm; NMV A.29729-036, 4: 48.5–82.6 mm; NMV A.29729–044, 46.2 mm, all same data as previous GoogleMaps   ; NMV A.29726-011, 59.0 mm, Heywood Shoal, WA, Australia, 13°27.38’S 124°00.66’E to 13°27.65’S 124°00.82’E, 105–107 m, beam trawl, D. Bray on FRV Southern Surveyor , 5 July 2007 GoogleMaps   .

DNA

Department of Natural Resources, Environment, The Arts and Sport

CSIRO

Australian National Fish Collection

NMV

Museum Victoria